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or not. It was, accordingly, decided in favour of an emperor; and the people sincerely rejoiced in the political calm, that restored the games of the circus, and the plenty of bread.

Those, who cannot bring their judgments to condemn the killing of a tyrant, must nevertheless agree that the blood of Cesar was unprofitably shed. Liberty gained nothing by it, and humanity lost much; for it cost eighteen years of agitation and civil war, before the ambition of the military and popular chieftains had expended its means, and the power was concentred in one man's hands.

Shall we be told, the example of Brutus is a good one, because it will never cease to animate the race of tyrant-killers-But will the fancied usefulness of assassination overcome our instinctive sense of its horror? Is it to become a part of our political morals, that the chief of a state is to be stabbed or poisoned, whenever a fanatick, a male content, or a reformer shall rise up and call him a tyrant? Then there would be as little calm in despotism as in liberty.

But when has it happened, that the death of a u-surper has restored to the public liberty its departed life? Every successful usurpation creates many com-petitors for power, and they successively fall inthe struggle. In all this agitation, liberty is without friends, without resources, and without hope. Blood enough, and the blood of tyrants too, was shed between the time of the wars of Marius and the death of Anthony, a period of about sixty years, to turn a common grist-mill, yet the cause of the public liberty continually grew more and more desperate. It is not by destroying tyrants, that we are to entinguish tyranny: nature is not thus to be exhausted of her power to produce them. The soil of a republic sprouts with the rankest fertility: it has been sown with dragon's teeth. To lessen the hopes of usurping demagogues, we must enlighten, animate, and combine the spirit of freemen; we must fortify and guard the constitutional ramparts about liberty. When its

friends become indolent or disheartened, it is no longer of any importance how long-lived are its enemies: they will prove immortal.

Nor will it avail to say, that the famous deed of Brutus will for ever check the audacity of tyrants. Of all passions fear is the most cruel. If new tyrants dread other Bruti, they will more naturally sooth their jealousy by persecutions, than by the practice of clemency or justice. They will say, the clemency of Cesar proved fatal to him. They will augment their force and multiply their precautions; and their habitual dread will degenerate into habitual cruelty.

Have we not then a right to conclude, that the character of Brutus is greatly over-rated, and the fashionable approbation of his example horribly cor rupting and pernicious?


Eloquence of the Bar.

THE ends of speaking at the Bar are different from those of Popular Assemblies. In the latter the great object is persuasion; the Orator aims at determining the hearers to some choice or conduct, as good, or fit, or useful. For accomplishing this end, it is encumbent on him to apply himself to all the principles of action in our nature; to the passions and to the heart, as well as to the understanding. But at the former, conviction is the great object. There, it is not the speaker's business to persuade the judges to what is good, or useful, but to show them what is just and true; and of course it is chiefly, or solely to the un

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derstanding that his eloquence ought to be addressed. The Speaker at the Bar addresses himself to one or a few Judges, and these too, persons generally of age, gravity, and authority of character. The Speaker who addresses a popular audience has all the advantages, which a mixed and numerous assembly affords for employing, to his advantage, all the arts of Speech. The nature and management of the subjects which belong to the Bar, require, therefore, a different species of Oratory from that of popular assemblies, both in matter and delivery. In the latter the Speaker has a much wider range. He is seldom confined to any precise rule; he can fetch his topics from a greater variety of quarters, and employ every illustration which his fancy or imagination can suggest. Here he is at liberty to embellish his delivery with every thing that is elegant, graceful, and animated. But at the Bar, the field of speaking is limited to precise law and statute. Imagination is not allowed to take its scope. The advocate has always before him the line, the square and the compass. There it is his business to be continually applying to the subjects under the debate. His delivery, therefore, is considerably circumscribed, when compared with that of the pupular orator. It should be adapted to the nature of his composition, accurate, precise and impressive. The ancients took a much larger range in their pleadings than the moderns. The judicial Orations of Demosthenes and Cicero are, therefore, not exact models of the manner of speaking which is adapted to the present state of the Bar. For although these were pleadings spoken in civil or criminal causes, yet, in fact, the nature of the Bar anciently, both in Greece and Rome, allowed a much nearer approach to Popular Eloquence, than what it now does. This will evidently appear from the different specimens of ancients and modern pleading which are annexed.

V. 2.

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Paul's defence before Agrippa.


Impressive dignity-awful elevation-sublime enthusiasm-solemn, but decisive fortitude. The acknowledgement of former habits of persecution should be marked with a tone and manner expressive of ingenuous, but by no means abject contrition. The recapitulation of the words of the heavenly vision, demands the mingled expressions of supernatural awe, and a restrained, but conscious exultation.

I THINK myself happy, king Agrippa, because I shall answer for myself this day before thee, touching all the things whereof I am accused of the Jews; especially because I know thee to be expert in all customs and questions which are among the Jews; whereof I beseech thee to hear me patiently.

My manner of life from my youth, which was at the first among my own nation at Jerusalem, know all the Jews, who knew me from the beginning, if they would testify, that after the most rigorous sect of our religion, I lived a Pharisee. And now I stand and ́am judged for the hope of the promise made of God unto our fathers; unto which promise our twelve tribes, instantly serving God day and night, hope to come. For this hope's sake, king Agrippa, I am accused of the Jews. Why should it be thought a thing i credible to you, that God should raise the dead? I verily thought with myself, that I ought to do many things contrary to the name of Jesus of Nazareth; which things I also did in Jerusalem; and many of the saints did shut up in prison; and when they were put to death I gave my voice against them; and I punished them oft in every synagogue, and compelled them to blaspheme; and being exceedingly mad against them, I persecuted them even unto strange cities.

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Whereupon as I went to Damascus, with authority and commission from the cheif priests, at mid-day, Ó king! I saw in the way a light from heaven, above the brightness of the sun, shining round about me,, and them that journeyed with me. And when we were all fallen to earth, I heard a voice speaking unto, me and saying in the Hebrew tongue, "Saul, Saul, why persecutest thou me? It is hard for thee to kick against the goads." And I said, "Who art thou, lord?" And he said, "I am Jesus, whom thou persecutest; but arise, and stand upon thy feet; for I have appeared unto thee for this purpose, to make thee a minister, and a witness both of these things thou hast seen, and of those things in the which I will appear unto thee; delivering thee from this people, and from the Gentiles, unto whom now I send thee, to open their eyes, and to turn them from darkness to→ light, and from the power of Satan unto God; that they may receive forgiveness of sins, and inheritance among them which are sanctified by faith that is in me." Whereupon, O king Agrippa! I was not disobedient unto the heavenly vision, but shewed first unto them of Damascus and at Jerusalem, and throughout all the coasts of Judea ; and then to the Gentiles, that they should repent and turn to God, and do works meet for repentance. For these causes the Jews caught me in the temple, and went about to kill me. Having therefore obtained help of God, I continue unto this day witnessing both to small and great, saying none other things than those which the prophets and Moses did say should come, that Christ should suffer, and that he should be the first that should rise from the dead, and should shew light unto this people, and to the Gentiles..

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And as he thus spake for himself, Festus said, with a loud voice, “Paul, thou art beside thyself; much leaning doth make thee mad." But he said,

I am not mad, most noble Festus, but speak forth the words of truth and soberness: for the king knoweth of these things, before whom also I speak freely:

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