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appropriation for these payments was made in 1872 (17 Stat. 124). For the fiscal year ending June 30, 1941 the sum of $1,176 was appropriated for the contribution of the United States (54 Stat. 187).

PERMANENT COURT OF ARBITRATION: (Hague Conventions of July 29, 1899 and October 18, 1907 for the pacific

settlement of international disputes“)
Offices: The Hague, Netherlands.
American Members:

Manley 0. Hudson, LL.D., S.J.D., D.C.L., of Massachusetts;
Green H. Hackworth, of the District of Columbia;
Henry L. Stimson, LL.D., of New York;
Michael Francis Doyle, LL.D., of Pennsylvania.

The Permanent Court of Arbitration was created under article 20 of the convention for the pacific settlement of international disputes, which was signed at The Hague on July 29, 1899 and maintained under article 41 of the convention signed at The Hague on October 18, 1907. The court consists of persons of known competency in questions of international law, no more than four of whom are selected by each of the contracting powers.

The Permanent Court of Arbitration is not a court in the ordinary sense. Rather, the members of the court constitute a panel of competent jurists from which arbitrators may be chosen by states parties to a dispute to pass upon that controversy. The arbitrators are selected by the parties to each controversy; and usually different individuals act as arbitrators in different cases, the selection being optional with the parties to the controversy. In some instances the arbitrators are chosen to pass upon a series of cases, as, for example, a group or groups of international claims. The arbitral tribunal thus selected assembles at The Hague, unless another place is decided upon.

Under the statute of the Permanent Court of International Justice, members of the Permanent Court of Arbitration belonging to states which are members of the League of Nations or mentioned in the annex to the Covenant are entitled, acting as national groups, to nominate candidates in the election of the judges of the Permanent Court of International Justice.

Forty-four countries, including the United States of America, are at present members of the Permanent Court of Arbitration and con

• For an account of the International Bureau of the Permanent Court of Arbitration, see post, p. 89.

* Treaty Series 392; 32 Stat. 1779; Treaty Series 536 ; 36 Stat. 2199.

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The International Institute of Agriculture is a permanent organization created by the convention of June 7, 1905, which was signed by representatives of 40 states, including the United States of America. During the fiscal year ending June 30, 1941 a majority of nations continued to be represented by delegates, and the Institute continued its work as usual.

The Institute operates under the broad charge, “For the protection of the common interests of farmers and for the betterment of their conditions, after preliminary study of all requisite sources of information”. It acts as a clearing house for the collection, analysis, and distribution of information on statistics, legislation, and economic and technical problems through bureaus devoted to each of these subjects. The Institute organizes and publishes the results of the world agricultural census; the first reports for 1940 appeared during the fiscal year 1941. The Institute prepares data and holds conferences on matters of international concern, such as trade, standardization, insect-pest control, etc.

The results of the work of the Institute are made known to the governments of member nations and the public by radio, cable, and printed publications. It issues six regular periodicals, year books on agricultural statistics, and legislation and monographs dealing with special studies.

The Institute library, now one of the largest in the world, gathers agricultural books and periodicals from all countries and maintains collaboration with the agricultural libraries of various nations.

The management of the Institute is entrusted to a General Assembly and a Permanent Committee. The General Assembly, consisting of special delegates representing the member nations, meets biannually to consider proposals for study by the Permanent Committee, by member governments, and by international congresses on agriculture, and approves the plan of work and the budget for the following biannual period.

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5 Treaty Series 489; 35 Stat. 1918; 49 Stat, 3350.


The Permanent Committee consists of one delegate from each member country. It meets quarterly and elects the president, vice president, and secretary general. The Permanent Committee is the principal executive authority which directs the current work, by the staff of about 100 technical employees of 30 nationalities.

Money for American participation in the work of the Institute was first appropriated in 1906 for the fiscal year 1907 (34 Stat. 635). For the fiscal year ending June 30, 1941 the sum of $48,756 was appropriated by Congress for the continuation of this work (54 Stat. 187).


(Convention of December 9, 1907) Offices : Paris, France. American Representative: Hugh S. Cumming, M.D., Sc. D., LL.D.,

Surgeon General, retired, Public Health Service; Director, Pan American Sanitary Bureau.

