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yet to be decided, it is a subject in which, in the Midlands and in the great towns of the North, your “man in the street” is interested.

upon the Metropolitan Examinations Delegacy, it be open to the delegacy at its discretion to grant such representation. (6) That it be the duty of the Metropolitan Examinations Delegacy to appoint superintendents, and, when necessary, professional examiners, who must in no case be members of the delegacy. (7) That the Metropolitan Examinations Delegacy do appoint a Secretary who will be responsible for all arrangements for examinations, including, when necessary, the distribution among the professional examiners of the work of setting examination papers, examining the candidates' work, and reporting thereon.

The Board of Education issued their first report as we were going to press with our last number, but we take the first opportunity of calling attention to some of its many points of interest. The report consists of three volumes; the first contains the general report of the Board, the second deals entirely with secondary education, and the third wholly with elementary instruction. It is difficult to imagine what idea a foreign student of education would obtain of English secondary education if his only source of information were these official bluebooks. Both in the section of the general report concerned with secondary education, as well as in the second volume entitled “ Appendix to Report (Secondary Education)" the only forms of secondary education which are seriously dealt with are instruction in science and art. Judging by this report, a foreign educationist might well decide that the Board of Education have no official connection with what is usually called secondary education.

SPEAKING to the Yorkshire Association for the Promotion of Commercial Education at their last meeting, Mr. P. E. Hemelryk, Vice-president of the Liverpool Chamber of Commerce, gave it as his opinion that a student entering a commercial school should know at least two foreign modern languages, and be sufficiently advanced in general knowledge to be able to familiarise himself with the special commercial terms, the customs and laws, as well as the peculiarities of the trade of any country the language of which he is studying. We do not know at what age the Vice-president of the Liverpool Chamber of Commerce would have boys enter the commercial school, but since he would wish them spend two or three years in such a school, and two more in a commercial “bureau," the age at which the secondary school should be left would have to be fairly young. Consequently, we think Mr. Hemelryk expects a great deal too much, and we cannot help thinking that if the advocates of commercial education would first acquaint themselves with what can fairly be done in the years of school life, they would be better able to build up a rational and workable scheme of commercial work for youths who will enter upon business careers.

The Association of School Boards have adopted a scheme of examinations in commercial knowledge. Their executive committee have decided :-(1) That, commencing with next spring, a series of examinations in the following subjects be established by the Association :-(a) Languages: English, French, German and Spanish. (6) Business subjects : Book-keeping, shorthand, commercial arithmetic, and commercial geography. (2) In connection with the language examinations a system of local viva voce tests be arranged in addition to the written papers, (3) That the charge be is. per paper. (4) That the examiners be appointed by the executive of the Association, local arrangenients being made for the viva voce examinations being held by the local authorities, acting under the support of the Association. (5) That certificates of proficiency, a few bronze medals, and money prizes be offered annually. (6) That the whole scheme be laid immediately before the School Boards, and that they be asked to make arrangements in their different localities for the appointment of comnittees to take charge of the question papers, to superintend the examinations, and generally to assist the officers of the Association in carrying out the scheme. The first examination will be held in March next.

AFTER conferring together, the Technical Education Board of the London County Council and the School Management Committee of the London School Board have decided upon a series of resolutions which have been adopted by the full boards. It bas been agreed :-(1) That a delegacy be created for the conduct of examinations within the County of London, and that the delegacy be called the “Metropolitan Examinations Dele. gacy.” (2) That the Metropolitan Examinations Delegacy be composed at the outset of an equal [6] number of representatives of the School Board for London and of the Technical Education Board of the London County Council, and that the Clerk of the School Board for London and the Secretary of the Technical Education Board, be joint honorary secretaries. (3) That both the School Board and the Technical Education Board of the London County Council be invited to entrust to the Metropolitan Examinations Delegacy the conduct of such examinations as they may think advisable. (4) That the Metropolitan Examinations Delegacy have power to conduct exami. nations for scholarships awarded by any public bodies, trustees, or other persons within the County of London. (5) That, in the event of any such awarding body desiring to be represented

