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ILLINOIS.

CONGRESS-(Continued.)

Districts.
IV.

ELECTION RETURNS ILLINOIS, WISCONSIN, OREGON AND IOWA.

Rep. Dem. Districts.
Kellogg. Davidson. IX.

Fulton....... 2980 3224 Hardin
Henry.
2242 1101 Jackson
Knox.

2965

1820 Johnson

Marshall

1203

Mason..

822

Mercer

1419

Peoria...

2601

Stark.

929

Tazewell

1783

Warren
Woodford ...

1732
811

16860

Total... 19487
Gale, A.L.D., 553.
Kellogg over D'son, 2,627.

Total.. 11648 13529
Davis, A.L.D., 504.
Morris over G'shaw, 1,881.

Clay
Clark.

Coles..

Lawrence..
Logan....

Macon

Moultrie.

Piatt

Richland

1054 Massac

1038 Perry

898 Pope 2623 Pulaski..

584 Saline

1960 Union

1406 Wabash
1152 White.
Williamson
Wayne.

V.

Adams
Brown..

1195 Pepin
Pierce.
Total.
2796 15878 Polk
Parish, A.L.D., 144. Portage
Grimshaw. Morris.
Logan over Phillips, 18,082. Richland
3004 3280
Rock...
590
For Superin't of Public
849
507 Instruction, Bateman, Rep.,
171
votes
2234 received 124,556
2054
1001 755 French, Doug., 122,413;
McDonald... 1774 1944 Reynolds, Buch., 5,173.
Pike........ 1991 2471
Schuyler..... 1063 1489

Calhoun
Hancock...
Henderson

St. Croix.
Sauk'.
Trempeleau..
Wood

765

574

....

ILLINOIS.

CONGRESS-(Continued.)

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Total..... 11760 13588
Baldwin, A.L.D., 36.
R'son over Oglesby, 1,828.

VI.
Cass.
Christian

Matheny. Harris.
743 1068

591

Greene

923
1517
1059
2093

Jersey.
Macoupin..
Menard

At this election, Messrs.
Lincoln and Douglas can-
1615
vassed the State for U. S.
780 851 Senator, to be chosen by the
1789
Morgan..
2054 Legislature then elected;
Montgomery.. 786
1222 and while Mr. Douglas car-
Sangamon
ried a majority of the Legis-
8010
Scott
1002 lature, Mr. Lincoln had the
Shelby
The aggre-
1394 popular vote.
gate vote of the State for
Total..... 11646 16193 members of the Legislature
was as follows:
McConnell, A.L.D., 277.
Harris over Math'y, 4,547.

2803
650
550

VII.

Total......
8410 11490
Hope, A.L.D., 198.
Fouke over Baker, 3,080.

696
922

Oglesby. Robinson.
424 712
1076 1405
4,688
1859 1578 Lincoln over Douglas, 8,508.
Cumberland.. 488
Crawford
693
In Five Districts of the
Edgar
1446 1431 State there were no Repub-
Effingham.. 214 803 lican Candidates for the
Fayette
605
842 Legislature. In these five
459 619 Districts, the Republican
455 662 State Ticket received 577
1315 1174 votes, which, added to the
1168 939 vote of Mr. Lincoln (to which
570 they clearly belong), makes
480 his majority in this State,
755 over Douglas, 4,085.

Jasper

513

546

499

Rep. Dem.
Phillips. Logan.
46 856
79
7

15

474

18

67

8

65

For Treas'r, Miller, Rep., received 125,430; Fondey, Douglas Dem., 121,609; Dougherty, Buch'n Dem., 5,071.

896

611

43

804

WISCONSIN.

Iowa-1859.

GOVERNOR.

GOVERNOR-(Continued.)
Rep. Dem. Districts. Rep. Dem.

Kirkwood. Dodge,
120 76
122

1225 Eau Claire...

177

Randall, Hobart, I.
192 175 Adair
233 Adams
1715 Audubon..
1141 Appanoose
1820 Cass

820
2496

58

60

1157 Grant..
750 Green....

1726

627

985

179

152

798 Iowa..
774 Jackson

1454
493

462

351

293 Clarke
874 Dallas....

1060

530

448

1219

1034 Davis

717

1142

589 Juneau.... 1143 La Crosse.... 819 Lafayette... 623 Lapointe

1514 Decatur

890

771

109 Desmoines.... 1704

1923

1102 72 1250 Marathon..... 206 1554 Monroe...

