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(a) The take-off path shall be based upon procedures prescribed in accordance with 4T.111 (c).

(b) The airplane shall be accelerated on he ground to the speed V, at which point he critical engine shall be made inoperative ind shall remain inoperative during the renainder of the take-off. Subsequent to ataining speed V1, the airplane shall be iccelerated to speed V, during which time it hall be permissible to initiate raising the lose gear off the ground at a speed not less han the rotation speed VR.

(c) Landing gear retraction shall not be nitiated until the airplane becomes airborne.

(d) The slope of the airborne portion of he take-off path shall be positive at all oints.

(e) The airplane shall attain the speed V, rior to reaching a height of 35 feet above be take-off surface and shall continue at a peed as close as practical to, but not less han, V, until a height of 400 feet above the ike-off surface is reached.

(f) Except for gear retraction and propelr feathering, the airplane configuration hall not be changed before reaching a height (400 feet above the take-off surface.

(g) At all points along the take-off path arting at the poin. where the airplane first aches a height of 400 feet above the takeI surface, the available gradient of climb iall not be less than 1.2 percent for twoigine airplanes and 1.7 percent for fourigine airplanes. (h) The take-off path shall be determined ther by a continuous demonstrated take. [, or alternatively, by synthesizing from gments the complete take-off path. (i) If the take-off path is determined by le segmental method, the provisions of subragraphs (1) through (4) of this paragraph all be specifically applicable. (1) The segments of a segmental take-off th shall be clearly defined and shall be lated to the distinct changes in the conuration of the airplane, in power and/or rust, and in speed. (2) The weight of the airplane, the conuration, and the power and/or thrust shall

constant throughout each segment and all correspond with the most critical conzion prevailing in the particular segment. (3) The segmental flight path shall be sed on the airplane's performance without sund effect. (4) Segmental take-off path data shall be ecked by continuous demonstrated take5 to insure that the segmental path is iservative relative to the continuous path. T.117 Take-ofi distance and take-off 2-(a) Take-ofi distance. The take-off tance shall be the greater of the distances ablished in accordance with subparaphs (1) and (2) of this paragraph. 1) The horizontal distance along the e-off path from the start of the take-off the point where the airplane attains a ght of 85 feet above the take-off surface, ietermined in accordance with § 4T.116.

(2) A distance equal to 115 percent of the horizontal distance along the take-og path, with all engines operating, from the start of the take-off to the point where the airplane attains a height of 35 feet above the take-off surface, as determined by a procedure consistent with that established in accordance with § 4T.116.

(b) Take-off run. If the take-off distance is intended to include a clearway (see item 5 of this regulation), the take-off run shall be determined and shall be the greater of the distances established in accordance with subparagraphs (1) and (2) of this paragraph.

(1) The horizontal distance along the take-off path from the start of the take-off to a point equidistant between the point where the airplane first becomes airborne and the point where it attains a height of 35 feet above the take-off surface, as determined in accordance with § 4T.116.

(2) A distance equal to 115 percent of the horizontal distance along the take-off path, with all engines operating, from the start of the take-off to a point equidistant between the point where the airplane first becomes airborne and the point where it attains a height of 35 feet above the take-off surface, as determined by a procedure consistent with that established in accordance with $ 4T.116.

4T.117a Take-off flight path. (a) The take-off flight path shall be considered to begin at a height of 35 feet above the takeoff surface at the end of the take-off distance as determined in accordance with $ 4T.117 (a).

(b) The net take-off flight path data shall be determined in such a manner that they represent the airplane's actual take-off flight paths, determined in accordance with paragraph (a) of this section, diminished by a gradient of climb equal to 1.0 percent.

4T.118 Climb; general. Compliance shall be shown with the climb requirements of $$ 4T.119 and 4T.120 at all weights, altitudes, and ambient temperatures, within the operational limits established by the applicant for the airplane. The airplane's center of gravity shall be in the most unfavorable position corresponding with the applicable configuration.

4T.119 All-engine-operating landing climb. In the landing configuration the steady gradient of climb shall not be less than 3.2 percent, with:

(a) All engines operating at the power and/or thrust which is available 8 seconds after initiation of movement of the power and/or thrust controls from the minimum flight idle to the take-off position;

(b) A climb speed not in excess of 1.3 Vs.