The reports of the Inspectors for Science in connection with the South Kensington branch of the Board of Education are full of suggestive material for teachers of science and for committees responsible for the administration of schools in connection with the Board. Reporting on the question of the co-ordination of the work of the different educational authorities in a town, the Senior Chief Inspector sketches what might with advantage be the relations of the various schools. Mr. Redgrave says :-“It would appear to be of advantage that the Technical School under the Town Council should be a day school for students who have passed through a course of two or three years in a School of Science, which might be conducted by the School Board, and who may desire to qualify themselves for good positions in industrial or commercial pursuits. The School of Science managed by the School Board would in such a case be the preparatory school for the Technical School, but it would also furnish an education complete in itself for those who would leave school at the age of 15 or 16. The evening classes at the Technical School should be classes in connection with the Board, or with the City and Guilds of London Institute, while the evening classes under the School Board should in all cases be those of the Evening Continuation School, and students should be encouraged to prepare for the classes under the Technical Instruction Committee by a course of study in the Evening Continuation School.”

MR. HAROLD WAGER, who reports on the Yorkshire district, raises a subject on which most science masters in secondary schools have very definite views. More than one headmaster imagines that the only time required for the proper teaching of science is that specified on the school time-table, and if judged by that standard the science master is free, the headmaster considers him available for mathematical or other teaching. To such we commend Mr. Wager's words :—“The governors or managers of many of these schools have not yet fully appreciated the fact that teachers of practical science subjects require a considerable amount of time for the preparation of the experiments for their lessons beyond the time actually devoted to teaching. The necessary preparation for a good practical lesson in the laboratory is no light task, and if the work is to be done properly the teacher must have time for it.”

made in the conditions for passing in the Natural Science section of the Senior and Junior Examinations, and in French and German the option of taking unprepared translation in place of a set book has been extended to the Preliminary Examination.

Taking these reports by the inspectors as a whole, it is very evident there has been a decided improvement in the teaching of science and art throughout the country. From every district comes information of improved equipment, better teaching and more enthusiasm. It is beginning to be more and more recog. nised that to be in any way educative science must be taught in a practical manner. And in addition, it is now understood that the best results, in the highest sense, can only be secured when provision is made for all students to themselves experiment. It is true that this kind of teaching is comparatively costly. But to secure British supremacy in other directions no expense has been spared. Some day it will be admitted by everybody that all sensible expenditure on education is worth while.

Sir Henry CrAik presided at the last annual gathering of students and friends of Queen's College, London, and delivered an address on the higher education of women. Amongst other subjects Sir Henry referred to competitive examinations, and said he believed that the new generation would look back npon this as having subordinated everything to the mad race of competitive examinations. One of the earlier traditions of Queen's College was to resist the overstrained tendency to competitive examination, and, maintaining the courage of its opinions, the college has not fallen in with views which seem to hold that knowledge is only valuable when it has a distinct hall-mark to signalise it.

What, if any, military training should be given in secondary schools ? is a question which is, naturally enough, receiving considerable attention from schoolmasters and others just now. It will probably be remembered that the Incorporated Association of Headmasters, at their general meeting last June, appointed a committee to communicate with the War Office with a view to encourage schools to take their part in the system os national defence, and the War Office consented to receive a deputation. One of the most recent utterances on the subject was the lecture delivered by the Rev. C. G. Gull, Headmaster of the Grocers' Company's School, at the United Service Institution. Mr. Gull says that boys do not find drill irksome, and this partly because they pick up routine work more quickly than men, and partly because they enjoy the precision of the work. The imagination of the boys, too, catches the military ideal, a result which Mr. Gull finds helps very much in the mastery of drill. But there is great diversity of opinion on several aspecs of the question, and we should be glad to open our correspondence columns to brief accounts of actual experience of military instruction.

The “London University Guide” for the year 1900-1901, published by the University Correspondence College, contains, we should think, an answer to every question likely to present itself to the external student anxious to obtain a degree at the London University. The volume, which runs to nearly 300 PP., gives full information as to what to read, and where to read it, for every examination of the university for which the college prepares candidates.

