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tion, and still more by the firmness mani- | public career. One great duty still refested by Washington amid the violence mained to be done. It was to give his of adversaries, and the silence of friends, parting counsels to the country which he for the moment overpowered, took their had so truly loved and cherished, served turn at petitioning, and sent into the House and saved. such an array of names, as supported by But the arewell Address of the Father the eloquence of Fisher Ames, so far of his country is still so generally and broke down the spirit of the opposition as affectionately kept in the memory of the to obtain a partial withdrawal of the pre- American people, that it is not necessary tensions of the Representatives, and the here to dwell on its doctrines. They were passage, by a small majority, of the neces- the same as the principles of his Adminissary laws for carrying the treaty into oper- tration, which we have endeavored briefly ation.
to delineate. With a wisdom which time This last and crowning measure of the has hallowed, while it has not surpassed, foreign policy of the Administration, put he urged first upon his countrymen the off the war with Great Britain until the importance of the union of the States, year 1812. If it furnished a pretext for saying, “ It is of infinite moment, that you those outrages of the French government should properly estimate the immense on American commerce and American value of your national union to your colcitizens, which afterwards jeopardized the lective and individual happiness; that you peace of the country, it was only owing to should cherish a cordial, habitual, and the culpable backwardness of Mir. Monroe immovable attachment to it; accustoming to explain the views of the Administration yourselves to think and speak of it as of in negotiating a treaty to which he was the palladium of your political safety and himself opposed, together with that reck- prosperity ; watching for its preservation less disregard of right, and thirst for with jealous anxiety; discountenancing plunder, which characterized the rise and whatever may suggest even a suspicion, fall of what was called the Republic of that it can in any event be abandoned ; France. The long wished for period, and indignantly frowning upon the first therefore had now arrived, when the new dawning of every attempt to alienate any ly launched vessel of the American State, portion of our country from the rest, or to having been safely conducted out of port, enfeeble the sacred ties which now link and ridden out the storms, not a spar together the various parts." Besides these gone, which had greeted her appearance means for preserving the unity of the naon the ocean she was destined so proudly tion, Washington habitually insisted upon to sail, the pilot felt at liberty to leave the duty of every citizen to stand by the the helm. It was the wish, it is believed, Constitution, and the government estabof a large majority of the people that lished under it, respecting its authority, Washington should continue in office still complying with its laws, and discounteanother term.
He was pressed by nu- nancing not only all acts of direct dismerous solicitations to do so. But the obedience, all associations designed to critical period of the national affairs, which counteract or control the action of the conhad induced him to accept a second elec- stituted authorities, but also that spirit of tion, was overpassed. Neither Mr. Jeffer- innovation, which, under the forms of law, son nor any one else any longer “trembled” might insidiously undermine those great for the success of the experiment of self- pillars of the State, which it could not government. He had even gone so far presume directly to overthrow. Against as to declare, two years before, that the the baneful effects of party spirit, and the President was “getting into his dotage.” | insidious wiles of foreign influence, he also But it was in the prime of a vigor which raised his warning voice. Would that it death alone could abate, although more
had been better heeded! The danger, wearied, indeed, by the contests and too, of a despotic usurpation of power by calumnies of party than when he had be any single department of government enfore retired from service against the ene- croaching upon the others, was pointed mies of his country in ihe field, that out by the President, who never but once Washington now prepared to close up his applied his veto; and also, of becoming
entangled in European alliances, by him well to govern it. Fully convinced that who founded the American policy of neu- the character of the government would trality, as independent as peaceful. “I ever depend essentially upon the character want an American character, that the pow- of those who administered it, Washington ers of Europe may be convinced that we was in favor of a Wittmagemot or rule of act for ourselves, and not for others,” said Wise Men, statesmen thoroughly trained Washington, on another occasion ; and in the school of learning and the school of this was the burden of his present counc experience, and such as could not be exsels. But as it was not by the name of pected to spring up spontaneously out of Repudiators, that he wished his country- the earth, like demagogues and mushmen to be known among the nations, he rooms, The great importance of a pure did not fail to say to them, with his last native literature in shaping and elevating words, "cherish public credit.” Pay your the current opinions, the distinctive chardebts, even to the last half-penny, provide acter, the permanent policy and final des
, sufficient and permanent revenues, consent tiny of a people, was highly estimated by to taxation, were maxims with this states- Washington ; nor could his estimate hav man, whose mind was sufficiently unsophis- been lower, if
, from this point of time, he ticated to see a distinction between right could trace back the destructive career of
