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330 CONG....20 Sess.

Know-Nothing Organization-Mr. Singleton.

Ho. of Reps.



the infancy of the organization, when its spread Mr. Chairman, I trust I shall be pardoned for the ness to the growth and wants of a great Governin the South was much desired, that assurances number and length of these extracis. I desire that

And he who leaves it to join a new or a were given that it would make war upon Aboli- southern men especially, and sound men every better one, will soon find the delusion into which tion. But then it was in the hands of compara- where, shall see and understand the views and pur- | he has fallen. It was the party of Jefferson, Mad. tively good men; now it seems to have gathered poses of this organization in these States. What ison, Jackson, and Polk, and it shall be my party into its lodges the worst elements of Abolitionism must southern men think of such avowals, openly as long as it shall stand to its landmarks, or be that curse the North. Then its operations were and distinctly made? Can they meet the members guided by its ancient principles. All necessary confined to a more limited sphere; now it seeks of the order from these States, in a grand council reforms can be effected as well under its auspices to control political events everywhere, and to give or convention, and fraternize with them? Are as under that of any new party, composed of direction io public sentiment upon religious as they prepared to give them the right hand of fellow- antagonistic elements that can never fuse. For well as political subjects. Then it was weak, ship, and bid them God speed? Sir, I was born what furnace seven times heated can melt, refine, and consequently humble in its pretensions; now upon southern soil; reared amongst that proud and blend together, a party made up of such eleit has become strong, and risen to power, it has and spirited people; I have witnessed with what ments? Compromise and concession seem to be grown insolent and overbearing in its demands, jealous care they guard their rights and institutions; no part of its creed; and what it now denies to vindicating the truth and wisdom of Shakspeare's and here, to-day, in vindication of their wisdom the South will be denied to other fragmentary parts words when he said:

and self-respect, I proclaim to the world that they in the day of its power and haughtiness. It is " Loveliness is young Ambition's ladder,

will not stultify themselves by any such connection; true that Democracy has lost many of the free Whereto the climber upward turns his face; that they will not be cheated into any such unholy States for the time; but, in them, we have found But once he has attained the utmost round, He then unto the ladder turys bis back,

alliance. While they have organized Know-Noth- the mass of the party true to the Constitution, Looks into the clouds, and scorns the base degrees ing lodges, with a membership numerous and re- true to the laws passed under it, true to great By which he did ascend."

spectable, and, it may be, with controlling political principles of party faith, and ready to become a It is now sufficiently potent to dispense with its | power yet its members South can have no feeling or sacrifice in their support. They have gone down, southern allies, and they must either come into principles common with those of the North, and the not like Lucifer, to rise no more; but, as the sun measures of Abolitionism, or be lopped off as order can have no nationality. A southern man sets, and leaves the world for a lime to darkness,

This is not all, sir; they are taunted will never consent to be found in secret conclave under which men hide their evil deeds, so, like with their weakness, and sentence of condemna- with a Burlingame, a Wilson, a Fogg, or a Wil- that sun, they will come up again to dissipate that tion pronounced against them and their institu- | mot, plotting the destruction of slavery. The darkness, and drive the evil-doers into their dens tions. Let southern men read and reflect upon

effect of the whole movement will be, then, to re- and hiding places. But further, sir, I am in f vor the following language from the Worcester Even- new in the halls of Congress the agitation of the of seeing stringent laws passed by Congress, to ing Journal, a Know-Nothing organ in Massa- slavery question. Most of those, if not all, who exclude entirely paupers and convicts from our chusetts:

have been elected to Congress from northern States shores. This is due to ourselves and to the honest The following States, we know, can be carried to day | by the aid of this organization, have, like Hanni. || foreigners amongst us; and they would rejoice at by the American pariy, and we attach to each the number bal, sworn upon the altar of their country eternal it s much as we could do. Much of the odium of votes they are entitled 10: Pennsylvania 27, Massachuselts 13, Maine 8, Delaware 3, New Jersey 1, Illinois 11, In

hostility to slavery. The repeal of the Kansas- which seems to have attached to the whole foreign diava 13, Rhode Island 3, New York 35, Ohio 23, Connec.