In a valuable leaderette entitled “The Education of Educators,” the British Medical Journal recently called attention to the inestimable value to teachers of a working knowledge of physiology. Several instances were quoted in which definite physical ills had been mistaken for moral delinquencies. “It has been said, somewhat dogmatically perhaps, that if we knew everything we should forgive everything. And it may equally well be said that if we knew everything we should actually punish the ordinary child little or not at all.” The demands upon teachers are already numerous enough, it is true, but if they will bear these sentences in mind they may be savedwhat nobody would regret more than themselves — the infliction of punishment for what their pupils are in no way to blame.

The December Cambridge Local Examinations were held at 263 centres in the United Kingdom and the Colonies. The total number of candidates (16,254) is larger than in any previous year. The entries were distributed among the various examinations as follows:--Seniors, 2,287 ; Juniors, 8,377 ; Preliminary, 5,580 ; 9,757 of the candidates were boys, and 6,487 girls. The numbers given above include 1,257 candidates at centres not in the United Kingdom. Nine of these centres are in the West Indies, five in Ceylon, three in the Straits Settlements; the remaining centres being Bermuda, British Co. lumbia, British Guiana, Mauritius, Shanghai, and Valparaiso. The Higher Local Examination (212 candidates) was held contemporaneously at certain Home centres.

The following is an analysis of the entries for certain subjects in the Junior Examination. All candidates must take up arithmetic and dictation. The following subjects are selected by at least 90 per cent. of the candidates :--Religious Knowledge, English Grammar (including Composition), English History, Geography and French ; In English Literature (Shakespeare or Scott) the entries have increased since last year from 80 to 90 per cent. Euclid and Algebra are taken by more than 94 per cent. of the boys, and 37 per cent of the girls, Latin by 56 per cent. of the boys and 10 per cent. of the girls, German by 6 per cent. of the boys and 10 per cent. of the girls, Greek by 5 per cent. of the boys. About 42 per cent. have selected one or more of the nine distinct subjects in Natural Science, and there is an increase this year in the entries for Experimental Science, Theoretical and Practical Chemistry, and Heat. For Drawing over 60 per cent. of the candidates enter, for Music Il per cent., for Book-keeping 8 per cent., for Shorthand 4 per

The percentages entering for the various subjects in the Senior Examination agree in the main with the above. The Regulations for 1901 can be obtained from Dr. Keynes, Syndicate Buildings, Cambridge, or from the local secretaries at the various centres of examination. Changes have been

The November number of the London Technical Education Gazette contains detailed information of numerous scholarships and exhibitions to be awarded by the Board next year. In July seventy intermediate county and twenty intermediate scholarships are to be competed for by boys and girls under sixteen years of age, and five senior county scholarships by young men and women under twenty-two years of age. In April the Board will proceed to award not more than a hundred junior artisan evening Art exhibitions, not more than thirty Art scholarships, and not more than thirty Schools of Art scholarships. In June some two hundred evening exhibitions in Science and Technology will be competed for. These exhibi. tions are of two classes : half of them are for students who have attended evening continuation schools for two years, and half for students who merely satisfy the Board's requirements as to income and residence. In addition to this there are scholar. ships and exhibitions in horticulture, practical gardening, domestic economy, and cookery. It would seem that the Board are determined to catch any potential Davy or Faraday who may happen to have been born within the metropolitan area. In any case it is abundantly evident that no boy or girl of ability who is anxious to study science or art need be prevented by want of means.


have arranged a special scientific department, the object of which is to supply suitable material for practical work in botany. This part of their business Messrs. Backhouse have placed in charge of Dr. A. H. Burt, who has an expert's knowledge of teachers' requirements; and when it is borne in mind that orders may be sent by telegram, it only being necessary to specify the text-book in use in the class and the chapter for which material is required, it will be seen that every means has been taken to make practical instruction easy.

A GREAT future should be in store for Cirencester Grammar School. The Technical Instruction Committee of the Gloucester County Council have decided that this school shall become one of their centres for providing technical as well as secondary education. A suite of new buildings is almost complete, and the rooms are to be furnished as soon as possible. Classes, to be open to students from neighbouring villages, are to be started in science, commercial, art, and manual subjects, and special attention will, we understand, be given to agricultural subjects. The cost of the new buildings has been divided between the Gloucester County Council, the Urban District Council of Cirencester, the endowment of the school and private do. nations.