509 Fremont..

293

504

257

260

939
432

297

351

506

1596

161

946

1282

1025

2159

956

521

651

1212

1256

262

749
Montgomery.. 125
Page
Polk

377
1078
Potawatomie. 295
Poweshiek... 595
78 Ringgold

260

78

2530

304

Shelby
662 Taylor
2512
567
2134

Union

151

1897

1016

792

446

1577

783
87
1839
2106
624
380
1570
Total..... 24113 25883
Maj. for Hobart, 1,770.

Van Buren..
Wapello
Warren
987
Washington.. 1203
Wayne.
416
Total..... 26663
Maj. for Dodge, 92.
II.
Kirkwood. Dodge,
Allamakee... 743 1025
Benton..
914 732
Black Hawk..
550
Boone......
Bremer...

815

298

413

438

570 6 246

17

30

1002 72 7 808 9 1429 1521

Lincoln, Rep.,... 124,698
Douglas, Dem.,.. 121,190
Buch. Dem., and
Scattering,...

THE VOTE FOR
LINCOLN AND DOUGLAS.Door

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II.
Adams
Bad Ax.
Phillips. Logan. Buffalo
Alexander. 41 378 Chippewa.....

IX.

Edwards..

Franklin..
Gallatin.
Hamilton

395
19
207

267 Clarke
1030
815

6 1155 Douglas

Crawford
Dane......

Wisconsin-1859.

GOVERNOR.

.....

Districts.
II.
Dunn..

III.
Brown..

Calumet..
Columbia..
Dodge..

743

745

4089

516

1659
366

235

Counties.

Rep.
Logan.
Benton..... 222
Clackamas 380
Clotsop..
54
Pep. Dem. Columbia... 63
Randall, Hobart. Coos

52

54

339

906 Curry
6251 Douglass
1634 Jackson
1459 Josephine
2295 Lane...

218
211

532

602

Linn..
Total..... 12161 12545 Marion..... 1062
Maj. for Hobart, 884. Multnomah 563
254
Polk
Randall, Hobart.
594 293 Tillamook
10
619 Umpqua.....
Wasco....
414

995

132

115

264

156

248 Washington.. 856
Yamhill......
412

71

42 748

619 8727

8880

84

60

21080

Total..... 27191
Maj. for Randall, 6,111.

Fond du Lac.. 3214
Green Lake.. 1453
Jefferson
Kewaunee

2327
167

704

586

Manitowoc..
Marquette..
Oconto
Ozaukee

352

627
494
Outagamie...
Shawanaw... 105
Sheboygan... 1772
Washington.. 684
Waupacca.... 1167
Waushara.. 1126
Winnebago. 2235

578 Guthrie...

255 Harrison

805 Henry.

141 Jasper

582

647 Keokuk

Randall. Hobart.

423 1066 518 678 2595 1646 8492 3856 72

Oregon-1859.

CONGRESS.

1578 Lee

560 Louisa

799 Lucas

184 Madison...

280

TOTAL VOTE OF THE STATE.

Randall, Rep.,...... 63465
Hobart, Dem.,... 59508

Total...... 5691
Maj. for Stout, 39.

Jefferson

417

816

2 474

17

80
1152

Buchanan..
Buena Vista..
Butler....
Calhoun
Carroll
Cedar
Maj. for Randall,.. 8957 Cerro Gordo.. 117
Cherokee..... 12
Chickasaw... 439
Clay..
8
Clayton 1630
Clinton.... 1605
Crawford
45
Delaware..... 844
Dickinson.... 81
Dubuque
422 Emmet
879
84

Dem.
Stout.

1751
18
1102

Fayette
Floyd
72 Franklin.

495

201

63

126

37

110

192

Mahaska
Marion

Mills

Monroe.

Greene Grundy Hamilton. 663 Hancock.. 411 Hardin..

