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ment or fulfilling thereof; without which promise in writing, no application to him for any redress shall be made.(1)
952. If any differences shall arise by either party infringing on any of the articles of this treaty, peace and harmony shall remain notwithstanding, in the fullest force, until a friendly application shall be made for an arrangement; and until that application shall be rejected, no appeal shall be made to arms. And if a war should break out between the parties, nine months shall be granted to all the subjects of both parties, to dispose of their effects and retire with their property. And it is further declared, that whatever indulgence, in trade or otherwise, shall be granted to any of the christian powers, the citizens of the United States shall be equally entitled to them.(2)
953. This treaty shall continue in full force, with the help of God, for fifty years.(3)
954. If any vessel belonging to the United States, shall be in any of the ports of his majesty's dominions, or within gunshot of his forts, she shall be protected as much as possible; and no vessel whatever, belonging either to Moorish or christian powers, with whom the United States may be at war, shall be permitted to follow or engage her, as we now deem the citizens of America our good friends.(4)
ART. 955. There shall be a perfect, firm, and inviolable peace and sincere friendship between the United States of America and the Republic of Colombia, in all the extent of their possessions and territories, and between their people and citizens respectively, without distinction of persons or places.(1)
956. The United States of America and the Republic of Colombia desiring to live in peace and harmony with all the other nations of the earth, by means of a policy frank and equally friendly with all, engage mutually not to grant any particular favour to other nations in respect to commerce and navigation, which shall not immediately become common to the other party, who shall enjoy the same freely, if the concession was freely made, or on allowing the same compensation, if the concession was conditional.(2)
957. The citizens of the United States may frequent all the coasts and countries of the Republic of Colombia, and reside and trade there, in all sorts of produce, manufactures, and merchandise, and shall pay no other or greater duties, charges, or fees, whatsoever, than the most favoured nation is or shall be obliged to pay; and they shall enjoy all the rights, privileges, and exemptions in navigation and commerce, which the most favoured nation does or shall enjoy, submitting themselves, nevertheless, to the laws, decrees, and usages, there established, and to which are submitted the subjects and citizens of the most favoured nations.
In like manner the citizens of the Republic of Colombia may frequent all the coasts and countries of the United States, and reside and trade there, in all sorts of produce, manufactures, and merchandise, and shall pay no other or greater duties, charges, or fees, whatsoever, than the most favoured nation is or shall be obliged to pay; and they shall enjoy all the rights, privileges, and exemptions in navigation and commerce, which the most favoured nation does or shall enjoy, submitting themselves, nevertheless, to the laws, decrees, and usages, there established, and to which are submitted the subjects and citizens of the most favoured nations.(3)
958. It is likewise agreed that it shall be wholly free for all merchants, commanders of ships, and other citizens of both countries, to manage themselves their own business in all ports and places subject to the jurisdiction of each other, as well with respect to the consignment and sale of their goods and merchandise by wholesale or retail, as with respect to the loading, unloading, and sending off their ships, they being in all these cases to be treat ed as citizens of the country in which they reside, or at least to be placed on a footing with the subjects or citizens of the most favoured nation.(4)
959. The citizens of neither of the contracting parties shall be liable to any embargo, nor be detained with their vessels, cargoes, merchandises, or effects, for any military expedition, nor for any public or private purpose whatever, without allowing to those interested a sufficient indemnifica tion.(5)
960. Whenever the citizens of either of the contracting parties shall be forced to seek refuge or asylum in the rivers, bays, ports, or dominions, of the other, with their vessels, whether merchant or of war, public or private, through stress of weather, pursuit of pirates, or enemies, they shall be received and treated with humanity, giving to them all favour and protection for repairing their ships, procuring provisions, and placing themselves in a
(1) Treaty Oct. 1824, sec. 1. (2) Ibid. sec. 2.
(3) Ibid. sec. 3.
(4) Ibid. sec. 4.