With a view to extending an interest in the work and objects of the Childhood Society among teachers, its Council have decided to offer two prizes for the two best essays on prescribed subjects. Full particulars of the competition can be obtained from the Hon. Sec. of the Society, at Parkes Museum, Margaret Street, London.

MR. P. A. BARNETT's chapter on the Discipline of Character," in his “ Common-sense in Education,” which has already reached a third edition in England, has been translated into Russian by M. Pobiedonostzeff, the High Procurator of the Russian Holy Synod. The translation is for distribution to Russian schools,

MATRICULATED students of the University of Durham who have attended for two sessions the lectures and classes of the College of Science at Newcastle-on-Tyne, and have passed an elementary examination in three or four branches of science, as well as a more advanced examination in any two of these subjects, receive the diploma of Associate in Science of the University of Durham. This is, we believe, the only university title of Associate in Science. Fuller information will be found in the last calendar of the Durham College of Science, as well as much interesting particulars of numerous scholarships and prizes open to students.

The recent decision of the Corporation of the City of London not to establish at present a commercial school or college has met with considerable adverse criticism in many quarters, a fact which has called forth a long letter to The Times from Mr. T. A. Organ, the chairman of the Technical Education Board of the London County Council. In this letter Mr. Organ reviews the recommendations of a special committee appointed by his Board over which he presided for more than a year. These recommendations were printed in THE SCHOOL WORLD of March, 1900. Certain of the resolutions of this committee have since become accomplished facts ; the Commercial side at University College School, over which Mr. A. Kahn has been placed, may be cited as an example. When to the work in secondary schools is added that done by the School Board in their special higher elementary schools, and that so admirably accomplished in the London School of Economics, it becomes clear that the work which a new commercial school would be called upon to perform is being satisfactorily done already. There has been too much over-lapping in English education in times past, and we think the decision of the Corporation a wise one, so far as present needs are concerned.

The School Calendar (Whittaker) begins with the events of July, 1900, yet its preface is dated September, 1900, and copies were not obtainable until the end of November of the same year. The publication, which is in its fourteenth year of publication, is so useful that these vagaries in the dates with which it is concerned, and of its appearance, are much to be regretted.

The Civil Service Commissioners announce that an open competitive examination for not fewer than ten situations as Assistant Surveyor of Taxes in the Inland Revenue Department will be held in London, Edinburgh and Dublin, commencing on January 29th, 1901. The limits of age for these situations are 19 and 22. The examination will be in the following subjects:-Arithmetic; English composition, including orthography and handwriting; geography ; book-keeping by double entry; translation from and into any one of the following languages, viz., French, German or Latin ; Euclid, Books I. to IV., and VI. ; algebra ; and political economy. A fee of £6 will be required from each candidate attending the examination. Application for permission to attend the examination must be made, on or before January 1oth, to the Secretary, Civil Service Commission, S.W., on forms obtainable from him. The existing scale of salaries in the Tax Surveying Branch of the Inland Revenue Department is as follows, viz. :- Assistant Surveyors, £ 100 a year, rising by annual increments of £10 to £180 ; Surveyors, 4th class, £200-£380 ; 3rd class, £430£550 ; 2nd class, £600, and ist class, £650.


The report of the Commissioner of Education, Dr. William T. Harris, to the Secretary of the Interior on the work of the United States Bureau Education for the year 1898.99 (volume I.) has now been published. It is a large volume of some 1,248 pages, and is, like all its predecessors, brimful of valuable and interesting matter. The volume is in no sense confined to American education. The officers of the Bureau would seem to have searched the four quarters of the earth for information likely to be of use to American teachers. But the question will obtrude itself-When do American teachers get time to acquaint themselves with the contents of volumes of this size? We hope to take an early opportunity of referring to some of the valuable articles here brought together.