4T.120 One-engine-inoperative climb(a) Take-of; landing gear extended. In the take-off configuration existing at the point of the flight path where the airplane first becomes airborne, in accordance with $ 4T.116 but without ground effect, the steady gradient of climb shall be positive for two-engine

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paragraphs (a) through (g) of this section

(a) The airplane shall be in the landing configuration. During the landing, changes and/or thrust, and in speed shall be in 8Ccordance with procedures established by the

applicant for the operation of the airplane

airplanes and shall not be less than 0.5 per procedures, except that it shall not exceed : cent for four-engine airplanes, with:

1.5 V. (see $ 4T.111 (c)). (1) The critical engine inoperative, the 4T.121 En route flight paths. With the remaining engine(s) operating at the avail airplane in the en route configuration, the able take-off power and/or thrust existing in flight paths prescribed in paragraphs (a) and accordance with § 4T.116 at the time retrac (b) of this section shall be determined at all tion of the airplane's landing gear is initiated, weights, altitudes, and ambient temperatures unless subsequently more critical power within the limits established by the applicant operating condition exists along the flight for the airplane. path prior to the point where the landing (a) One engine inoperative. The onegear is fully retracted;

engine-inoperative net flight path data shall (2) The weight equal to the airplane's be determined in such a manner that they 3 weight existing in accordance with $ 4T.116 at represent the airplane's actual climb perthe time retraction of the airplane's landing formance diminished by

gradient of climb gear is initiated;

equal to 1.1 percent for two-engine airplanes (3) The speed equal to the speed V,.

and 1.6 percent for four-engine airplanes. It (b) Take-off; landing gear retracted. In shall be acceptable to include in these data the take-off configuration existing at the the variation of the airplane's weight along point of the flight path where the airplane's the flight path to take into account the to landing gear is fully retracted, in accord progressive consumption of fuel and oil by ance with § 4T.116 but without ground effect, the operating engine(s). the steady gradient of climb shall not be (b) Two engines inoperative. For airless than 2.5 percent for two-engine air planes with four engines, the two-engineplanes and not less than 3.0 percent for four inoperative net flight path data shall be engine airplanes, with:

determined in such a manner that they rep- te (1) The critical engine inoperative, the resent the airplane's actual climb perform remaining engine(s) operating at the avail ance diminished by a gradient of climb equal able take-off power and/or thrust existing in to 0.5 percent. It shall be acceptable to accordance with $ 4T.116 at the time the include in these data the variation of the landing gear is fully retracted, unless subse airplane's weight along the flight path to quently a more critical power operating con

take into account the progressive consumpdition exists along the flight path prior to the

tion of fuel and oil by the operating engines. point where a height of 400 feet above the (c) Conditions. In determining the flight take-off surface is reached;

paths prescribed in paragraphs (a) and (b) (2) The weight equal to the airplane's

of this section, the conditions of subparaweight existing in accordance with $ 4T.116

graphs (1) through (4) of this paragraph at the time the airplane's landing gear is fully

shall apply. retracted;

(1) The airplane's center of gravity shall (3) The speed equal to the speed V2.

be in the most unfavorable position. (c) Final take-off. In the en route con

(2) The critical engine(s) shall be inop. figuration, the steady gradient of climb shall

erative, the remaining engine(s) operating at not be less than 1.2 percent for two-engine

the available maximum continuous power airplanes and not less than 1.7 percent for

and/or thrust. four-engine airplanes, at the end of the take

(3) Means for controlling the engine

cool off path as determined by § 4T.116, with:

ing air supply shall be in the position which (1) The critical engine inoperative, the

provides adequate cooling in the hot-day remaining engine(s) operating at the avail

condition. able maximum continuous power and/or

(4) The speed shall be selected by the thrust;

applicant. (2) The weight equal to the airplane's

4T.122 Landing distance. The landing weight existing in accordance with § 4T.116

distance shall be the horizontal distance at the end of the take-off path;

required to land and to come to a complete (3) The speed equal to not less than

stop (to a speed of approximately 3 knots in 1.25 Vs.

the case of seaplanes or float planes) from 8 (d) Approach. In the approach config

point at a height of 50 feet above the landuration such that the corresponding V, for

ing surface. Landing distances shall be dethis configuration does not exceed 110 per

termined for standard temperatures at all cent of the V, corresponding with the related

weights, altitudes, and winds within the landing configuration, the steady gradient of

operational limits established by the appli, climb shall not be less than 2.2 percent for

cant for the airplane. The conditions of two-engine airplanes and not less than 2.7 percent for four-engine airplanes with:

shall apply. (1) The critical engine inoperative, the remaining engine(s) operating at the available take-off power and/or thrust;

in the airplane's configuration, in power (2) The weight equal to the maximum landing weight;

(3) A climb speed established by the ap in service. plicant in connection with normal landing

with the provisions of $ 4T.111 (c).

The procedures shall comply

(b) The landing shall be preceded by a steady gliding approach down to the 50-foot height with a callbrated air speed of not less than 1.3 Vs.

