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applied to the hill mixed with the soil with the
For the New England Farmer. hoe, not the foot.
PROFITS OF FARMING. Mexican guano and superphosphate of lime MR. EDITOR :- While on a visit to a friend, I may be spread broadcast, or placed in the hill, chanced to come across your valuable agricultural and the quantity used may be from two to four their experience in managing their farms, and,
paper. I saw some of your correspondents gave hundred pounds per acre, according to the condi- thinking it might be acceptable to some of your tion of the land and the objects desired to be readers to know how we of the Empire State get gained.
along in farming, I give you a short sketch, as On all crops of the turnip or cabbage kind,
follows. the superphosphate is particularly useful.
I purchased a farm of forty acres in the spring
of 1852, not forty miles north of Troy, and paid It is an excellent plan to add a table-spoonful $20 per acre, or $800 ; $500 was paid down, of guano, or super-phosphate, to the hill, for and the remainder left on mortgage. One-third corn, as it gives it a vigorous start, bringing out of the soil is alluvial, one-third gravelly, and the the broad leaves early to supply food from the remainder decomposed slate, mixed with reddish atmosphere. At 3 feet 6 inches one way and 3 mainder timber. The farm had been rented for
loam ; thirty acres of improved land, and the refeet the other, there would be 4148 hills per the past ten years, consequently it was very unacre; allowing 4 spoonsful to the gill, four bush- promising, House old, boards loose and swinging els would give 4096 spoonsful, which, at 60 in the wind, the windows almost without glass, pounds to the bushel, would be 240 pounds per still were the fences; rails were scattered hither
&c.; the out-houses were miserable, and worse acre ; and this is good a way of helping out where and thither, and hedges, stone heaps, and old logs the manure heap is limited.
were thrown promiscuously over the premises. Bone dust may be used in the same manner Being determined to go ahead in the world, I and in about the same quantities.
commenced fencing and repairing, and have, in Perhaps as good a return might be realized house, and repaired the out-buildings and fences.
the course of three years, built a new dwelling from any of these fertilizers by scattering them My little place has now the appearance, and is a in very small quantities upon the suaface imme- neat and comfortable farm. Beside paying the diately after boeing, and covering them care- mortgage, I am now out of debt, with one span fully, at each hoeing. But the process would be of horses and fixtures, five calves, twenty sheep, a tedious one.
four hogs, poultry, &c. I give below the amount
of farm produce which I raised the past year, Lime and ashes should not be mixed with though it was one of drought, and generally guano. Use them separately.
short crops in this section of Washington county. 20 tons of hay, worth $10 per ton...
. . $200,00 Guano spread upon grass ground should be
200 bushels corn, 80 cents per bushel. applied while rain is falling; for uplands, it
potatoes, 50 cents “. would pay well to mix it thoroughly with muck.
wheat, worth $2 A solution of two or three pounds of
apples, 20 cents (common). guano to
Seeds, clover and herds grass.. a barrel of water is an excellent fertilizer for val
500 lbs. butter, worth 20 cents per lh.
...50,00 uable plants, and garden vegetables, applied
$805,00 about sunset, once or twice a week.
One hand 5 months, $12 per month.... .$60,00 5 tons manure and plaster, $8 per ton...
Repairs, &c., for farming tools..... CORN FODDER.-A piece of sward land was Farming tools purchased..... broken up in the month of June, (10th day)
Groceries, &c., wearing apparel...
Interest, &c., on $800, value of repairs, stock, &c..150,00 planted with corn, in drills, four feet apart, hoed Produce consumed, deducting the growth of
.100,00 twice, and the produce cut and tied in bundles on the third day of September. The yield was
$440,00 Which leaves a nett profit of....
...365,00 found, by weighing, to be equal to thirteen
My own labor has been amply paid by the inthousand, seven hundred and sixty-nine pounds creased value of the farin. I have been offered to the acre!
$3,000 for the farm and stock. Do our mer
chants or mechanics often do as well on the same Plowing..
amount of capital employed ? J. Hades. Harrowing. Seed...
