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provided for, either directly by the internal improvement companies themselves, for whose benefit the State stock was issued, or from the proceeds of the said companies' works paid annually into the State treasury; thus leaving a principal sum of about $ 7,000,000 as the sole burden on the people for which taxes have to be levied. As the actual state of things is so much improved from year to year, it is evident that the security to the creditor increases constantly, and the only apprehension is, that the Legislature should begin too soon to reduce the taxes. At present, there seems no good ground for any such fear, and the prevailing feeling among all the citizens of Maryland is an anxious desire to pay off the State debt as soon as possible. No one is now willing by any premature measure, for the sake of partial relief, to risk the credit which is already established. A sounder state of public feeling cannot anywhere be found. The six per cent. currency stocks of the State have been for a long time above par, and those bearing a lower rate of interest keep the same proportion.

The annual receipts into the treasury are about $ 1,100,000, and the expenditures on all accounts less than $ 900,000. The direct taxes yield about $ 520,000, and the remainder of the income is derived from the internal improvement companies and a variety of indirect taxes.

State Penitentiary, Baltimore. — Isaac M. Denson, Warden. — Number of prisoners, Nov. 30, 1847, 281. Discharged during the year, by expiration of sentence, 85; by pardon, 14; by death, 8; and by escape, 1; in all, 108. Admitted during the year, 85. Remaining in the prison Nov. 30, 1848, 258 :- whites, 129; males, 120, females, 9: colored, 129; males, 101, females, 28. Of the 85 received during the year, 53 were natives of Maryland, 11 of other States, and 21 were foreigners. There were 41 white males, and 2 females; 30 colored males, and 12 females. Of the 258 in prison at the end of the year,

7 were committed for murder, 10 for murder in second degree, 5 for manslaughter, 6 for assault with intent to kill, 2 for rape, 6 for arson, 14 for burglary, 9 for larceny, 78 for stealing, 85 for felony, 1 for passing counterfeit money, 4 for forgery, 1 for perjury, 1 for enticing and 2 for assisting slaves to run away. 175 were natives of Maryland, 38 of other States, and 45 were foreigners.

Before imprisonment, 32 were laborers, 35 were farmers and farm-laborers, 23 were house servants, 14 were sailors, 4 were clerks, and I was a schoolmaster. Of all prisoners admitted since Dec. 4, 1840, 208 can neither read nor write; 74 can read only; 242 can read and write; 64 had an English, and 4 a classical education, and 220 had attended Sunday schools. 235 were left orphans at various ages, 221 were never bound out, 63 were bound out and left their masters, 119 served until 21. There were 329 unmarried, 143 married, and 43 widows and widowers. There were 78 not habitual drunkards, but drunk when committing the offence, 183 intemperate, and 287 who reported themselves as being of sober habits. The expenses of the prison for the year 1848 were $ 39,354.05. The earnings $ 26,406.14. Deficit, $ 12,947.91. The prisoners are employed generally in weaving, dyeing, cording and spinning, and in making shoes, &c.

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Government for the Year 1850.

Term ends. Salary. John B. FLOYD, of Washington Co., Governor, Jan. 1, 1852, $3,333 *John M. Patton, of Richmond, Councillor of State, Mar. 31, '50, 1,000 Raleigh T. Daniel, of Richmond,

Mar. 31, '51, 1,000 John F. Wiley, of Amelia Co.,

Mar. 31, 252, 1,000 Fabius M. Lawson, of Richmond, Treasurer,

2,000 James E. Heath, of Richmond, Auditor of Public Accounts,

2,000 James Brown, Jr., of Richmond, 2d Aud. &. Sup't Literary Fund, 2,000

* Acting Lieutenant-Governor in the absence of the Governor.


