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Fate, fir, fall, fật; mẻ, mệt; pine or pine, pin; nồ, nỗt; bỏ as in good:
Hen'-DRICKS, a co. in the W. central part of Ind., W. of Indianapolis. Pop. 11,264. Co. t. Danville.
HEN-Ril.co, a co. in the E. part of Va., bordering on James r. Pop. 33,076. Co. t. Richmond.
HENRY, a co. in the S. part of Va., bordering on N. C. Pop. 7,335. Co. t. Martinsville.
HENRY, a co. in the N. W. central part of Ga., bordering on the Ocmulgee r. Pop. 11,756. Co. t. McDonough.
HENRY, a co. forming the S. E. extremity of Ala. Pop. 5,787. Co. t. Columbia.
HENRY; a co. in the N. W. part of Tenn., bordering on the Tennessee r. Pop. 14,906. Co. t. Paris.
Henry, a co. in the N. part of Ky., bordering on the Kentucky r. Pop. 10,015. Co. t. New Castle.
Henry, a co. near the N. W. extremity of Ohio, intersected by the Maumee r. Pop. 2,543. Co. t. Damascus.
Henry, a co. in the E. part of Ind., intersected by the Blue r., a branch of the E. fork of the White r. Pop. 15,128. Co. t. New Castle.
HENRY, a co. in the N. W. part of III., bordering on Rock r. Pop. 1,260.
HENRY, a co. in the W. part of Mo., N. of Osage r. Henry, a co. in the S. E. part of Iowa, intersected by Skunk r. Pop. 3,772.
Herat, her-åt or her-åt'h', a large fortified city of Persia, situated in the midst of a populous and highly cultivated valley. The streets are narrow and irregular, and the houses mostly of brick. Herat is the centre of an extensive commerce, and possesses flourishing manufactures. The rose-water made here is held in high estimation. This town is the capital of the kingdom of Herat, which is tributary to the king of Persia. Lat about 31° 30' N., Lon. 61° 10' E. Pop., including that of the suburbs, estimated at 100,000. (B.)
HÉRAULT, a-ról, a dep, in the S. of France, bordering on the Mediterranean, and intersected by a small river of the same name. Pop. 357,846. Capital, Montpellier.
HERCULANEUM. See Pompeu.
Herl-E-FORD, an ancient city of England, cap. of Herefordshire, is situated on the r. Wye, 115 m. W. N. W. of London. Lat. 52° 3' N., Lon. 2° 43' W. Pop., including the liberties, 10,921.:
HERS-E-FÇRD-SHIRE, a co. in the W. of England, bordering on Wales, Pop. 113,878.
HERI-KIM-Er, a co. in the N. E. central part of N. Y., intersected by the Mohawk r. Pop. 37,477. Co. t. Herkimer.
HERMANSTADT, hérl-mản-stått, (Hung. Nagy-Szeben nödy sà-ben,) an important t., formerly the cap. of Transylvania, is situated about 72 m. S. by E. from Klausenburg. It is the chief t. of the Saxon settlers in Transylvania, and contains a national museum, two gymnasia, and several other institutions. Lat. 45° 48' N., Lon. 24° 7' E. Pop. above 18,000. (B.)
ou, as in our; th, as in thin; th, as in this; n, nearly like ng. HERRNHUT, herrn'-hoot, a little t. in the kingdom of Saxony, founded by count Zinzendorf, in 1722, remarkable as the earliest and most important settlement of the Moravian brethren.
HERSFELD, hêrs/-félt, a t. of Germany, in the electorate of HesseCassel, situated on the Fulda. Lat. 50° 51' N., Lon. 9° 41' E. Pop. 6,000. (B.)
HERTFORD, har/-ford, the cap. of Hertfordshire, England, on the r. Lea, 21 m. N. of London. Pop., including an area of about 5 sq. m., 5,450.
HÆRT'-FORD, a co. in the N. E. part of N. C., bordering on the Chowan r.
Pop. 7,484. Co. t. Winton. HERTFORDSHIRE, harl-ford-shịr, a co. in the S. E. central part of England, N. of London. Pop. 157,207.
Hesse-Cas-sỆl (Ger. Hessen Cassel, hesl-sen kåsl-sel), an electorate of Germany, consisting of three distinct portions, the largest of which is situated between 50° 6' and 51° 39' N. Lat., and 8° 25' and 10° 15' E. Lon. One of the others lies a little to the E., intersected by the parallel of 50° 45' N. Lat., and by the meridian of 10° 25' E. Lon.; the third is farther N., being intersected by a line drawn in 52° 20' N. Lat. ; it is surrounded by Hanover and Lippe. The area of the whole is 4,350 eq. m.; entire pop. in 1835, 700,533. (P. C.) The government of Hesse-Cassel may be styled a limited monarchy, of which the head still retains the title of elector, although there is now no emperor of Germany, so that the dignity is merely nominal. Cassel is the capital.