495

535
723

Howard
Humboldt
296 Ida
434 Iowa

284 Jackson
5 Johnson
43 Jones
255 Kossuth
201 Linn

818

247

Marshall
Mitchell
5670 Monona
Muscatine

998

705

1192

1043

2392

679

457

729

1137

1438

245

665

115

333

1048

600

411

125

96

257

193

1402

1260

609

946

535

26755

55 894 15

8153 5 849

281

51

146

17

105

19

14

458

279

645 336 49 4 765

29 8 549 1477 1602 1395 1161

1273

1153 75 37 1771 1345 795 442

516

204

105

105 1457

1361

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Counties.

Anoka..

Benton

Total 29741 26556
Maj. for Kirkwood, 3,185.

Blue Earth..

Brown

Carver

Cass..

TOTAL VOTE OF THE STATE.

Kirkwood, Rep., 56404 53311 Dodge, Dem.,.....

Maj. for Kirkwood, 3093

Minnesota-1859.

GOVERNOR.

Chisago

Crow Wing...
Dakota..
Dodge..

Jackson..... Kannabec Kandiyohi.. Le Sueur Manomin. Martin

McLeod

Meeker..

Mower

Nicollett..

Olmsted

Pine

....

Mille Lac
Monongalia..
Morrison...

Pembina.
Ramsey.
Benville

....

Farribault... 210

Fillmore...... 1399
Freeborn 438
Goodhue.. 1220

Hennepin 2013

Houston....

Isanti..

Rep. Dem. Ramsey. Becker. 883

44

11

17 Sherburne

37 Sibley

26 52

1625

Stearns..

858 Steele...

295 Todd.

No return.
793

859

333 Wabashaw...
24 Waseca
771 Washington.. 958
Winona

163

1209

579

Wright
Carlton,
St. Louis,
Lake,

88

47

88

412 424 1119 6

165

94

MINNESOTA.

GOVERNOR-(Continued.)
Rep. Dem
Ramsey. Becker.
1045 828
917
68
526

552

181

808

875

660

448

178

675
No return.

Districts.

21

9

19

577
No return.
18
197
147

No return.

Rice..

Scott

512

254

707
814
265

119

Total.. 21335 17588
Maj. for Ramsey, 8,752.

LEGISLATURE.

SENATE. Rep., 23; Dem., 18;
Independent, 1.
HOUSE.. Rep., 58; Dem., 22.

143

734

560

343

800
473 524
No return. Calaveras. 35 3275 1891
284 156 } Colusa 15 541 166
8 55 Con'a Costa 41 805 878
1007
1056 Del Norte. 18 892 126
593 444 El Dorado. 408 8096 2413
109 Fresno.... 1 859 11
1171 Humboldt 83 897
227 Klamath.. 1 607
706 Los Ang'ls 220 1916
1117 Marin
67
716 Mariposa. 8
Mendocino 11

Sup. Court.Sprague.. 30978
Baker, Rep., was generally
supported by the Anti-Le-
compton Democrats, and
McKibben by the Republi-
872 cans.

120

49

467 75 1462 212 730 85 231

18 Merced....

82

1
6 Monterey.. 46 495 175
3 Napa..... 14 810 905
625 Nevada... 581 8185 2584
Placer.... 896 1117

8226

10 Plumas... 193 882 649
95 Sacram'to. 228 8526

2678

108

San Bern'o 39 532

6

1

San Diego. 17 259

30

San Fran'03027 4747 2943

115

San Joa'in 209

1806

488

S. Luis Ob'o 80

San Mateo 105

227
777 Santa B'ra 35
28
No return.
1485

8

CALIFORNIA.

GOVERNOR-(Continued.)
Counties. Rep. Dem. A.L.D.
Stanford. Latham. Currey.

Siskiyou. 48 2159 1803
Solano... 88 1172 827
Sonoma... 64 1981 1148
Stanislaus. 13 889 106
Sutter 87 695 159
Tehama

92

85 770
4 1285

Trinity

829

-11

821

63

Tulare and
B'na Vista
Tuolumne 969 8723
Yolo...... 66 757
Yuba..... 487 2442 1471

787
568

California-1859.
GOVERNOR.