Washington County, N. Y., 1855. Planting..
.1,75 Hoeing.. Harvesting
CONNECTICUT STATE AGRICULTURAL SOCIETY.
At a late meeting of this Society, at Hartford, .$12,55
that city was was fixed on for holding the next This fodder was fed as dry food to cattle during exhibition, and the following officers were elected : the winter, and was highly relished. By chaffing, Vice Presidents—Charles H. Pond, N. B. Smith.
President-Samuel H. Huntington, of Hartford. corn fodder produced in this way will, we think, Corresponding Secretary-Henry A. Dyer, of be found very economical, especially in seasons Brooklyn. Řecording Secretary and Treasurerwhen hay is cut short.
John A. Porter, of New Haven.
oats, 50 cents
. 40,00 ...10,00
COST OF CROP
butt end has fewer germs. If he will try again, Much has been said and written on raising po
and give the butt end a fair chance, he will probtatoes ; and although I am not much of a farmer, ably come to a different conclusion. yet I have taken some little pains to inform myself of the best way.
For the New England Farmet. Ist. I think the best land for potatoes is on our side hills, which is generally a deep loam and rather
PRUNING TREES AND SUN-SCALD. moist. The potatoes are not so likely to be in Mr. Brown :—I am glad to see Mr. Little's rejured by frost as in lower land, nor so subject to marks on pruning, &c. Now Mr. Little, I think, blast or rust : moreover this is the natural soil for cannot intend to go into raising apples on a large a great crop.
scale, or if he does, it must be where land is not 2d. As to manure, forty common loads is none so valuable as it is in Brookline. Here we are too much for an acre. If I had a thousand acres under the necessity of making the most of our of land, and but forty loads of manure for my po- land. My neighbor, Farmer Jones, has torty aeres tato ground, I would plant but one acre if the of land ; most of it is planted with apple, pear, land was not rich.
plum and cherry trees, the apple trees from 35 to I am acquainted with two farmers who live 40 feet apart; he raises all kinds of green sauce near each other. The soil of their farms is very for the market, as well as hay and grain. Mr. much alike; one uses forty loads, while the other Jones cultivates every foot of his land, orchard, uses eighteen to twenty loads of manure per acre. and all; he breaks it up every third year, after The first has generally 400 bushels of potatoes to laying it down, and cultivates at first for potatoes, the acre, and the last 200 to 250. This is not all squashes, melons, corn, and then the next year the former gains. His land holds out several years for peas, beans, or other crops. He generally for other crops ; while the latter has but a small gets two crops a year ; a crop of peas, and then crop even the second year.
sweet corn, beets or potatoes, and then turnips ; 3d. The seed of potatoes ought to be changed sometimes three crops, first spinach, then lettuce, every five or six years. Even if the seed is brought and after that beets. So you see that we are unbut two or three miles, the crop will be much bet- der the necessity of pruning our trees in the old ter.
way (but not as broom-sticks, but more like a 4th. As to planting, I think the rows ought to large umbrella,) and by doing this we cut off the be about three and three and a half feet apart, and branches when young and trim our trees about the hills eighteen inches or two feet apart, and the six feet high, and then let them branch out, not potatoes cut for planting a large one in three leaving too many branches ; three or four is enough. pieces, and those smaller in two pieces (ny small This enables us to plow, harrow, or do anything ones should be planted) and three pieces put in else we choose in our orchards, and by plowing each hill. I have tried whole ones; they do not every third year and then cultivating two years, spread so well, and therefore do not produce so our trees are always free of roots on the surface. much as cut ones. I planted three years since They get well manured, trimmed of all suckers 2 rows with 4 pieces in a hill,
or superabundance of limbs, and all interfering 2 do. 3.do. in a hill,
branches, while they are small, by which means 2. do. 2 do. in a hill,
we give them a most beautiful top, and they in re2 do. 3 eye end pieces in a hill,
turn give us a most plentiful crop of large, fair 2 do. 3 butt end pieces in each hill. fruit, without any fear of sun-scald. Out of four
The butt ends weighed one-sixteenth more than hundred trees, I do not think a single tree can the eye ends.