The International Office of Public Health, the creation of which was envisaged by article 181 of the international sanitary convention, signed at Paris on December 3, 1903 (Treaty Series 466; 35 Stat. 1770), was definitely established by an arrangement signed at Rome on December 9, 1907.

The Office is under the supervisory direction of a Permanent Committee composed of one member designated by each participating state, but the voting power of each member is "inversely proportioned to the number of the class” to which the state belongs in the matter of sharing expenses. The Committee meets at least once a year. A director, appointed by the Committee, is immediately responsible for the administration of the Office.

The main object of the International Office of Public Health “is to collect and bring to the knowledge of the participating states facts and documents of a general character concerning public health and especially regarding infectious diseases, notably cholera, plague, and yellow fever, as well as the measures taken to check these diseases".

After the close of the World War of 1914-18 the Permanent Committee devoted considerable time to the revision of the international sanitary convention, which resulted in a new international sanitary convention signed at Paris on June 21, 1926 (Treaty Series 762; 45 Stat. 2492).

Treaty Series 511 ; 35 Stat. 2061.

The Office, in addition to its other duties, issues a monthly bulletin which contains information concerning the laws and regulations promulgated in various countries with regard to contagious diseases, the spread of infectious diseases, work done toward sanitation of various localities, and public health statistics.

Money was first appropriated for American participation in the work of the Office for the fiscal year 1909 (35 Stat. 681). For the fiscal year ending June 30, 1941 the sum of $3,015.63 was appropriated for the continuation of this work (54 Stat. 187).



(Resolution of the Fourth Pan American Child Welfare Congress, 1924; Public

Resolution 31, May 3, 1928)

Offices : Montevideo, Uruguay.
United States Member of the International Council: & Katharine F.

Lenroot, LL.D., Chief, Children's Bureau, Department of Labor.

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The American International Institute for the Protection of Childhood was established at Montevideo on June 9, 1927, as the culmination of the recommendations of the Pan American Child Welfare Congresses, under the guidance of the late Dr. Luis Morquio, an internationally recognized Uruguayan pediatrician.

The Institute is presided over by an International Council and a director, elected by the Council. Its purposes, as stated in the bylaws, are: (1) To collect and publish laws, regulations, and other docu

ments on child welfare and official reports on the interpretation and execution of these laws and regulations, with

corresponding studies; (2) To study the public and private organizations and insti

tutions existing in every country, particularly their

methods and organization; (3) To collect books and periodicals on child welfare published

in the different countries, also reports and opinions on the different child-welfare organizations and institutions;

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(4) To prepare statistics, demographic tables, and general in

formation on the various child-welfare questions, particu

larly morbidity and mortality; (5) To give advice and information to public authorities and

private institutions on the problems of interest to them; (6) To serve as a center of studies for organizations and indi

viduals who write reports on problems concerning

children. The Institute maintains a public library of the information and publications in its possession and publishes quarterly a bulletin containing articles of a medical, medico-social, hygienic, legal, socialservice, educational, and vocational character.

Thirteen American republics are members of the Institute. The first appropriation for United States participation as a member was contained in an act of Congress approved May 29, 1928 (45 Stat. 913), For the fiscal year ending June 30, 1941 the sum of $2,000 was appropriated by Congress for the purpose of defraying the cost of such participation (54 Stat. 188).



(Resolution of the First International Conference on Private Aerial Law,

October 27-November 6, 1925)

Offices: Paris, France.
American Section of the Committee: 9
Stephen Latchford, Chief of the Aviation Section, Division of

International Communications, Department of State; Chairman

of the American Section; Fred D. Fagg, Jr., J.D., Vice President, Northwestern University,

Chicago, Illinois; Samuel E. Gates, International Counselor, Civil Aeronautics Board,

Department of Commerce; Arnold W. Knauth, Specialist in Air Law, New York, New York; Arthur L. Lebel, S.J.D., Aviation Section, Division of International

Communications, Department of State;



• The American membership of the Committee was enlarged on July 22, 1939 in order to afford an opportunity for a thorough study of pending projects and in order to provide a larger panel of experts from which selections of persons to attend the sessions of the Committee might conveniently be made.

** Dr. Fagg resigned as a member of the American Section of the Committee on September 24, 1940.

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