Counties. Rep. Dem. A.L.D.
Stanford. Latham. Currey.
Alameda.. 299 1066 664
Amador... 232 2023 985

Butte... 354 1915 1666 Congress..Booker..

Total..10110 62255 81298 Latham over C'rey, 80957; over both, 20847.

AGGREGATE VOTE ON OTHER
STATE OFFICERS.
Republicans.
Lt. Gov....Kennedy, 11148
Congress..Baker,... 41438
Sibley,... 301
Sup. Court.Shafter.. 11799

Democrats.

46

Lt. Goo....Downey,. 59051
Congress..
..Burch 57665
Scott....
56998
Sup. Court.Cope.. 59397
Anti-Lecompton Democrats.
Lt. Gov....Conness.. 81051
2969

878
30
418

66

McKibben43474

South Carolina.

There is no opposition to what is termed the Regular Democracy in this State, and no officers are elected by the entire vote of the State, the Governor and State officers, as well as the Presidential Electors, being chosen by the Legislature.

Alabama.

284
An Election was held in
420
this State in 1859, for Go-
431
vernor, Congressmen and
Santa Clara 626 1407 867 Legislature, in which the
Santa Cruz 150 499 451 opposition to the regular
1778 Shasta.... 8 1456 432 Democracy claimed the suf-
87 Sierra....
295 2814 1666 rags of the people, on the

2

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APPENDIX.

RESOLUTIONS OF '98 AND '99.

As the Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions of 1798 and 1799, form a portion of the Democratic National Platforms, we give them a place here:

THE VIRGINIA RESOLUTIONS.

The following resolutions passed the Virginia House of Delegates on the 21st of December, 1798, and were agreed to by the Senate three days later, on the 24th December. These Resolutions are understood to have been written by Mr. Madison.

Resolved, That the General Assembly of Virginia doth unequivocally express a firm resolution to maintain and defend the Constitution of the United States, and the constitution of this State, against every aggression, either foreign or domestic; and that they will support the Go

vernment of the United States in all measures warranted by the former.

That this Assembly most solemnly declares a warm at

tachment to the Union of the States, to maintain which it pledges its powers; and, that for this end, it is their duty to watch over and oppose every infraction of those principles which constitute the only basis of that Union,

because a faithful observance of them can alone secure its existence and the public happiness.

That this Assembly doth explicitly and peremptorily declare, that it views the powers of the Federal Government, as resulting from the compact to which the States are parties, as limited by the plain sense and intention of the instrument constituting that compact, as no farther valid than they are authorized by the grants enumerated in that compact; and that, in case of a deliberate, palpable, and dangerous exercise of other powers not granted by the said compact, the States, who are parties thereto, have the right, and are in duty bound, to interpose, for arresting the progress of the evil, and for maintaining within their respective limits the authorities, rights, and liberties, appertaining to them.

That the General Assembly doth also express its deep regret, that a spirit has, in sundry instances, been manifested by the Federal Government, to enlarge its powers by forced constructions of the constitutional charter which defines them ;and that indications have appeared of a design to expound certain general phrases (which, having been copied from the very limited grant of powers in the former Articles of Confederation, were the less liable to be misconstrued) so as to destroy the meaning and effect of the particular enumeration which necessarily explains and limits the general phrases, and so as to consolidate the States by degrees into one sovereignty, the obvious tendency and inevitable result of which would be, to transform the present republican system of the United States into an absolute, or at best, a mixed monarchy. That the General Assembly doth particularly protest against the palpable and alarming infractions of the Constitution, in the two late cases of the "Alien and Sedition Acts," passed at the last session of Congress; the first of which exercises a power nowhere delegated to the Federal Government, and which, by uniting legislative and judicial powers to those of the executive, subverts the general principles of free government, as well as the particular organization and positive provisions of the Federal Constitution; and the other of which acts exercises, in like manner, a power not delegated by the Constitution, but, on the contrary, expressly and positively forbidden by one of the amendments thereto; a power which, more than any other, ought to produce universal alarm, because it is leveled against the right of freely examining public characters and measures, and of free communication among the people thereon, which has ever

been justly deemed the only effectual guardian of every other right.