be found with sun-scald; we wash them every The product was as follows, viz :—The rows spring with potash, a pound to eight gallons of with 4 pieces yielded 10 bushels--many small water, which kills the scales and lice, and then
we scrape off the loose bark, taking care not to Rows of 3 pieces, 10 bushels—not many small scrape too deep, so as to expose the inner bark;
this will remove all the vermin and insects that Of 2 pieces, 9 bushels there were very few small have secreted themselves under the bark, or in any
crevice in or on the tree. The fall is the best The rows of eye ends, 91 bushels—many small time to trim or prune trees ; February and March
to wash and scrape them. February and March And the two rows of butt ends, 104 bushels- is the best time to salt plum trees, and cut away and the best in the whole lot.
any fungus or black warts. If Mr. Little will, I have tried it since with the same or nearly when in Boston, get into the Brookline cars, they the same success.
will bring him to my house in ten minutes, and I should not have believed the butt ends would I shall be happy to show him the broomsticks have produced the best crop if I had not tried it ; that he speaks of, and also the manner in which for some, even many of the pieces did not appear Farmer Jones does things on his farm-also mine to have any germ ; and the reader has the same on a small scale.
S. A. SUURTLEFF. liberty not to believe it until he tries it.
saw in your last Visitor some experiments of Elias Frost on raising potatoes. He says he planted GONE TO FARMING.–We have great hope of the 5 lbs. 9 oz. of eye ends, and on the same quantity world yet—it grows more and more sensible every of ground planted 3 lbs. 10 oz. of the butt ends, day. and had the best crop and largest potatoes from “Hope springs perennial in the human breast," the eye ends. Now he ought to have cut the po- certainly it does—and that hope with nearly all tatoes so that the butt ends would have been as large, and even larger than the eye ends, as the men is, that at some time, not far distant, they
shall go to farming. So our old friend DANIEL
For the New England Farmer. NEEDHAM, Esq., of Groton, has tipt up his pon
MURIATE OF LIME. derous law tomes, gone to Quechee, Vt., and
MR. EDITOR :—Early in June last, I procured planted himself on a three-hundred-acre-farm on a barrel of Mr. James Gould's muriate of lime, the banks of the “Silver Quechee," where we who requested ine to make trial of it upon my trust he may vegetate and thrive exceedingly. crops. I tried it upon six rows of corn, in the
middle of a field, at the first hoeing, putting a
small handful to each hill. On one side I had A SKETCH OF FARM LIFE. planted six rows of corn, manured in the hill
with compost; on the other side an equal num“There is poetry in farming." True,
ber of rows, manured in the hill with guano. But I have read and so have you,
No manure had been used in the hill, in the six That “distance lends unto the view
rows to which I applied the muriate of lime; Enchantment fair." For instance : digging gold will do
but the whole field, previous to planting, had
been dressed with a thin coat of compost. As Till one gets there.
the field was surrounded by two or three rows of In summer planting, weeding, hoeing,
potatoes, of course there were two or three hills And practising “Knick-knack's” at mowing,
of potatoes at each end of the rows of corn. (That science which you boast of knowing
These were treated with the same kind of manure So very well,)
as the corn in the rows, of which they were a The scorching sun no mean type showing
continuation. Of what's called hwl.
On harvesting the crop, I found that the corn In winter tugging with the flail,
to which the muriate of lime had been applied, Or sledding in the cutting gale,
was stout and the crop good, considering the Such as would send a gallant sail
season ; in short, about one-third beavier than In bare poles seaward,
that on which the compost or guano was used. And blows your fore-nag's lusty tail
The potatoes which had been treated with muStraight out to leeward.
riate of lime, were nearly twice as large as those In place of literary talk
which were manured with the com post or the With compeers in your daily walk,
guano, and there was about the same number to It's "Shall you top, or cut the stalk
LARKIN P. PAGE.
Bedford, Mass., 1855.
WHAT IS RESPECTABLE SOCIETY?