Salary. Stafford H. Parker, of Richmond, Register of the Land-Office, $ 2,000 Sidney S. Baxter, of Richmond, Attorney-General, Fees and 1,000 W. H. Richardson, of Henrico Co., Secretary of the Commonwealth,

Adjutant-Gen., and Librarian, 1,720 Thomas F.Lawson, of Richmond, Clerk of the Council and Sup't

of Weights and Measures, 1,300 Charles S. Morgan, of Richmond, Superintendent of Penitentiary, 2,000 Edward P. Scott, of Greenville, Speaker of the Senate. Henry L. Hopkins, of Powhatan, Speaker of the House. Geo. W. Mumford, of Richmond, Clerk of the House. A. G. Hansford,

Clerk of the Senate.
The Governor, Treasurer, Auditor, 2d Auditor, and Register of the
Land-Office are, ex officio, members of the Board of Public Works, Literary
Fund, Northwestern and Southwestern Turnpike Roads, and Blue Ridge
Railroad Company. They do not receive extra compensation for this service.

Court of Appeals.

Salary. William H. Cabell, of Richmond, President, 1830, $ 2,750 Francis T. Brooke, of Spotsylvania Co., Judge, 1830, 2,500 John J. Allen, of Botetourt Co.,

1840, 2,500 Briscoe G. Baldwin, of Staunton,

1842, 2,500 William Daniel, of Lynchburg,

1846, 2,500 Joseph Allen, of Richmond, Clerk of the Eastern Circuit, 1,000 John A. North, of Lewisburg, Clerk of the Western Circuit, 1,000

The judges are entitled to receive, in addition to their salaries, 25 cents a mile for necessary travel. The Court of Appeals holds two sessions annually; one at Lewisburg, Greenbrier county, for the counties lying west of the Blue Ridge, commencing on the 2d Monday in July, and continuing 90 days, unless the business shall be sooner despatched; the other at Richmond, for the counties lying east of the Blue Ridge, commencing at such times as the court may from time to time appoint.

Superior Court. - The State is divided into ten judicial districts, and each district into two circuits, except the 4th, which has three. The 3d circuit of the 4th district is the 21st district of the State, containing but a single court, called the Circuit Superior Court of Law and Chancery for the County of Henrico and City of Richmond.” In this court there are two judges; one on the law side, with a salary of $1,800; the other on the chancery side, with a salary of $ 2,000. On the disqualification of either of the two judges now attached to this court, his duties are to devolve on the other, without increase of salary. In the other circuits, each judge bas chancery and common law jurisdiction, with a salary of $1,500, and $4 for every 20 miles of necessary travel. A Circuit Superior Court of Law and Chancery is held twice every year in each county, and in some corpoations. The five senior judges — namely, Judges Smith, Field, Lomas, Scott, and Leigh, of the old General (now Circuit) Court - constitute a


Special Court of Appeals, and also the General Court, which holds two $ terms every year at the court-house in Richmond. One term begins the

last Monday in June, and the other the last Monday in December. The General Court has appellate jurisdiction in the last resort in criminal cases ; also, original jurisdiction of probates and administrations; and where the judges of the Court of Appeals proper are disqualified by interest, or otherwise, some of them sit as a Special Court of Appeals.

County Courts. — A court sits in each county every month, held by four or more justices of the peace. These courts, held by plain farmers or country gentlemen, have a jurisdiction wider than that of any other court in the State. Any one justice can hold a court in cases under $ 20 in value. At the monthly or quarterly sessions, held by four or more justices, deeds and wills may be proved, and chancery matters and suits at common law be heard, - with a right of appeal to a superior court.

These courts, exclusively, try slaves for all offences; and they examine free persons charged with felony, previously to their trial in the Circuit Court. Free negroes and Indians are on the same footing with slaves.

Judges of the Circuit Courts.