That this State having by its Convention, which ratified the Federal Constitution, expressly declared, that among other essential rights, "the liberty of conscience and the press cannot be canceled, abridged, restrained, or modified by any authority of the United States," and from its extreme anxiety to guard these rights from every possible attack of sophistry and ambition, having with other States recommended an amendment for that the Constitution, it would mark a reproachful inconsiswhich amendment was, in due time, annexed to tency, and criminal degeneracy, if an indifference were now shown to the most palpable violation of one of the rights, thus declared and secured; and to the establishment of a precedent which may be fatal to the other.

That the good people of this Commonwealth having ever felt, and continuing to feel, the most sincere affection for their brethren of the other States, the truest anxiety for establishing and perpetuating the Union of all, and the most scrupulous fidelity to that Constitution which is the pledge of mutual friendship and the instrument of mutual happiness, the General Assembly doth solemnly appeal to the like dispositions in the other States, in confidence that they will concur with this Commonwealth in declaring, as it does hereby declare, that the acts aforesaid are unconstitutional; and that the necessary and proper measures will be taken by each for coöperating with this State, in maintaining, unimpaired, the authorities, rights, and liberties, reserved to the States respectively, or to the people.

That the governor be desired to transmit a copy of the foregoing resolutions to the executive authority of each of the other States, with a request that the same may be communicated to the legislature thereof; and that a copy be furnished to each of the Senators and Representatives representing this State in the Congress of the United States.

THE KENTUCKY RESOLUTIONS.

The following resolutions, drafted by Thomas Jefferson, passed the Kentucky House of Representatives on the 10th of Nov., 1798, and were agreed to by the Senate on the 13th of the same month:

1. Resolved, That the several States composing the United States of America, are not united on the principle of unlimited submission to their general government; but that by compact, under the style and title of a Constitution for the United States, and of amendments thereto, they constituted a general government for special purposes, delegated to that government certain definite powers, reserving, each State to itself, the residuary mass of right to their own self-government; and, that whensoever the General Government assumes undelegated powers, its acts are unauthoritative, void, and of no force; that to this compact each State acceded as a State, and is an integral party; that this government, created by this compact, was not made the exclusive or final judge of the extent of the powers delegated to itself; since that would have made its discretion, and not the Constitution, the measure of its powers; but, that, as in all other cases of compact among parties having no common judge, each party has an equal right to judge for itself, as well of infractions as of the mode and measure of redress.

2. Resolved, That the Constitution of the United States having delegated to Congress a power to punish treason, counterfeiting the securities and current coin of the United States, piracies and felonies committed on the high seas, and offenses against the laws of nations, and no other crimes whatever; and it being true, as a general principle, and one of the amendments to the Constitution having also declared, "that the powers not

delegated to the United States by the Constitution, nor prohibited by it to the States, are reserved to the States respectively, or to the people," therefore also the same act of Congress, passed on the 14th day of July, 1798, and entitled "An act in addition to the act entitled An act for the punishment of certain crimes against the United States;" as also the act passed by them on the 27th day of June, 1798, entitled "An act to punish frauds committed on the Bank of the United States," (and all other their acts which assume to create, define, or punish crimes other than those enumerated in the Constitution), are altogether void and of no force, and that the power to create, define, and punish such other crimes is reserved, and of right appertains solely and exclusively, to the respective States, each within its own territory.

8. Resolved, That it is true, as a general principle, and is also expressly declared by one of the amendments to the Constitution, that "the powers not delegated to the United States by the Constitution, nor prohibited by it to the States, are reserved to the States respectively, or to the people;" and that no power over the freedom of religion, freedom of speech, or freedom of the press being delegated to the United States by the Constitution, nor prohibited by it to the States, all lawful powers respecting the same did of right remain, and were reserved to the States or to the people; that thus was manifested their determination to retain to themselves the right of judging how far the licentiousness of speech and of the press may be abridged without lessening their useful freedom, and how far those abuses which cannot be separated from their use should be tolerated rather than the use be destroyed; and thus also they guarded against all abridgment by the United States of the freedom of religious principles and exercises, and retained to themselves the right of protecting the same, as this State, by a law passed on the general demand of its citizens, had already protected them from all human restraint or interference; and that, in addition to this general principle and express declaration, another and more special provision has been made by one of the amendments to the Constitution, which expressly declares, that "Congress shall make no laws respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof, or abridging the freedom of speech, or of the press," thereby guarding in the same sentence, and under the same words, the freedom of religion, of speech, and of the press, insomuch that whatever violates either, throws down the sanctuary which covers the others; and that libels, falsehood, and defamation, equally with heresy and false religion, are withheld from the cognizance of federal tribunals. That therefore the act of the Congress of the United States, passed on the 14th of July, 1798, entitled "An act in addition to the act entitled An act for the punishment of certain crimes against the United States," which does abridge the freedom of the press, is not law, but is altogether void and of no force.