We heard a man, otherwise intelligent enough,
lately sneer at another, “because," said he, "one Dull as 'tis real;
never meets him in respectable society." The Yet we've incentives manyfold
speaker did not mean, however, that the person be To the ideal.
affected to look down upon was immoral, but The pictures in the book of June ;
merely that his circle of intimates was not comThe glorious dawn, the balmy noon ;
posed of the fashionable or the rich. The dewy eve, the rising moon;
This notion of what constitutes respectable soAll these are ours,
ciety, is quite a favorite one with that class of And all the recompensing boon
individuals, whom Thackeray has so significantly Of birds and flowers.
called “snobs.” Empty pretence is always making When Winter hurls his storms apace,
its own characteristics a standard, by which it Oft piteous is the farmer's case :
strives to measure the respectability of persons at Night comes-the blazing chimney-place
large. In a community of mere money-getters, Stills all complaints ;
wealth is the test of respectability. Among the Thaws out his features, till his face
proud, narrow-minded, effete nobility of the FauShines like a saint's.
bourg St. Germain, respectability depends on beThere while the cheer reeks to the ceiling,
ing descended from ancestors, who have married He gets most comfortably feeling,
their cousins for so many centuries, that neither Thinking how barn and battened shielling,
muscle nor brains are left any longer to the degenSecure and warm,
erate descendants. With the dandy officers, who His poor deperdants safe are shielding
constitute a considerable portion of the American
Navy, respectability consists in having sponged on There he may read, muse and ponder
“Uncle Sam,” in wearing gilt buttons, and in Upon this life, this world of wonder;
bilking tailors. Every conceited fool thinks himThere, judge-like, he may set asunder
self, in like way, the only man really weighty, the The truth from error,
only person who is respectable. And see in men of "blood and thunder"
But true respectability depends on no such adNo cause for terror.
ventitous circumstances. To be respectable is to There he may form just estimate
be worthy of respect ; and he most deserves reOf those the world calls good and great ;
spect who has most virtue. The humblest man, See fortune, circumstance, and fate
who bravely does his duty, is more worthy of reCreate renown,
spect, is more truly respectable, than the covetous And give a knave a chair of state,
millionaire among his money-bags, or the arrogant Knickerbocker. monarch on his throne. The fine lady, who back
From the storm.
An ass a crown.
bites her neighbor, is less worthy of respect than
MUCK AND GUANO. an honest washerwoman. The profligate noble,
A QUESTION FOR PROFESSOR NASH. though he may wear a dozen orders in his button
There are few men in whose sound and prachole, is often not really as respectable as the shoeblack that cleans his boots. That which is called tical knowledge of the value and effect of ma“the world"' exalts the one and despises the other, nures we have so much confidence, as in that of but it does not make them respectable, according Professor Nash, Editor of the Farmer, published to the real meaning of the word. Their respecta- at Amherst. We desire, therefore, to ask him & bility is all a hollow sham, as they themselves frequently feel : and those who worship them bow
single question, with a view to making his reply down to a Fetish, a thing of feathers and tinsel. as public as the interrogatory itself. It is this :The selfish, idle drone, who wastes life in his own What, in your opinion, would be the effect of gratification, and dissipates the fortune of his prog- three hundred pounds of guano upon an acre of eny, is not, and cannot be, respectable ; but the good land for the space of five years ? And what hard-working, self-denying father, who wears out the effect of the same money cost, say $9.00, of his life to bring up his children, is, even though he be but a day-laorer. Nothing can make Dives good meadow muck, spread upon another acre fit to lie on Abraham's bosom, while Lazarus is of the same kind of land for the same length of welcomed there, even with the sores the dogs time,-both fields to be planted with precisely have licked. This false view of life, which would measure
the same crops, and cultivated and treated every respectability by a conventional standard, is to- way alike? tally at variance with our republican institutions.