(c) The landing distance shall be based on a smooth, dry, hard-surfaced runway, and shall be determined in such a manner that reproduction does not require exceptional skill or alertness on the part of the pilot. In the case of seaplanes or float planes, the landing surface shall be smooth water, while for skiplanes it shall be smooth dry snow. During landing, the airplane shall not exhibit excessive vertical acceleration, a tendency to bounce, nose over, ground loop, porpoise, or water loop.

(d) The landing distance shall be corrected for not more than 50 percent of nominal wind components along the landing path opposite to the direction of landing and not less than 150 percent of nominal wind components along the landing path in the direction of landing.

(e) During landing, the operating pressures on the wheel braking system shall not be in excess of those approved by the manufacturer of the brakes, and the wheel brakes shall not be used in such a manner as to produce excessive wear of brakes and tires.

(f) In addition to, or in lieu of, wheel brakes, the use of other braking means shall be acceptable in determining the landing distance, provided such braking means shall have been proven to be safe and reliable, that the manner of their employment is such that consistent results can be expected in service, and that exceptional skill is not required to control the airplane.

(g) I the characteristics of a device (e. g., the propellers) dependent upon the operation of any of the engines noticeably increase the landing distance when the landing is made with the engine inoperative, the landing distance shall be determined with the critical engine inoperative unless the Administrator finds that the use of compensating means will result in a landing distance not greater than that attained with all engines operating.

4T.123 Limitations and information-(a) Limitations. The performance limitations on the operation of the airplane shall be established in accordance with subparagraphs (1) through (4) of this paragraph. (See also § 4T.743.)

(1) Take-off weights. The maximum takeoff weights shall be established at which compliance is shown with the generally applicable provisions of this regulation and with the take-off climb provisions prescribed in $ 4T.120 (a), (b), and (c) for altitudes and ambient temperatures within the operational limits of the airplane (see subparagraph (4) of this paragraph).

(2) Landing weights. The maximum landing weights shall be established at which compliance is shown with the generally applicable provisions of this regulation and with the landing and take-off climb provisions prescribed in $$ 4T.119 and 4T.120 for

altitudes and ambient temperatures within the operational limits of the airplane (see subparagraph (4) of this paragraph).

(3) Accelerate-stop distance, take-off distance, and take-off run. The minimum distances required for take-off shall be established at which compliance is shown with the generally applicable provisions of this regulation and with $$ 4T.115 and 4T.117 (a), and with 4T.117 (b) if the take-off distance is intended to include a clearway, for weights, altitudes, temperatures, wind components, and runway gradients, within the operational limits of the airplane (see subparagraph (4) of this paragraph).

(4) Operational limits. The operational limits of the airplane shall be established by the applicant for all variable factors required in showing compliance with this regulation (weight, altitude, temperature, etc.). (See $$ 4T.113 (a) (1) and (b), 4T.118, 4T.121, and 4T.122.)

(b) Information. The performance information on the operation of the airplane shall be scheduled in compliance with the generally applicable provisions of this regulation and with $$ 4T.117a (b), 4T.121, and 4T.122 for weights, altitudes, temperatures, wind components, and runway gradients, as these may be applicable, within the operational limits of the airplane (see subparagraph (a) (4) of this section). In addition, the performance information specified in subparagraphs (1) through (3) of this paragraph shall be determined by extrapolation and scheduled for the ranges of weights between the maximum landing and maximum take-off weights established in accordance with subparagraphs (a) (1) and (a) (2) of this section. (See also $ 4T.743.)

(1) Climb in the landing configuration (see $ 4T.119);

(2) Climb in the approach configuration (see $ 4T.120 (d));

(3) Landing distance (see § 4T.122).

AIRPLANE FLIGHT MANUAL

4T.743 Performance limitations, information, and other data—(a) Limitations. The airplane's performance limitations shall be given in accordance with $ 4T.123 (a).

(b) Information. The performance information prescribed in § 4T.123 (b) for the application of the operating rules of this regulation shall be given together with descriptions of the conditions, air speeds, etc., under which the data were determined.

(c) Procedures. Procedures established in accordance with $ 4T.111 (c) shall be given to the extent such procedures are related to the limitations and information set forth In accordance with paragraphs (a) and (b) of this section. Such procedures, in the form of guidance material, shall be included with the relevant limitations or information, as applicable.