An instance is on record, French revolution to the licentious school showing that Washington could not even of writing founded by Voltaire and Rousendure the near company of a man who seau, or the happy permanence of English had dishonored his promise to pay; with institutions to the patriotic, conservative what chagrin then, it may be inferred, tone of her men of letters from the days would he have acknowledged his relation of Chaucer and Lord Bacon. Found a ship to States, to whom could be applied military academy, continued the same farwith the least degree of justice, the hyper- sighted sagacity, in order that when the bole, that they "preferred any load of day of battle comes, the armies of the reinfamy, however great, to any burden of public may be led into the field by a skill taxation, however light.” He ever ad- which shall not be second to that taught ministered public affairs on the principles in the schools, and honored in the service, of private morality. At the end of forty- of kings. “I want an American characfive years in the service of the State, he ter.” Lay the foundations of a navy, to had learned no other rule. Accordingly, be gradually increased with the national in closing his career, he could teach no prosperity, that to whatever seas, civilized higher wisdom than to point to honesty, or barbarian, the flag of America may be virtue, religion, as the only living springs borne, it may float over decks on which of free institutions. “I want an American her sons traffic in security, or fight with character ;" therefore employ means for fame. To protection, to commerce, add the diffusion of knowledge among the legislative protection to agriculture, nurse people. “The time is come,” said he in of steady babits and uncorrupted hearts. 1795, "when a plan of universal educa- Add it, said Washington's last speech to tion ought to be adopted in the United Congress, to domestic manufactures, that States. Establish a national university, the United States may become an indewas a recommendation frequently repeat-pendent nation within themselves; and, ed in his speeches to Congress, in order while maintaining liberal principles of inthat the American youth, coming up from tercourse with foreign powers, may oball sections to one Alma Mater, may form serve such a wise care of native interests those bonds of early friendship which time as shall eventually build up in this broad shall transmute into bonds of the State ; land of plains and prairies, rivers and lakes, that the patriotism of the most promising coasts and mountains, a home where one minds may not be contaminated by learn- distinct family of mankind, secure in the ing the higher arts and sciences in foreign practice of all the arts, and happy in the lands; that there may always be perma- enjoyment of all the blessings of the most nent provision in the country for rearing perfect civilization, may dwell in perpestatesmen fitted, by the possession of lib- tuity. eral knowledge and republican principles, Washington now descended from the
was never more
elevated office which he had received, Mr. Giles, of Virginia, opposed its adopheld and resigned in a manner that, as tion, and declared that “ he did not regret has been well said, changed mankind's the President's retiring from office. He ideas of political greatness. The success believed there were a thousand men in the which attended and followed his Adminis- United States, who were capable of filling tration was as remarkable, as the wisdom the presidential chair as well as it had of its principles is enduring. “The na
been filled heretofore." And among the tion,” says Mr. Sparks,
the names of the eleven who voted with prosperous than when Washington was at him, is recorded that of a youthful soldier, its head. Credit was restored, and estab- destined afterwards to receive the highest lished on a sound basis ; the public debt honors of his country, and who thus early was secured, and its ultimate payment showed that, with all his noble qualities, provided for ; commerce had increased he was capable of being misled by ignoble beyond any former example; the amount advisers, and of being made the instruof tonnage in the ports of the United ment of calling into existence a party not States had nearly doubled ; the imports unlike that of which he was then a memand exports had augmented in a consider-ber.
/ The so-called democracy of the ably larger ratio ; and the revenue was present day lays claim, indeed, to an earlier much more abundant than had been ex- origin, and avow themselves to be the pected. The war with the Indians was lineal descendants of those opponents of conducted to a successful issue; and a Washington, whose course has been curpeace was concluded, which promised sorily sketched in these pages. Most quiet to the frontier inhabitants, and ad-cheerfully, we will add, might the honors vantages to the uncivilized tribes. Treat- of such an ancestry be allowed, if they ies had been made with foreign powers,
were really due. Indeed, we know not in which long-standing disputes were why we should be very strenuous in gainamicably settled, contending claims ad- saying the ambitious vanity which would justed, and important privileges gained to trace back its pedigree to those Democrathe United States. The relations with tic Societies, which, fathered by Citizen
| France alone remained in a state of incer- Genet, approved of the excesses of the titude and perplexity; and this was owing Reign of Terror, and which Wasbington to the condition of affairs in Europe, and characterized as “a most diabolical atnot to anything that had grown out of the tempt to destroy the best fabric of human acts or policy of the American govern- government and happiness that has ever
been presented for the acceptance of manWhether the country would have been kind.” They boast of their popular name; equally prosperous, if Washington had de- let them remember that, when first adoptserted his high-toned principles to take up ed in this country, the name of Democrat the time-serving expedients of the opposi- was synonymous with that of Jacobin. tion party, is a question we leave to the They claim to be the original Jeffersonidemagogues to decide, if they like. But ans. Yes; begotten when Thomas Jefas there are warnings to be taken from the ferson led the party of opposition against wicked, as well as wisdom to be learned George Washington; when he subsidized of the good, we cannot forbear noticing such libellers as the Frenchman, Freneau, the fact, that this party, while it stopped and the Scotchman, Callender; when for the most part, its abuse of the charac-scorning to descend personally into what ter and conduct of Washington, the mo- he called the “bear-garden of newspaper ment his intention of retiring from office controversy,” he nevertheless did not diswas made public, still retained its venom dain to urge upon his correspondents the and its sting to the last. When at the necessity of sustaining, as the only means close of the Administration, it was pro- of preventing their party from being “enposed in the House of Representatives to tirely brow beaten,” the calumniating col. present to the retiring President an ad- umns of the National Gazette and the Aurodress expressive of respect for his services, ra—papers, which Washington a short time
before had declared “outrages on common * Washington's Writings, vol. i.