For the New England Farmer. It creates an “imperium in imperio ;' for while the law declares all citizens equal, it erects a so
POTATOES---GRASS SEED. cial standard which endeavors to ignore that great Mr. Editor :-Having noticed in the Farmer truth. The coarse, brutal, knavish, profligate, a very interesting article from an old friend, criminal-in short all who fall short of their duty Anas. WALKER, Esq., upon his great success in to themselves and their fellow-men-are those potato growing, I am induced to state the pracwho are not respectable ;%' and this, whether tice of our Long Island farmers in this branch of they are rich or poor. While those who live hon- farming. In the towns of Flushing, Flatland, estly, and strive to do what good they can, con- Flatbush, &c., raising potatoes is the main busistitute what is really the respectable class, irre-ness of many farmers. They market early, obspective of the fact whether they eat with silver tain great prices, deal in peach basket bushels, and forks or steel ones.-Dollar Newspaper.
many of them range from two to sever thousand
dollars for this crop alone annually. Their prinFor the New England Farmer. cipal variety is Mercer, not unlike your CheCATERPILLARS.
nango in appearance. They usu horse manure,
plow deep, and, as one farmer said to me, he had This pest of the fruit-grower may now be very raised potatoes fifteen consecutive years on the easily destroyed, by simply picking off the eggs same piece of land. deposited on the tips of the branches last summer
Their practice is to select the largest for seed. by the butterfly. They are wax-like in appear. They cut off and give to the pigs the "seed end," ance, and forin a small ring around the limb, from as it is often called ; cut the potatoes lengthwise one-fourth to nearly an inch in length, and about into quarters, plant two and a half feet apart by an eighth of an inch in thickness. It is not one, three feet, and hill very little. They say by tenth so much work to remove the eggs as it will cutting off the small eyes, they get more pounds be the nests by and by.
of potatoes, and avoid small ones ; four to five Not recollecting to have ever seen any thing of large stocks to the hill is all they want. Judgthis mode of destroying this pest of the orchard in ing from the large size they were digging, I put your valuable paper, I send you the above, which them down as the L. L. D.'s of the profession. is at your service. Enclosed is a specimen of the
Is this not sound doctrine, and would it not eggs attached to the limb.
apply to Chenangos, Long Reds, and all those West Poland, Me., March, 1855.
long varieties which show a “seed end ?" And THE WEATHER IN Maine. The weather here potatoes? Small potatoes, planted year after
does it prove any thing in its application to small is very cold for the season. The snow is full
year, prove to my mind the principle of dwarfing. three feet deep in the woods, and has not began I hope Mr. Walker and others will try the to go off yet. "The sugar maple refuses to yield Long Island experiment, and publish the result. its annual harvest, but we hope warmer days are I would suggest the following plan : 1. Plant coming soon.
the large quarters in rows separately ; 2. Plant West Poland, Me., March 26.
the "seed end” separately, then there will be no
loss of seed, and the difference will be seen ; 3. CORRESPONDENTS will confer a favor by writing Plant separately the hen's egg size; 4. Plant sepon one side of the paper only. We have many arately the next size smaller ; 4. Plant separately valuable communications on hand which will the size of a robin's egg. Test the whole experibear keeping, and shall have proper attention by- ment fairly. No time is lost beyond sorting sizes. and-by. As far as possible, we endeavor to intro- Results may come that will gratisy the ambition duce those first which may be acted upon practi- to raise large potatoes, which is the only aim of cally at once, at the same time desiring to present the farmer. "Small potatoes and few in the bill" a variety of topics.
Jis his abomination.
THE BOYS AND THE HENS.