(d) Miscellaneous. An explanation shall be given of significant or unsual flight or ground handling characteristics of the airplane.

trator may authorize a procedure established

(iii) The net fight path shall have a posttive slope at 1,500 feet above the airport used account for winds which would otherwise ad

(v) Fuel jettisoning shall be permitted it the Administrator finds that the operator has an adequate training program, proper instructions are given to the flight crew, and

all other precautions are taken to insure

3. In lieu of $ $ 40.70 through 40.78, 41.27 net take-off flight path which clears all obthrough 41.36 (d), and 42.70 through 42.83, stacles either by at least a height of 35 feet of Parts 40, 41, and 42 of the Civil Air Reg vertically or by at least 200 feet horizontally ulations, respectively, the following shall be within the airport boundaries and by at applicable:

least 300 feet horizontally after passing beOPERATING RULES

yond the boundaries. In determining the 40T.80 Transport category airplane oper

allowable deviation of the flight path in ating limitations. (a) In operating any

order to avoid obstacles by at least the dispassenger-carrying transport category air

tances prescribed, it shall be assumed that plane certificated in accordance with the

the airplane is not banked before reaching performance requirements of this regulation,

a height of 50 feet as shown by the take-off the provisions of $$ 40T.80 through 40T.84

path data in the Airplane Flight Manual,

and that a maximum bank thereafter does shall be complied with, unless deviations therefrom are specifically authorized by the

not exceed 15 degrees. The take-off path

considered shall be for the elevation of the Administrator on the ground that the special circumstances of a particular case make

airport, the effective runway gradient, and a literal observance of the requirements un

for the ambient temperature and wind com

ponent existing at the time of take-off. (See necessary for safety.

$ $ 4T.123 (b) and 4T.743 (b).) (b) The performance data in the Airplane

40T.83 Flight Manual shall be applied in determin

En toute limitations--(a) One ing compliance with the provisions of

engine inoperative. No airplane shall be

taken off at a weight in excess of that which, $$ 40T.81 through 40T.84. Where conditions differ from those for which specific tests

according to the one-engine-inoperative en were made, compliance shall be determined

route net flight path data shown in the

Airplane Flight Manual, will permit com- * by approved interpolation or computation of the effects of changes in the specific variables

pliance with either subparagraph (1) or subIf such interpolations or computations give

paragraph (2) of this paragraph at all points results substantially equalling in accuracy

along the route. The net flight path used

shall be for the ambient temperatures anticlthe results of a direct test. 40T.81 Airplane's certificate limitations.

pated along the route. (See $$ 4T.123 (b)

and 41.743 (b).) (a) No airplane shall be taken off at a weight which exceeds the take-off weight specified (1) The slope of the net flight path shall in the Airplane Flight Manual for the eleva. be positive at an altitude of at least 1,000 tion of the airport and for the ambient

feet above all terrain and obstructions along temperature existing at the time of the take the route within 5 miles on either side of the

intended track. off. (See $$ 4T.123 (a) (1) and 4T.743 (a).)

(b) No airplane shall be taken off at a (2) The net flight path shall be such as to weight such that, allowing for normal con permit the airplane to continue flight from sumption of fuel and oil in flight to the air the cruising altitude to an alternate airport port of destination and to the alternate air where a landing can be made in accordance ports, the weight on arrival will exceed the with the provisions of $ 40T.84 (b), the net landing weight specified in the Airplane flight path clearing vertically by at least Flight Manual for the elevation of each of 2,000 feet all terrain and obstructions along the airports involved and for the ambient the route within 5 miles on either side of the temperatures anticipated at the time of intended track. The provisions of subdivl

. landing. (See $ $ 4T.123 (a) (2) and 41.743 sions (1) through (vii) of this subparagraph (a).)

shall apply. (C) No airplane shall be taken off at a

(1) The engine shall be assumed to fall at weight which exceeds the weight shown in the most critical point along the route. the Airplane Flight Manual to correspond

(11) The airplane shall be assumed to pass with the minimum distances required for

over the critical obstruction following engine take-off. These distances shall correspond

failure at a point no closer to the critical with the elevation of the airport, the runway

obstruction than the nearest approved radio to be used, the effective runway gradient, and

navigational fix, except that the Adminis, the ambient temperature and wind component existing at the time of take-off. (See

on a different basis where adequate opera$$ 4T.123 (a) (3) and 4T.743 (a).) If the take-off distance includes a clearway as de

tional safeguards are found to exist. fined in Item 5 of this regulation, the takeoff distance shall not include a clearway distance greater than one-half of the take-off

as the alternate. run.

(d) No airplane shall be operated outside the operational limits specified in the Air

versely affect the flight path. plane Flight Manual. (See $$ 4T.123 (a) (4) and 4T.743 (a).)

40T.82 Take-of obstacle clearance limitations. No airplane shall be taken off at a weight in excess of that shown in the Airplane Flight Manual to correspond with a safe procedure.