4. Resolved, That alien friends are under the jurisdiction and protection of the laws of the State wherein they are: that no power over them has been delegated to the United States, nor prohibited to the individual States distinct from their power over citizens; and it being true, as a general principle, and one of the amendments to the Constitution having also declared, that "the powers not delegated to the United States by the Constitution, nor prohibited to the States, are reserved to the States respectively, or to the people," the act of the Congress of the United States, passed the 22d day of June, 1798, entitled, "An act concerning aliens," which assumes power over alien friends not delegated by the Constitution, is not law, but is altogether void and of no force. 5. Resolved, That in addition to the general principle as well as the express declaration, that powers not delegated are reserved, another and more special provision inferred in the Constitution, from abundant caution has declared, "that the migration or importation of such persons as any of the States now existing shall think proper to admit, shall not be prohibited by the Congress prior to the year 1808." That this commonwealth does admit the migration of alien friends described as the subject of the said act concerning aliens; that a provision against prohibiting their migration, is a provision against all acts equivalent thereto, or it would be nugatory; that to remove them when migrated is equivalent to a prohibition of their migration, and is, therefore, contrary to the said provision of the Constitution, and void.

6. Resolved, That the imprisonment of a person under the protection of the laws of this commonwealth on his failure to obey the simple order of the President to depart out of the United States, as is undertaken by the said act, entitled, An act concerning aliens," is contrary to the Constitution, one amendment in which has provided,

66

that "no person shall be deprived of liberty without due process of law," and that another having provided, "that in all criminal prosecutions, the accused shall enjoy the right to a public trial by an impartial jury, to be informed as to the nature and cause of the accusation, to be confronted with the witnesses against him, to have compulsory process for obtaining witnesses in his favor, and to have assistance of counsel for his defense," the same act undertaking to authorize the President to remove a person out of the United States who is under the protection of the law, on his own suspicion, without jury, without public trial, without confrontation of the witnesses against him, without having witnesses in his favor, without defense, without counsel, is contrary to these provisions also of the Constitution, is therefore not law, but utterly void and of no force.

That transferring the power of judging any person who is under the protection of the laws, from the courts to the President of the United States, as is undertaken by the same act concerning aliens, is against the article of the Constitution which provides, that "the judicial power of the United States shall be vested in the courts, the judges of which shall hold their office during good behavior," and that the said act is void for that reason also; and it is further to be noted that this transfer of judiciary power is to that magistrate of the General Government who already possesses all the executive, and a qualified negative on all the legislative powers.

7. Resolved, That the construction applied by the General Government (as is evident by sundry of their proceedings) to those parts of the Constitution of the United States which delegate to Congress power to lay and collect taxes, duties, imposts, excises; to pay the debts, and provide for the common defense and general welfare of the United States, and to make all laws which shall be necessary and proper for carrying into execution the powers vested by the Constitution in the Government of the United States, or any department thereof, goes to the destruction of all the limits prescribed to their power by the Constitution: That words meant by that instrument to be subsidiary only to the execution of the limited powers, ought not to be so construed as themselves to give unlimited powers, nor a part so to be taken as to destroy the whole residue of the instrument: That the proceedings of the General Government under color of those articles, will be a fit and necessary subject for revisal and correction at a time of greater tranquillity, while those specified in the preceding resolutions call for immediate redress.

8. Resolved, That the preceding resolutions be transmitted to the senators and representatives in Congress from this commonwealth, who are enjoined to present the same to their respective Houses, and to use their best endeavors to procure at the next session of Congress a repeal of the aforesaid unconstitutional and obnoxious

acts.