We are glad to hear that Principal Viriamu Jones is restored to health. It is a matter for general congratulation to the cause of Welsh education and to the University College of South Wales especially. Principal Jones has brought a convincing statement before the Town Council of Cardiff as to the value of a college in a large town. He showed that nearly £2,000 (including Queen's Scholarships) fell to Cardiff people, and that the college had spent over £200,000 in the town. He, therefore, pleaded that the Town Council should make a free grant of a plot of land in Cathays Park for new college buildings, which are sorely needed for the work of the college. At a later meeting of the Town Council, a resolution was passed acceding to the request for the site, which is valued at nearly £20,000. It is stated that £150,000 would be required

TEACHERS of Botany will be glad to learn that Messrs. James Backhouse & Son, Lid., the well-known nurserymen of York,


to provide the college with buildings adequate to its needs.

SCOTTISH. Towards this sum £50,000 has been raised, including the mag. Special attention is directed to the following points in the nificent gift of £10,000 from the Drapers' Company. Both recent report of the Scotch Education Department on the Principal Jones and the Town Council are to be congratulated Examinations for Leaving Certificates :-(1) Candidates are on their public spirit in securing a suitable site for an institution frequently sent in for the lower grade at too early an age. of such incalculable benefit for both Cardiff and the populous The bad effect of this is twofold. It inevitably entails many district around it. It now behoves Cardiff to make the building failures and disappointments, and it causes a number of ordinary worthy of the site.

pupils to attempt the higher-grade paper before the normal

close of the school curriculum. (2) In a fully equipped Wales is patriotic, and its University system is democratic

and organised secondary school all the pupils of the upper in many ways. There is therefore nothing to be surprised at

classes should aim at the higher certificate. (3) The honours in the nationalistic colouring which attends meetings of the

certificates are meant to be a recognition of exceptional ability Court. The position of the history of Wales is not, in the

in individual pupils, and consequently the number obtaining opinion of some members of the Court, sufficiently prominent

such certificates may vary greatly from year to year. (4) Unless in the academic circle of studies. As one speaker said, “The

the conditions are similar, mere numerical comparisons between colleges could never satisfy national aspirations if they did not

one school and another in regard to the number of certificates show a desire to cultivate a knowledge of the historical past which justified their being called a nation.” The reply is

gained may be quite misleading, and may foster an undue

competition that involves grave dangers. (5) Their lordships made that there are no text-books. This was answered by saying, “Let the Court take a strong stand upon this question,

strongly deprecate the tendency to gauge the quality of the

teaching in a school by the number of honours certificates gained and the necessary text-books would soon be forthcoming."

by the pupils. Now the debate arose with especial regard to the Matriculation Examination which is supposed to be taken by pupils in schools The annual general meeting of the Association of Teachers before entering the colleges. One speaker made the very in Secondary Schools in Scotland was held in the Royal High reasonable suggestion that, since this was a question of the School, Edinburgh, Herr Gustav Hein, retiring president, in practical work of teachers, it would be an advantage to have a the chair. Herr Hein, in his retiring address, said that Lord conference on the subject between the staff of the University Balfour's Higher Education Bill was a most statesmanlike and and the teachers in the intermediate schools. But this sugges- straightforward attempt to bring order into the chaotic slate of tion does not seem to have found any favour, and eventually the secondary education in Scotland. The Association has for years Senate of the University (i.c., the heads of departments of insisted on getting a Bill for Secondary Education passed, and study in each of the colleges) were instructed to prepare a the members must use their best efforts to further the passing of detailed syllabus. In other words, the theory is that professors Lord Balfour's measure this session. In regard to the recent in the colleges with experience in teaching older students are to alterations and innovations in the Leaving Certificate examilegislate for school-teachers.

nations, Herr Hein said that they are all in the direction of the

views repeatedly laid before the Department by the Association On the subject of Welsh history, no one is a greater authority than Mr. Owen M. Edwards. He has lately spoken First of all, the long-wished-for Group Certificate has been with much warmth on the absence of its adequate teaching in introduced, and it should no longer be possible for pupils to Wales. He says: “Our chronicles and laws are exceedingly pose as possessing a Leaving Certificate when in reality they interesting to the student, and I know of nothing more service- have only passed in one subject in the lower grade. The leaving able to stimulate that curiosity which sharpens the intellect of certificates will never fulfil their true function until they are in youths when they realise that they make discoveries on their fact what they are in name, viz., certificates to be issued to own account. I do not know of any history in regard to which pupils on finishing their higher-school education, and a guarantee it is easier for the student to obtain interesting charters and that the possessors of them have obtained a good sound educa. statutes to illustrate its period of growth.” And so on - all in tion in a sufficiently varied group of subjects to enable them to that spirit of patriotic research which everyone so highly respects enter on the further pursuits of life. and admires in Mr. Edwards. But on this very account such utterances have their danger. Mr. Edwards goes on to say:

At the annual meeting of the Modern Languages Association, “ It will long be remembered how an attempt was made to

the president, Mr. Mackay, of Ayr Academy, briefly reviewed exclude it from the first examination of the University. Ever

the work done by the Association during the past year. A since then my love for the University of my country, like

census of text-books used for the teaching of modern languages many another Welshman's love for it, bas grown cool.” We

in Scottish schools is being compiled, and a table showing the must assume that Mr. Edwards refers to later and academic

number of hours per week devoted to modern languages in the studies when he urges the study of original documents. But

different schools in the country. The chief work of the Associneither have school teachers the leisure for such studies nor boys

ation had been, however, a persevering effort to bring home to

а and girls the ability to make them, and it will be a pity if

the educated people of Scotland the mischief that is being done Mr. Edwards' authority is quoted largely as applying to schools.

to modern languages by the unfair position in which they are What would be the harm of a conference with school teachers,

placed in the Scottish universities. Mr. A. O. Schlapp, of with a view to seeing what can be done by them? The impo

Edinburgh University, was elected president for the coming sition of a syllabus by the University Senate and Court will not

year. alter their ability or inability to deal with the matter ; but should LORD Rosebery's notable address to the students of Glasgow such a syllabus be unworkable, it will not altogether unreason- University should aid very materially in placing modern lanably provoke their resentment in not being consulted.

guages in a position of equality with the classics. The Modern

Languages Association has been hammering away at this subject It is announced that the total number of students registered with a persistency worthy of the importunate widow, but with to date in the University of Wales is 1,025. In 1897, 15 very little of her success. It is, however, an incalculable gain qualified for degrees ; in 1898, 38; in 1899, 70; and in 1900, when a Lord Rector declares from a university platform, with the 102.

almost unanimous approval of the whole press of the country,



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" That there is required, on the part of the educational autho- The examinations for certificates and diplomas in teaching rities, an admission that a man may be an educated and a cul- established by Trinity College, Dublin, will be held on tured gentleman, although he has not seriously studied Latin January 3rd and 4th, 1901. and Greek, and that France and Germany possess invaluable literatures, with the advantage that they are in languages which

CURRENT HISTORY. are living and not dead."

MR. T. W. Russell has resigned his position as Secretary IRISH.

of the Local Government Board because he differs from Lord The Provost of Trinity College has resigned his seat on the

Salisbury on Irish land policy. We are reminded of John Intermediate Board, which he has held for a very long period.

Bright's resignation in 1882 because he did not approve of the The Lord-Lieutenant has appointed six new Commissioners,

movement against Arabi Pasha in Egypt, and of Lord Randolph one in the room of Dr. Salmon, and five in accordance with

Churchill's resignation of the office of Chancellor of the the Intermediate Act of last session, which provided that five

Exchequer because he did not approve of the expenditure on additional members, experts in education, should be appointed

army and navy. It is evident that the British Ministry must be

unanimous, of one mind. And that that one mind must be on the Board. The new Commissioners are all distinguished

that of the Prime Minister. No one finds fault with this men who have long experience in education, and have shown themselves possessed of enlightened views : Prof. Dill, of

to-day. We feel that it is necessary that the Premier should

rule the Cabinet, as the Cabinet rules the nation. So true is it Belfast Queen's College, the author of an able work on Roman

that Great Britain is a monarchy, nay, an absolute monarchygovernment and society ; Professors Mahaffy and Fitzgerald, of Trinity College, Dublin, the latter a strong advocate of scien

tempered by general elections. Yet our text-books still persist tific education ; Monsignor Molloy, an eminent teacher of

in repeating the mere party catchwords of the opposition to science ; Father Finlay, a distinguished Fellow of the Royal