(5) Ibid. sec. 5.
situation to continue their voyage without obstacle or hinderance of any kind.(1)
961. All the ships, merchandise, and effects belonging to the citizens of one of the contracting parties, which may be captured by pirates, whether within the limits of its jurisdiction or on the high seas, and may be carried or found in the rivers, roads, bays, ports, or dominions, of the other, shall be delivered up to the owners, they proving in due and proper form their rights before the competent tribunals, it being well understood that the claim should be made within the term of one year by the parties themselves, their attorneys, or agents of the respective governments.(2)
962. When any vessel belonging to the citizens of either of the contracting parties shall be wrecked, foundered, or shall suffer any damage on the coasts, or within the dominions of the other, there shall be given to them all assistance and protection in the same manner which is usual and customary with the vessels of the nation where the damage happens, permitting them to unload said vessel, if necessary, of its merchandises and effects, without exacting for it any duty, impost, or contribution whatever, until they may be exported.(3)
963. The citizens of each of the contracting parties shall have power to dispose of their personal goods within the jurisdiction of the other, by sale, donation, testament, or otherwise, and their representatives, being citizens of the other party, shall succeed to their said personal goods, whether by testament or ab intestato, and they may take possession thereof, either by themselves or others acting for them, and dispose of the same at their will, paying such dues only as the inhabitants of the country, wherein the said goods are, shall be subject to pay in like cases: And if, in the case of real estate, the said heirs would be prevented from entering into the possession of the inheritance, on account of their character of aliens, there shall be granted to them the term of three years to dispose of the same, as they may think proper, and to withdraw the proceeds without molestation, and exempt from all rights of detraction, on the part of the government of the respective States.(4)*
964. Both the contracting parties promise and engage, formally to give their special protection to the persons and property of the citizens of each other, of all occupations, who may be in the territories subject to the jurisdiction of the one or the other, transient or dwelling therein, leaving open and free to them the tribunals of justice for their judicial recourse, on the same terms which are usual and customary, with the natives or citizens of the country in which they may be; for which they may employ in defence of their rights such advocates, solicitors, notaries, agents, and factors, as they may judge proper, in all their trials at law; and such citizens or agents shall have free opportunity to be present at the decisions and sentences of the tribunals, in all cases which may concern them, and likewise at the taking of all examinations and evidence which may be exhibited in the said trials.(5)
965. It is likewise agreed, that the most perfect and entire security of conscience shall be enjoyed by the citizens of both the contracting parties in
(1) Treaty Oct. 1824, sec. 6,
(2) Ibid. sec. 7.
(3) Ibid. sec. 8.
(4) Ibid. sec. 9.
In the treaty with Chile, Article 9, the following words are substituted for those in italics in the above article-" and exempt from any other charges than those which may be imposed by the laws of the country.”
the countries subject to the jurisdiction of the one and the other, without their being liable to be disturbed or molested on account of their religious be lief, so long as they respect the laws and established usages of the country. Moreover, the bodies of the citizens of one of the contracting parties, who may die in the territories of the other, shall be buried in the usual burying grounds, or in other decent and suitable places, and shall be protected from violation or disturbance.(1)
966. It shall be lawful for the citizens of the United States of America and of the Republic of Colombia to sail with their ships, with all manner of liberty and security, no distinction being made, who are the proprietors of the merchandises laden thereon, from any port to the places of those who now are or hereafter shall be at enmity with either of the contracting parties. It shall likewise be lawful for the citizens aforesaid to sail with the ships and merchandises before mentioned, and to trade with the same liberty and security from the places, ports, and havens, of those who are enemies of both or either party, without any opposition or disturbance whatsoever, not only directly from the places of the enemy, before mentioned, to neutral places, but also from one place belonging to an enemy to another place belonging to an enemy, whether they be under the jurisdiction of one power or under several. And it is hereby stipulated, that free ships shall also give freedom to goods, and that every thing shall be deemed to be free and exempt, which shall be found on board the ships belonging to the citizens of either of the contracting parties, although the whole lading, or any part thereof should appertain to the enemies of either, contraband goods being always excepted. It is also agreed, in like manner, that the same liberty be extended to persons who are on board a free ship, with this effect, that although they be enemies to both or either party, they are not to be taken out of that free ship, unless they are officers or soldiers, and in the actual service of the enemies : Provided, however, And it is hereby agreed, that the stipulations in this article contained, declaring that the flag shall cover the property, shall be understood as applying to those powers only who recognise this principle; but if either of the two contracting parties shall be at war with a third, and the other neutral, the flag of the neutral shall cover the property of enemies whose governments acknowledge this principle, and not of others.(2)
967. It is likewise agreed, that in the case where the neutral flag of one of the contracting parties shall protect the property of the enemies of the other, by virtue of the above stipulation, it shall always be understood that the neutral property found on board such enemy's vessels shall be held and considered as enemy's property, and as such shall be liable to detention and confiscation, except such property as was put on board such vessel before the declaration of war, or even afterwards, if it were done without the knowledge of it; but the contracting parties agree, that two months having elapsed after the declaration, their citizens shall not plead ignorance thereof. On the contrary, if the flag of the neutral does not protect the enemy's property, in that case the goods and merchandises of the neutral, embarked in such enemy's ship, shall be free.(3)
968. This liberty of navigation and commerce shall extend to all kinds of merchandises, excepting those only which are distinguished by the name of contraband, and under this name of contraband, or prohibited goods, shall be comprehended
1st. Cannons, mortars, howitzers, swivels, blunderbusses, muskets, fuzees, rifles, carbines, pistols, pikes, swords, sabres, lances, spears, halberds, and
(1) Treaty Oct. 1824, sec. 11.