9. Resolved lastly, That the governor of this commonwealth be, and is hereby authorized and requested to communicate the preceding resolutions to the legislatures of the several States, to assure them that this commonwealth considers union for special national purposes, and particularly for those specified in their late federal compact, to be friendly to the peace, happiness, and prosperity of all the States-that, faithful to that compact, according to the plain intent and meaning in which it was un derstood and acceded to by the several parties, it is sincerely anxious for its preservation; that it does also believe, that to take from the States all the powers of self-government, and transfer them to a general and consolidated government, without regard to the special delegations and reservations solemnly agreed to in that compact, is not for the peace, happiness, or prosperity of these States; and that, therefore, this commonwealth is determined, as it doubts not its co-States are, to submit to undelegated and consequently unlimited powers in no man or body of men on earth; that if the acts before specified should stand, these conclusions would flow from them; that the General Government may place any act they think proper on the list of crimes and punish it themselves, whether enumerated or not enumerated by the Constitution as cognisable by them; that they may transfer its cognizance to the President or any other person, who may himself be the accuser, counsel, judge, and jury, whose suspicions may be the evidence, his order the sentence, his officer the executioner, and his breast the sole record of the transaction; that a very numerous and valuable description of the inhabitants of these States, being by this precedent reduced as outlaws to the absolute dominion of one man and the barriers of the Constitution thus swept from us all, and no rampart now remains against the passions and the power of a majority of Congress, to protect from a like exportation or other grievous punishment the minority of the same body, the legis

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latures, judges, governors, and counselors of the States, nor their other peaceable inhabitants who may venture to reclaim the constitutional rights and liberties of the States and people, or who, for other causes, good or bad, may be obnoxious to the views or marked by the suspicions of the President, or be thought dangerous to his or their elections or other interests, public or personal; that the friendless alien has been selected as the safest subject of a first experiment; but the citizen will soon follow, or rather has already followed; for, already has a sedition act marked him as a prey: that these and successive acts of the same character, unless arrested on the threshold, may tend to drive these States into revolution and blood, and will furnish new calumnies against republican governments, and new pretexts for those who wish it to be believed, that man cannot be governed but by a rod of iron; that it would be a dangerous delusion were a confidence in the men of our choice to silence our fears for the safety of our rights; that confidence is everywhere the parent of despotism; free government is founded in jealousy and not in confidence; it is jealousy and not confidence which prescribes limited constitutions to bind down those whom we are obliged to trust with power; that our Constitution has accordingly fixed the limits to which, and no farther, our confidence may go; and let the honest advocate of confidence read the Alien and Sedition acts, and say if the Constitution has not been wise in fixing limits to the government it created, and whether we should be wise in destroying those limits? Let him say what the government is, if it be not a tyranny, which the men of our choice have conferred on the President, and the President of our choice has assented to and accepted over the friendly strangers, to whom the mild spirit of our country and its laws had pledged hospitality and protection; that the men of our choice have more respected the bare suspicions of the President than the solid rights of innocence, the claims of justification, the sacred force of truth, and the forms and substance of law and justice. In questions of power, then, let no more be said of confidence in man, but bind him down from mischief by the chains of the Constitution. That this commonwealth does therefore call on its co-States for an expression of their sentiments on the acts concerning aliens, and for the punishment of certain crimes herein before specified, plainly declaring whether these acts are or are not authorized by the federal compact. And it doubts not that their sense will be so announced as to prove their attachment to limited government, whether general or particular, and that the rights and liberties of their coStates will be exposed to no dangers by remaining embarked on a common bottom with their own; but they will concur with this commonwealth in considering the said acts as so palpably against the Constitution as to amount to an undisguised declaration, that the compact is not meant to be the measure of the powers of the General Government, but that it will proceed in the exercise over these States of all powers whatsoever. That they will view this as seizing the rights of the States and consolidating them in the hands of the General Government, with a power assumed to bind the States (not merely in cases made federal) but in all cases whatsoever, by laws made, not with their consent, but by others against their consent; that this would be to surrender the form of

On the 25th January, 1845, Mr. Douglas, then a member of the House of Representatives, offered the following amendment to the joint Resolution for the Annexation of Texas:

"And in such State or States as may be formed out of said territory north of said Missouri Compromise line, slavery or involuntary servitude-except for crimeshall be prohibited."-Cong. Globe, vol. 14, page 193.