HESSE-DARMSTADT, hess darml-stått, a grand-duchy of Germany, consisting principally of two large portions, sepa rated from each other by a long strip of land, belonging to Frankfort and Hesse-Cassel, and situated between 49° 23' and 50° 50' N. Lat., and 7° 5')' and 9° 36' E. Lon. The area of the whole is about 5,000 sq. m. Entire pop. 718,000. (P. C.) Darmstadt is the capital.
Hesse-Hom/-BURG (Ger. Hessen Homburg, hes/-sen hom!-bõõrg), a landgraviate of Germany, consisting of two portions; viz., the lordship of Homburg, situated a little to the N. of Frankfort on the Main, and containing about 750 sq. m., with 8,800 inhabitants; and the lordship of Meisenheim (mil-zen-hime'), lying on the other side of the Rhine, between the Bavarian territory of the Rhine and the dominions of Prussia, with an area of 126 sq. m., and a pop. of 15,200. (P. C.) Homburg is the capital of the whole landgraviate, as well as of the lordship
HICK/-MAN, a co. in the W. central part of Tenn., intersected by Duck r. Pop. 8,618. Co. t. Vernon.
HICKMAN, a co. occupying the S. W. extremity of Ky. Pop. 8,968. Co. t. Columbus.
HIGH-LAND, a co. in the S. part of Ohio, E. of Cincinnati. Pop. 22,269. Co. t. Hillsborough.
High-LẠNDş (commonly pronounced in Scotland, heel-landz), a natural division of Scotland, comprehending the country to the N. and
of this name.
Fate, får, fåll, fåt; me, mét; plne or pine, pin; nd, nột; oo as in good; N. W., in contradistinction to the Lowlands, which occupy the S. and S. E. districts. The appellation of Highlands extends also to the Hebrides or Western Isles.
HIGHLANDS, a mountainous region of N. Y., lying on both sides of the Hudson, in the cos. of Orange, Putnam, and Dutchess, remarkable for its picturesque and romantic scenery.
HighTOWER. See Erowah.
HILDBURGHAUSEN, hilt/-bỏÕRG-houl-zen, a t. of Germany, in the duchy of Saxe-Meiningen-Hildburghausen, formerly the cap. of SaxeHildburghausen, is situated on the Werra. Lat. 50° 25' N., Lon. 10° 40' E. Pop. about 4,000. (B.)
HILDESHEIM, bill-des-hime', a t. of Germany, in Hanover, cap. of a principality of the same name, containing a Roman Catholic and a Protestant gymnasium, and several other institutions for education. Lat. 52° 9' N., Lon. 9° 56' E. Pop. 13,100. (P. C.)
Hills'-BO-ROUGU, a co. in the S. part of N. H., intersected by the Merrimack, and bordering on Mass. Pop. 42,494. Co. t. Amherst.
HILLSBOROUGH, a co. in the W. part of the peninsula of Florida, bordering on the Gulf of Mexico. Pop. 452.
Hills/-DALE, a co. in the S. of Mich., bordering on Ind. and Ohio. Pop. 7,240. Co. t. Jonesville.
HIMALAYAS, him'-a-lil-az, or HIMALAYA MOUNTAINS, extend along the N. E. border of Hindostan, and are situated between 27° and 35° N, Lat., and 73° and 99° E. Lon. The Dhawalaghiri (dạ-wall-a-gheri. re), in about 29° N. Lat., and between 83° and 84o E. Lon., is supposed to be the highest of the Himalayas, and of all the mountains in the world, having an elevation of 4,390 toises, or above 28,000 English ft. The Himalayas are also frequently called the HIMMALEH (him-Inål-leh) MOUNTAINS. Himalaya is a Sanscrit word, signifying the "abode of frost or snow.” Imaus, the name under which at least a part of this vast mountain range appears to have been known to the ancients, bad, according to Pliny, a similar signification.
Hin'-DOS-TAN', (i. e. in Persian, the "country of the Hindoos"), an extensive country in the S. of Asia, between 8° 4' and 35° N. Lal, and 67° and 91° E. Lon., extending from Cape Comorin, on the S., to the Himalaya Mountains on the N., and from the head of the Bay of Bengal, on the E., to the western border of the valley of Indus, on the W. The length, from N. to. S., is near 1,900 m.; breadth, from E. to W., between 1,400 and 1,500 m. The eastern boundary is not definitely fixed. If, as some propose, we allow the possessions of the East India Company to determine its extent in that quarter, we shall obviously violate the natural though somewhat vague distinction between India Proper and Farther India, since, in that case, we must comprise within the limits of Hindostan, a considerable part of that region styled " the Peninsula beyond the Ganges," or "India beyond the Ganges.". Malte Brun, who is justly regarded as one of the highest authorities in questions relating to geography, considers that region “which is watered by the Ganges and its tributaries," as properly belonging to Hindostan,
ou, as in our; th, as in thin ; TH, as in this ; n, nearly like ng. while he appears to include all the country immediately E. of this, in that division of Asia which he calls Chin India. It will be perceived that this is much the same as if he had made the head of the Bay of Bengal the eastern limit of Hindostan. The area of Hindostan is estimaled at above 1,000,000 sq. m. The number of inhabitants is computed to exceed one hundred millions. (E. G.) According to MalteBrun, the population of Hindostan is not less than 134,000,000; the P. C. estimates it at between 110,000,00) and 120,000,000. A large portion of this vast conntry is subject to the English. The East India Company shares with the king of Great Britain the sovereignty over almost all the provinces whicli combine to form the Anglo-Indian empire. This company, without possessing the title, enjoys nearly all the rights of royalty. Its authority, however, is dependent on the British Parliament, to which the officers of the East India government are directly responsible. The territory, under the administration of the company, is divided into three governments, designated as the presidency of Bengal, the presidency of Madras, and the presidency of Bombay. The inhabitants of Hindostan may be divided into three principal classes, viz.: the aborigines, the Asiatics of foreign extraction, and the Europeans. The first, or Hindoos, strictly speaking, are by far the most numerous. They are characterized by a multitude of peculiar customs and institutions, many of which appear to have been in existence from the most remote antiquity. Of these, one of the most remarkable is the distinction of caste.* The Hindoo writers recognise four pure and original castes, viz.: the brah'-mins or priests; the kshatriyas (shất'-re-ås) or soldiers, including the princes and sovereigns; the vaisyas (vil-se-ás), consisting of agriculturists and shepherds; and the sudras (sool-drås) or labourers. Besides these four original classes, there are a great number of impure races which have sprung from the mixture of the pure castes.