(iv) An approved method shall be used to

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(vi) The alternate airport shall be specified in the dispatch release and shall meet the prescribed weather minima.

(vii) The consumption of fuel and oil after the engine becomes inoperative shall be that which is accounted for in the net light path data shown in the Airplane Flight Manual.

(b) Two engines inoperative. No airplane shall be flown along an intended route except in compliance with either subparagraph (1) or subparagraph (2) of this paragraph.

(1) No place along the intended track hall be more than 90 minutes away from an virport at which a landing can be made in iccordance with the provisions of $ 40T.84 'b), assuming all engines to be operating at ruising power.

(2) No airplane shall be taken off at a Teight in excess of that which, according to he two-engine-inoperative en route net ight path data shown in the Airplane Flight fanual, will permit the airplane to continue ight from the point where two engines are ssumed to fall simultaneously to an airport here a landing can be made in accordance ith the provisions of $ 40T.84 (b), the net Ight path having a positive slope at an Ititude of at least 1,000 feet above all terrain ad obstructions along the route within 5 iles on either side of the intended track : at an altitude of 2,000 feet, whichever is gher. The net flight path considered shall for the ambient temperatures anticipated ong the route. The provisions of subdisions (1) through (11) of this subparaaph shall apply. (See $$ 4T.123 (b) and 1.743 (b).) (1) The two engines shall be assumed to il at the most critical point along the route. (11) The airplane's weight at the point here the two engines are assumed to fall all be considered to be not less than that ich would include suficient fuel to proceed the airport and to arrive there at an altide of at least 1,500 feet directly over the iding area and thereafter to fly for 15 nutes at cruise power and/or thrust. (iii) The consumption of fuel and oil after 2 engines become inoperative shall be that ich is accounted for in the net flight path a shown in the Airplane Flight Manual. OT.84 Landing limitations-(a) Airport destination. No airplane shall be taken at a weight in excess of that which, in ordance with the landing distances shown the Airplane Flight Manual for the eleion of the airport of intended destination 1 for the wind conditions anticipated re at the time of landing, would permit

airplane to be brought to rest at the sort of intended destination within 60 cent of the effective length of the runway n a point 50 feet directly above the interion of the obstruction clearance plane

the runway. The weight of the airplane u be assumed to be reduced by the weight he fuel and oil expected to be consumed light to the airport of intended destina• Compliance shall be shown with the

conditions of subparagraphs (1) and (2) of this paragraph. (See $$ 4T.123 (b) and 41.743 (b)).

(1) It shall be assumed that the airplane is landed on the most favorable runway and direction in still air.

(2) It shall be assumed that the airplane is landed on the most suitable runway considering the probable wind velocity and direction and taking due account of the ground handling characteristics of the airplane and of other conditions (1. e., landing aids, terrain, etc.). If full compliance with the provisions of this subparagraph is not shown, the airplane may be taken off if an alternate airport is designated which permits compliance with paragraph (b) of this section.

(b) Alternate airport. No airport shall be designated as an alternate airport in a dispatch release unless the airplane at the weight anticipated at the time of arrival at such airport can comply with the provisions of paragraph (a) of this section, provided that the airplane can be brought to rest within 70 percent of the effective length of the runway.

4. In lieu of $ 43.11 of Part 43 of the Civil Air Regulations, the following shall be applicable:

43T.11 Transport category airplane weight limitations. The performance data in the Airplane Flight Manual shall be applied in determining compliance with the following provisions:

(a) No airplane shall be taken off at a weight which exceeds the take-off weight specified in the Airplane Flight Manual for the elevation of the airport and for the ambient temperature existing at the time of the take-off. (See $$ 4T.123 (a) (1) and 41.743 (a).)

(b) No airplane shall be taken off at a weight such that, allowing for normal consumption of fuel and oil in flight to the airport of destination and to the alternate airports, the weight on arrival will exceed the landing weight specified in the Airplane Flight Manual for the elevation of each of the airports involved and for the ambient temperatures anticipated at the time of landing. (See $ $ 4T.123 (a) (2) and 41.743 (a).)

(c) No airplane shall be taken off at a weight which exceeds the weight shown in the Airplane Flight Manual to correspond with the minimum distances required for take-off. These distances shall correspond with the elevation of the airport, the runway to be used, the effective runway gradient, and the ambient temperature and wind component existing at the time of take-off. (See $ $ 4T.123 (a) (3) and 4T.743 (a).) If the take-off distance includes a clearway as defined in Item 5 of this regulation, the takeoff distance shall not include a clearway distance greater than one-half of the take-off run.

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