decency,” and the latter of which, charg
ing him with overdrawing his salary, with | President, you will leave him without exthe connivance of both the first and second cuse, you will enlighten the Americans, Secretaries of the Treasury, concluded one and decide a contrary choice at the next of its tirades with the question, “ Will not election. All the wrongs of which France the world be led to conclude that the may have to complain will then be remask of political hypocrisy has been alike paired ;” and, finally, when he gave the worn by a Cæsar, a Cromwell, and a shelter of his roof to Tom Paine, from Washington ?" Yes; Jeffersonians be patriot turned reviler, that he might begotten at Monticello when its possessor neath it prosecute those "useful labors,". instead of living as was professed" like an which subsequently induced a President of antediluvian patriarch among his children the United States to request the honor of and grandchildren, and tilling his soil," his accepting an invitation to take passage was engaged in directing the attacks of from France to America in a national the opposition newspapers, preparing ship, and among which was the penning draughts of Congressional bills, resolu- of sentences addressed to Washington, tions, and reports in counteraction of the similar to the following : “ As to you, sir, policy of the government, and conducting treacherous in private friendship and a that system of political correspondence hypocrite in public life, the world will be and consultation whereby he lost the con- puzzled to decide, whether you are an fidence and the friendship of Washington. apostate or an impostor; whether you have Heirs of Jefferson, when Jefferson was a abandoned good principles or whether politician, not a President. James Madi- you ever had any.
Edmund Randolph, son, too, is another of their fathers. Yes; let it be granted without dispute, was a when he was another of the opponents of democrat; although his predecessor in the the first Administration, leading the lead- office of Secretary of State complained ers of the party by his metaphysical sub- that he was not a sufficiently thoroughtleties, and yet, with all his caution, so going one; for he not only divided the countenancing the excesses of more vulgar oyster and the shell, but he gave the latand violent partisans, that a Jacobin club ter to his friends and the former to his in South Carolina were emboldened to enemies; his professions to the one, his dishonor his name by calling themselves practice to the other. Thankful are we “ The Madisonian.” And does James that all these statesmen, save the last, Monroe, also, belong to the democrats ? lived to render such eminent services to Yes; when, and only when, he pro- their country, as to turn the edge of the nounced the policy of Washington to be censure, which history must ever mete out "short-sighted and bad;" when, instead to them in reviewing this portion of their of presenting to the authorities at Paris
For these labors let them to the the views of the Administration which sent latest times receive the nation's praise; and him there, he gave to the Directory the this shall be all the more valuable for disfollowing more "prudent advice," as M. criminating between the good and the Thiers calls it, “By patiently enduring, on evil they did, both of which have lived the contrary, the wrongs of the present I after them.
J. M. M.
He sings as he comes.
At his breast a rose
Which a mocking smile denies.
Your eyes, too, so gaily shine ?”. “ 'Tis the kisses I've had this morning, love,
And from lips as sweet as thine.” “ And whence," with a rosier blush she asks,
“Whence got ye that posy gay ?”. And the smile forced up to her trembling lip,
Like a zephyr, has passed away.
Now mantling thy cheek so fair,
The flower on my breast I wear.
“What form doth my Janet more beauteous see,
Than the rose-tree newly blown ?
As my Janet once gave her own.”
“ And the kisses ?” with tremulous voice she asks;
“Oh, the kisses were Zephyr's, divine ! But 'twas false"--and he pressed her yielding lip, “To say they were sweet as thine.”
A. M. W.