(2) Ibid. sec. 12.
(3) Ibid. sec. 13.
granades, bombs, powder, matches, balls, and all other things belonging to the use of these arms;
2dly. Bucklers, helmets, breastplates, coats of mail, infantry belts, and clothes made up in the form and for military use;
3dly. Cavalry belts, and horses with their furniture;
4thly. And generally all kinds of arms and instruments of iron, steel, brass, and copper, or of any other materials manufactured, prepared and formed, expressly to make war by sea or land.(1)
All other merchandises and things not comprehended in the articles of contraband explicitly enumerated and classified as above, shall be held and considered as free, and subjects of free and lawful commerce, so that they may be carried and transported in the freest manner by both the contracting parties, even to places belonging to an enemy, excepting only those places which are at that time besieged or blocked up; and, to avoid all doubt in this particular, it is declared that those places only are besieged or blockaded which are actually attacked by a belligerent force capable of preventing the entry of the neutral.(2)
969. The articles of contraband, before enumerated and classified, which may be found in a vessel bound for an enemy's port, shall be subject to detention and confiscation, leaving free the rest of the cargo and the ship, that the owners may dispose of them as they see proper. No vessel of either of the two nations shall be detained on the high seas on account of having on board articles of contraband, whenever the master, captain, or supercargo of said vessel will deliver up the articles of contraband to the captor, unless the quantity of such articles be so great and of so large a bulk, that they cannot be received on board the capturing ship without great inconvenience; but in this and in all other cases of just detention, the vessel detained shall be sent to the nearest convenient and safe port, for trial and judgment according to law.(3)
970. And whereas it frequently happens that vessels sail for a port or place belonging to an enemy, without knowing that the same is besieged, blockaded, or invested, it is agreed, that every vessel so circumstanced, may be turned away from such port or place, but shall not be detained, nor shall any part of her cargo, if not contraband, be confiscated, unless, after warning of such blockade or investment from the commanding officer of the blockading forces, she shall again attempt to enter; but she shall be permitted to go to any other port or place she shall think proper. Nor shall any vessel of either, that may have entered into such port before the same was actually besieged, blockaded or invested, by the other, be restrained from quitting such place with her cargo, nor if found therein after the reduction and surrender, shall such vessel or her cargo be liable to confiscation, but they shall be restored to the owners thereof.(4)
971. In order to prevent all kind of disorder in the visiting and examination of the ships and cargoes of both the contracting parties on the high seas, they have agreed mutually, that whenever a vessel of war, public or private, shall meet with a neutral of the other contracting party, the first shall remain out of cannon shot, and may send its boat with two or three men only in order to execute the said examination of the papers concerning the ownership and cargo of the vessel, without causing the least extortion, violence, or ill treatment, for which the commanders of the said armed ships shall be responsible with their persons and property; for which purpose the commanders of said private armed vessels shall, before receiving their commis
(1) Treaty Oct. 1824, sec. 14. (2) Ibid. sec. 15.
(3) Ibid. sec. 16.