HE DEFENDS THE MISSOURI COMPROMISE.

On the 13th of March, 1850, Mr. Douglas made a speech in the United States Senate, from which the following is an extract:

MR. DOUGLAS' OPINIONS ON SLAVERY, &c.

"The next in the series of aggressions complained of by the Senator from South Carolina, is the Missouri Compromise. The Missouri Compromise, an act of Northern injustice, designed to deprive the South of her due share of the Territories! Why, sir, it was only on this very day that the Senator for Mississippi despaired

government we have chosen, and live under one deriving its powers from its own will, and not from our authority; and that the co-States, recurring to their natural rights in cases not made federal, will concur in declaring these void and of no force, and will each unite with this commonwealth in requesting their repeal at the next session of Congress.

On the 14th of Nov., 1799, the Kentucky House of Representatives, after having received replies to the above from the legislatures of several States, which replies seem to have been unsatisfactory, reiterated its position as follows:

Resolved, That this commonwealth considers the Federal Union, upon the terms and for the purposes specified in the late compact, as conducive to the liberty and hap piness of the several States: That it does now unequivocally declare its attachment to the Union, and to that compact, agreeably to its obvious and real intention, and will be among the last to seek its dissolution: That if those who administer the General Government be permitted to transgress the limits fixed by that compact, by a total disregard to the special delegations of power therein contained, an annihilation of the State governments, and the creation upon their ruins of a general consolidated government, will be the inevitable consequence: That the principle and construction contended for by sundry of the State legislatures, that the General Government, is the exclusive judge of the extent of the powers delegated to it, stop nothing short of despotism-since the discretion of those who administer the government, and not the Constitution, would be the measure of their powers-That the several States who formed that instrument, being sovereign and independent, have the unquestionable right to judge of the infraction; and that a nullification by those sovereignties of all unauthorized acts done under color of that instrument is the rightful remedy: That this commonwealth does, under the most deliberate reconsideration, declare that the said Alien and Sedition laws are, in their opinion, palpable violations of the said Constitution; and, however cheerfully it may be disposed to surrender its opinion to a majority of its sister States, in matters of ordinary or doubtful policy, yet, in momentous regulations like the present, which so vitally wound the best rights of the citizen, it would consider a silent acquiescence as highly criminal: That although this commonwealth, as a party to the federal compact, will bow to the laws of the Union, yet it does, at the same time, declare that it will not now, or ever hereafter, cease to oppose in a constitutional manner every attempt, at what quarter soever offered, to violate that compact. And, finally, in order that no pretext or arguments may be drawn from a supposed acquiescence on the part of this commonwealth in the constitutionality of those laws, and be thereby used as precedents for similar future violations of the federal compact -this commonwealth does now enter against them its solemn protest.

This resolution passed the Senate on the 22d Nov., 1799.

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of any peaceable adjustment of existing difficulties, extended to the Pacific. That measure was originally because the Missouri Compromise line could not be adopted in the bill for the admission of Missouri by the

union of Northern and Southern votes. The South has always professed to be willing to abide by it, and even to continue it, as a fair and honorable adjustment of a vexed and difficult question. In 1845, it was adopted in the resolutions for the annexation of Texas, by Southern as well as Northern votes, without the slightest complaint that it was unfair to any section of the country. In 1846, it received the support of every Southern member of the exception, as an alternative measure to the Wilmot ProHouse of Representatives-Whig and Democrat-without visio. And again in 1848, as an amendment to the Oregon bill, on my motion, it received the vote, if I recollect aright-and I do not think that I can possibly be mistaken-of every Southern Senator, Whig and Democrat, even including the Senator from South Carolina himself, (Mr. Calhoun.) And yet we are now told that this is only second to the Ordinance of 1787 in the series of aggressions on the South."-Cong. Globe, Appendix, vol. 22, part 1, page 870.

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