Walpole, who introduced this necessary unanimity into the University ; and Dr. Starkie, the Resident Commissioner of

counsels of our ministries. Till Walpole's time, and even to a National Education. The appointments are likely to be a

small extent, later, ministries were not unanimous, and therefore

weak. Since then, the Premier has governed as well as reigned, great assistance in making the new scheme successful.

to the lasting advantage of the country. The College of Science, Dublin, which will form a centre of

WILLIAM MCKINLEY is not yet re-elected President of the scientific research work and instruction under the new Depart.

United States of America. It is true that we know he will be ment of Agriculture and Industries, has a large increase in the number of its students this session. On the side of technical

elected, and it is probable that his election will not even

be noticed in any of our newspapers except as an item of curious instruction, scholarships in science will be given to promising

constitutional information. But he is not yet chosen. How is pupils in primary and secondary schools. The curriculum will

this? The fathers of the Republic intended that each State be reorganised, and new Departments, as those for Agriculture

should choose its wisest and best as electors of the President, and Sanitary Science, will be added. The professors will be required to devote some of their time to research work for the

that these should meet, and freely choose the man whom they

thought best fitted for the office. But owing to the growth of Department. The College cannot fully enter on its enlarged

political parties, and partly also to the growth of means of course till the new buildings in Kildare Street are completed.

communication, it has come about that each state chooses It is announced that a Gold Medal and Senior Moderator

not its wisest and best, but a number of unimportant persons ship in Trinity College, Dublin, has been awarded for the first

who pledge themselves beforehand as to the person for whom time to a woman, Miss Beatty. The Moderatorship Exami

they will vote. When the inhabitants of each state therefore nation and Freshman Honours have been open since 1893 to

have decided which “ ticket” has their preference, the election women who have passed the Trinity College examinations for

is practically decided, and no one cares when or where these

electors meet. So far almost no candidates have presented them

Their decision is now a foregone conclusion, selves, as lectures are not open, and the B.A. degree would

and their voting is as much a form as that of the dean and not be given to those winning Moderatorships, while the ex.

chapter of an English cathedral in the election of a bishop aminations for women were until now in no way a preparation

after the reception of the “letter missive ” from the Queen. for these advanced courses. The examinations for women have

So impossible is it, by even the most cast-iron of written conthis year been altered, and are now identical with the T.C.D.

stitutions, to bind future generations to what we think best

for them. Entrance (Pass and High Places) Examination, and it is hoped that if women study for the course so far opened, it may lead to greater advantages in the future.

We strongly recommend our readers to “read, mark, learn,

and inwardly digest,” in the most serious and leisurely way, MR. KEATINGE, lecturer in education, Oxford, completed the speech which Lord Rosebery delivered as Rector of his courses in Alexandra College in December. The lectures and Glasgow University. Meanwhile, we cull from it this defipractical work, which have proved very helpful to the teachers

nition of Empire :-“What is Empire,” said Lord Rosebery, taking them, were during this visit on the subjects, English

“but the predominance of race?

Human and yet Literature, Grammar and Composition, and Geography.

not wholly human, for the most heedless and the most cynical

must see the finger of the Divine.” Now let us go back to At the distribution of prizes at St. Andrews College, Dublin, Dante and the thirteenth century. What is Empire, Dante ? in December, a very satisfactory account was given of the "Empire is the gift of God: first to the Romans, then transprogress of the school, which was founded about six years ferred to the German nation. Empire is the government of the ago by the Presbyterian body in Ireland under the headmaster- world in the name of God. There can be but one Emperor as ship of Mr. W. Haslett, a distinguished Royal University and there is but one God, and that Emperor all Christians must Cambridge graduate. The school has now considerably over obey. It is divine, and yet not wholly divine-for the most 300 pypils, and, besides university distinctions, this year occu- devout must see in it the working of humanity.” Such, we pied the first place among Irish Protestant Intermediate imagine, would have been the reply of the mediæval poet. Schools.

How nearly the two agree, yet how are they poles asunder. It



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