Residence. 1. Richard H. Baker, of Nansemond Co. 12. L. P. Thompson, of Staunton. 2. John W. Nash, of Powhatan Co. 13. Isaac R. Douglass, of Morgan Co. 3. Geo. P. Scarburg, of Accomac. 14. Daniel Smith, of Rockingham Co. 4. J. B. Christian, of Charles City Co. 15. Benjamin Estell, of Wythe Co. 5. John T. Lomax, of Fredericsburg.

16. James E. Brown, of Wythe Co. 6. John Scott,* of Fauquier Co. 17. Edward Johnston, of Botetourt Co. 7. John B. Clopton, of Richmond. 18. George H. Lee, of Harrison Co. 8. Daniel A. Wilson, of Cumberland Co. 19. D. W. McComas, of Wythe Co. 9. William Leigh,

of Halifax Co. 20. Joseph L. Fry, of Wheeling. 10. N. M. Taliaferro, of Franklin Co.


John Robertson, of Richmond. 11. Richard H. Field, of Culpeper Co.



For the Year ending November, 1848.
The aggregate debt of Virginia is as follows:
Revolutionary War debt, bearing 6 per cent. interest,

War debt of 1812,

319,000.00 Int. improvement debt, 6

6,185,321.20 5

1,365,000.00 54

25,300.00 Debt for subscription to bank stock,

450, 107.00

$ 8,368,767.37 But of this there is held by State agents, under the control of

the Legislature, By Literary Fund,

$ 1,020,106.50 By Board of Public Works,

354,623.41 By Commissioners of Sinking Fund, .


1,464,876.07 Which makes the actual debt of Virginia,

$ 6,903,891.30 * Judge Scott is also judge of the Superior Court of the Alexandria District, and receives for this duty $500 additional salary.

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$ 2,170,299.21 of this debt is held in Great Britain, and $ 40,600 in France and Germany; the balance in this country, - mostly in Virginia. The State is also liable, condi. tionally, for guarantied bonds, – for internal improvements, –$6,031,739.76. The productive property of the State, consisting of stocks and debts due, is $6,107,633.36 Property not now productive,

5,409,706.00 Total funds held by the State,

$11,517,340.28 The net receipts from taxes during the year were $ 596,931.44, being an increase over the previous year of $ 23,440.86. Chief Items of Expenditure.

Investments out of surplus divi’nd, $17,327.52 General Assembly, $ 108,926.86 Contingent fund,

10,163,62 Officers of government, 91,202.63 General appropriations,

29,133.03 Interest on the public debt, 502,591.55 Miscellaneous accounts,

56,185.07 Criminal charges,


Chief Items of Receipts. Penitentiary,

23,762.47 Ordinary revenue and taxation, . $596,873.91 Contingent expenses of courts, 31,037.11 Militia fines, .

12,246.26 Expenses of militia, repairs of

Taxes on law process, seals, wills, arms, &c., 27,886.59 deeds, &c.,

37,381.74 Military School at Lexington, 13,000.00 Tax from dividends,

5,330.92 Expenses of public guard at Rich

Dividends from bank stocks, 264,960.65 mond,

21,210.11 Dividends from joint stock comCommissioners of Revenue, 32,014.64 panies (internal improvements), 83,279.04 Lunatics,

70,433.49 Interest on loans, bonds, &c., 155,669.73 Deaf, dumb, and blind,

25,160.69 Annuity from J. R. and Kan. Co., 21,000.00 School quotas,

69,503.22 Bonus on capital of banks, 45,895.86 Annuity to University of Virginia,

Loans obtained for subscriptions to (Charlottesville,) 15,000.00 internal improvements,

138,465.27 Appropriations and subscriptions

On account of permanent capital to sundry roads, 216,114.25 of literary fund,

10,833.20 Dividends to Stockholders of Old

On account of permanent capital James River Co., 20,730.00 of Dawson fund,

5,678.38 Taxes for 1848. Taxes on lots, $ 59,938.36 Bridges,

8292.50 Lands, 192,459.62 Ferries,

141.36 $ 252,397.98 Newspapers, .