One of the best known is that of the pariahs (pål-re-ås), who form a very numerous class. They are among the most abject of all the people of Hindostan, and are often subjected to the most cruel and degrading servitude. The different races are kept distinct from each other by the most rigorous laws. No person, whatever be his merit or genius, can, in any case, rise above the caste in which he is born, though he may forfeit his birth-right by certain misdemeanors and crimes. It is not however, true, as has been frequently asserted, that every individual is obliged to marry in his own caste. A man is allowed to choose his wife out of any of the castes beneath him, but not from those above him. Thus a Brahmin may lawfully marry the daughter of a Sudra, though the offspring of such a marriage does not inherit the father's rank, but belongs to one of the mixed races. But a Sudra cannot form a legal marriage with the daughter of a Brahmin; and children sprung from such a union are considered far inferior in rank to those of a Brahmin and a Sudra woman. The ancient religion of the Hindoos is peculiar, and, in some respects, very remarkable; but
. From the Portuguese word casta, i. e. “race.”
Fate, får, fall, fåt; me, mét; pine or pine, pin; n), nòt; oo as in good; we must refer the reader to other sources for information on this point, as our limits will not permit us to enter upon a subject so intricate and extensive. We may, however, observe, that with the exception of the Brahmins, a majority of whom still adhere to the ancient faith, the sects into which the Hindoos are at present divided, are of comparitively modern origin; and that the various political changes resulting formerly, from the Mahometan, and, more lately, from the European conquests, by diminishing the authority of the Brahmins, have greatly contributed to the rise of new systems of belief among the corn on people, as well as facilitated the introduction of the religion of other nations. The number of Mahometans in Hindostan may be vaguely estimated at about 10,000,000. Most of these are supparel to be the descendants of Asiatic foreigners. It appears, however, that many of the Hindoos, without fully embracing the Moslem faith, bare allowed their original doctrines and practices to be considerably modfied by it. The two religions in some parts are on perfectly friendly terms, and the people apply frequently to one another's saints and drities, when their own appear to fail. The European inhabitants of fline dostan may be estimated at about 2,000,000. They are chietly the descendants of Portuguese. The British, though they are in actual. possession of nearly one-half of the country, and dictaie to more than three-fourths of it, are said not to exceed 60,000.-Adj. and inhab. Hin-Doo. HINDUSTANI or HINDOSTANEE, bin-dos-tål-ne, is an epithet ap plied to the language adopted after the Mahometan conquest, as the general means of communication between the Hindoos and Mahonet
It is based on an original Hindoo dialect, with which, however, many Persian and Arabic words have become incorporated.
Hinds, hindz, a co. in the W. part of Miss., between the Pearl and Big Black rivers. Pop. 19,098. Co. seat, Raymond,
HISPANIOLA. See Hayti.
Ho-ang!-Ho'* or whang'-ho', (i. e. the “ Yellow River," so named from the colour which the yellow clay along its banks gives to its
waters,) one of the largest rivers of China, which rises near 33° N. Lat. • and 98° E. Lon., and, after flowing in a very circuitous course, in which
it passes beyond 41° N. Lat., empties itself into the Yellow Sea, in about 33° 50' N. Lat., and 120° 10' E. Lon. Its length is estimated at 2,400 m.
Hol-BẠRT TOWN (commonly pronounced by the colonists Hob-ar-ton), the cap. of the British colony of Van Diemen's Land, is situated on the estuary of the r. Derwent, in the S. E. part of the island. Lat. 42° 54' S., Lon. 147° 27' E. Pop. estimated at 10,000. (B.)
Ho-BO-KỆn, in the co. of Bergen, N. J., on the Hudson, opposite to New York, is chiefly remarkable as a place of resort for the inhabitants of that city.
* “By Oton-tala, like a sea of stars,
SOUTHEY'S Thalaba, Book VI.