Sowing grass seed with the oat and barley Knot on the plum tree, but thus far, after having crops is dangerous, particularly with oats. The tried each of the remedies recommended at the rapidly growing grain suppresses the young grass, different dates of their publications, and which and in a dry time it is deeply shaded, overpow-includes all that has lately been repeated, we asered and destroyed. Is this not the experience sert, without the fear of contradiction, that the of many farmers ? For these crops, and to lay Black Knot cannot be cured after it has fairly down to grass, manuring and deep plowing is the made its appearance, by any process yet made only safe practice. Now we will suppose the public.- Working Farmer. grain to be harvested—the land in good tilthstubble and weeds have afforded additional manure; turn them in by shallow plowing, taking EXTRACTS AND REPLIES. care not to disturb the manure first plowed in for the grain ; sow grass seed, brush in and roll, and before winter you will have a better show of
MR. BROWN :-Father has permitted us to obgrass, a better catch, and full remuneration for tain half a dozen hens, and we want to know how patient waiting and extra plowing.
to manage and feed them in the best way. We field is the watch work of farming. If worth find a good many things in the vols. of the N. E. doing, see that it is well done. H. Poor.
Farmer about them, but they don't exactly suit Brooklyn, April, 1855.
What sort of a coop shall we make ? what shall we feed them on? Shall they be con
stantly confined? We like the instructions we For the New England Farmer.
find in your paper, better than those we find SUCKER PLUM TREES.
in books, because they seem so natural; we think Mr. Brown :-Sir,- In looking over the weekly
the writers have seen what they tell-it is like issue of the New England Farmer, of March 3, talking with one who knows. We were so well 1 observed the inquiry of “J. F. W." what he pleased with the letter you wrote us last fall must do for his plum tree, which fails to bear about the horse-chestnut seeds we gathered for fruit, although blossoming full” every year, you, that we feel encouraged to write you now. with your recommendation as a remedy.
HENRY AND Eppy. Now, Mr. Editor, for the benefit of "J. F. W." REMARKS.—One of the most encouraging facts and others, I would say that, from twenty to in the progress of this paper, is, that women and thirty years' experience in cultivating fruit trees, young persons frequently write us and either ask I find that suckers of the plum, transplanted as standards, almost universally fail to produce
or impart information on the important topics of fruit; though growing thriftily and blossoming the farm. It is a great point gained. Our young freely, they have invariably failed with me. friends will find no difficulty in obtaining an "J. F. W.'s” tree is probably a sucker. But abundance of eggs and chickens, if they furnish they may be used with good advantage for stocks their hens with a dry, warm and convenient roostfor improved varieties. I have grafted hundreds of them with good success ; they grow finely and ing place, and plenty of wholesome food. An atbear profusely: I have trees grafted on suckers, tic room in an outbuilding, where the sun comes, from four to six years from grafting, which bore is a favorable position. They must be warmly last season from one to two bushels per tree. sheltered in cold weather or they will not lay. After grafting, your recommendations coincide
They should have food regularly, and in variety ; with my experience exactly. C. Sniti. Shelburne, Franklin Co., Ms., March 20, 1855. corn, occasionally boiled potatoes and meal mixed
with scraps, the crumbs and bits of meat from
the table, oats, barley or wheat, together with For the New England Farmer. FÉRTILIZERS--GARGET.
gravel and pounded oyster or clam shells. They
love to run at large and eat the tender grass, inMr. EDITOR :—Will you give me some informa- sects, young cabbage plants, and other good tion through your excellent paper, in regard to things which they find ie the garden. But they using phosphate of lime or some like fertilizer, on do well confined a part of the time, being allowed such vegetables as beans, peas, &c.
Also where I can get garget-root for cows, and to range for an hour or two before going to if there is any other remedy as good.
roost. Boston, April 10, 1855.
QUANTITY OF SEED. REMARKB.--Superphosphate of lime,guano, bonedust and ashes, are excellent for all garden crops
Mr. MECHI, the distinguished English agriculwhen properly used. Apply in small quantities
, turist at Tiptree Hall
, says—“Our farmers have, mix well with the soil, hoe well, and you will many of them, yet to learn the advantages of a rarely fail of a crop.
moderate quantity of seed." The true rule we We can supply you with a little of the "gar
believe to be to make the land rich and use the get-root.” Whether it is the best remedy for less seed; then you get a vigorous growth and the disease called garget in cows we do not know. fully matured seed.
Black Knots On Plum TREES.-We see a variety Mr. L. P. Page, of Bedford, states that corn of cures recommended in the papers for the Black planted with muriate of lime, last season, pro