355.00 251,840 slaves, at 32 cents, 80,588.80

Collateral inheritances,

1,043.57 309,962 horses, &c., at 10 cts., 30,996.20 9,938 gold watches, at $ 1, 9,938.00

461,188.63 4,613 patent lever silver watches, at

Licenses to merchants, &c., $116.877.41 2,306.50 peddlers,

5,891.25 12,918 silver watches, at 25 cts., 3,229.50

ordinary keepers, 20,747.79 29,512 metallic clocks, at 25 cts., 7,378.00

houses of private enter36,483 other clocks, at 124 cts., 4,560.37


3,508.89 13,907 carriages, at lt per cent., 22,557.98

venders of lottery tick., 22,000.00 291.45

exhibitors of shows, 2,159.00 2,039 carryalls,

insurance offices,

3,368.07 3,631 gigs,


owners of allions, 5,778.64 3,504 pianos,

dentists, additional,

40.00 7 harps,


3,408.38 Gold or silver plate,

ten-pin alleys, .

663.83 Interest on money lent,

13,459.74 Income tax over $ 400, 4,328.07

615,631.44 Attorneys,

5,320.00 Expenses of collection, and inPhysicians,

48,700.00 Dentists, 355.00



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Schools. - Number of schools in 122 counties and towns, 3,394; number of poor children in 122 counties and towns, 63,846 ; total number of poor children educated in 121 counties and towns, 26,472, Amount expended for tuition of poor children, including books, compensation to officers, and all other expenses, $ 61,830.59. Average actual attendance of each poor child at common schools, 571 days, equal to nearly 114 weeks. Average amount paid for tuition of each poor child, $2.33. Average cost per diem of tuition and expenses of each poor child, 45 cents.

View of the Population and Taxation in Virginia in the Years mentioned. Population.


1830. 1840. 1847. White,

694,302 740,968

Land &


469,755 448,988 erty tax, $ 306,849.05 371,142.47 452,850.22 Free Black,


White, 157,234.00 169,725.00 193,219.00 Total, . 1,211,406

227,333.00 By U. S. census, 1,023,506 1,060,2021

48,841 Tithables.

1,238,797| Black,


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Government for the Year 1850. CHARLES Manly, of Hillsbordugh, Governor (term of office, from Salary. Jan. 1, 1849, to Jan. 1, 1851),

A furnished house and $2,000 William Hill, of Raleigh, Secretary of State, $ 800 and Fees. Charles L. Hinton, of Wake Co., Treasurer,

1,500 Stephen Birdsall, of Raleigh, Clerk of the Treas. Dep.,

500 William F. Collins, of Chatham Co., Comptroller,

1,000 Andrew Joyner,

of Halifax Co., Speaker of the Senate. Robert B. Gilliam, of Granville Co., Speaker of the House of Commons.

Council of State. — Lewis Bond, of Bertie Co.; Joshua Tayloe, of Beau-
fort; Nat. T. Green, of Warren ; Charles L. Paine, of Davidson Co.; John
Winslow, of Cumberland Co.; Thomas A. Allison, of Iredell Co.; and
Adolphus L. Erwin, of McDowell Co.
Pay, $3 per diem while in service, and $ 3 for every 30 miles' travelling.

Supreme Court.

Salary. Thomas Ruffin, of Orange Co., Chief Justice,

$ 2,500 Frederic Nash, of Hillsborough, Associate Justice,

2,500 Rich. M. Pearson, of Surry Co.,

2,500 James Iredell, of Raleigh,


300 Edm. B. Freeman, of Raleigh,

Clerk at Raleigh. James R. Dodge, of Morgantown,

Clerk at Morgantown. The Supreme Court holds three sessions in each year; two in the city of Raleigh, to wit, on the 2d Monday in June and the last Monday in December, — and one at Morgantown, on the first Monday of August, for the western part of the State; and continues to sit at each term until all the

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