Nebraska act, the repeal of the fugitive law, is the population, in some quarters, has grown out of ticut 6, Now Hampshire 6, Vermont 5-making in all 160 language which they use at the hustings, in their the fact that a few vicious and unprincipled men electoral voies, being eleven more than are required for the conventions, in their legislative resolves; and the of that population have been engaged in riots and election of President. These figures show, thai, as a party, same language will echo in the halls of Congress. excesses disgusting to good men everywhere. ve are independent of any sorthern support whatever, and therefore the temptation or the necessity of bidding for

And when this period shall arrive, as it soon will, And instead of placing the blame where it belongs southern voles does not exist ; for the two great Stales of the the South will need all the unity and strength she-instead of confining a just indignation to those Union are now secured to the American parly. Maryland can summon to the conflict to bear her off harmless who have violated law and good order—it is visand Virginia are sure to go for the American ticket; but without the aid of a single vo e from these almost northern

from the fight. Instead of giving countenance to ited upon the whole foreign-born population. States, we shall elect in 1856 an American President. The this movement, which is now assuming such a Every honest, intelligent foreigner then, could slavery question cannot affect the American party; for its threatening aspect for us, we should begin to heal | but rejoice to see and feel that he was relieved whole power, and all its hopes, are north of diason and up our dissensions; to repair the broken walls of from this unjust censure and reproach. Dizon's line. Its aspirations are for freedom; and when the party is accused of being pro slavery, kt its defenders

our fortifications; to post our sentinels, and, with But again I say, this reform can be commenced point the men who ultered the base lie to every election that

wisdom and foresighi, prepare to receive the at- and carried on by Democratic counsels, and under has occurred since the party sprung into existence."

tack, like men who know their rights, and intend Democratic guidance, far better than under the But it may be said this is only the language of to defend them.

leadership of any new and untried party; and a newspaper, and the editor is alone responsible Before I close my remarks, I wish to say here, what I do in the premises shall be done in confor it. I propose, then, to present it in a still more as I shall say everywhere, that I desire to see the nection with my old party, and such gond and Bolemn form. The subjoined resolutions were naturalization laws more strictly enforced than conservative men as shall be willing to coöperate adopted in one of their conventions, just before they have been heretofore. Courts have not with it. I believe I am as true an American as the late elections in that State:

always looked to the administration of them with any man of any organization, however boastful “ Resolved, That in the present chaotic condition of

that watchful eye which the interests of the coun- his pretensions; and I believe that the Democratic parties in Massachusetts, the only star above the horizon try demand. Frauds have been perpetrated justly party needs no proof to bolster it up, as the party is the love of human liberry and the abolition of slavery; alarming in their consequences io certain sectioris of the Constitution and of the country. Where and that it is the duty of all anti slavery men to rally around the Republican party as an organization which invites the

of the country, where the foreign population has the honor of the nation was to be vindicated, and united action of the people on the one transcending ques.

accumulated in great numbers; and the grievances to that end wars were to be conducted to a suction of slave dominion wbich now divides the Union. complained of are not altogether unfounded. It | cessful close, a Democratic Administration has

“ Whereas, Roman Catholicism and slavery, being alike might be well so far to amend the naturalization had the responsibility to assume; the work to do; founded and supported on the basis of ignorance and tyr

laws as to require the declaration of intention to and gloriously has it been done. When territory anny, and being, therefore, natural allies in every warfare against liberty and enlightenment: Therefore, be it

be made a matter of record five years before the was to be acquired, and our borders to be extended, Resolved, That there can exist no real hostility to Ro. final papers, were granted, by which means parol carrying forward civilization and happiness to man Catholicism which does not embrace slavery, its nat. testimony would be dispensed with, and the mankind, the power of Democracy has been ural coworker in opposition to freedom and republican in

record evidence substituted in lieu thereof. Under invoked, and, as with the enchanter's wand, our In the State of Michigan, where the anti-Ne- || cation to a court to be admitted to the rights of citi.

the law thus amended, when a party made appli- || maps have been enlarged, and the area of freedom braska men and Know-Nothings swept over the zenship, instead of producing before that court some

extended. Our financial, commercial, and agri

cultural prosperity, under its auspices-prove the State like a desolating storm, the Legislature | degraded witness, who was ready to testify as to the wisdom of its policy, and teach me that I should Bends greeting to Federal Massachusetts the following preamble and resolutions:

five years' residence required by law, an authenti- cling to it as to a life-boat in the wild fury of the

cated copy of the records when the declaration was storm. With these convictions resting upon my

of 1820 ha- released the people of this state from

all obliga! I made, five years before, would be proof of a much | mind, I shall not leave it, nor forsake it, for any tion to respect Congressional compiomises for the exten

higher nature, and more satisfactory in its char. temporary advantage that might accrue to myself, kion and perpetuation of slavery: l'herefore

acter. This change could be effected without ex- from a connection with any other organization. “Resileed, That the act of Congress of 1850, known as tending the period of naturalization; as the for- In conclusion, sir, I have been told that the the sugirive slave law, was, in the opinion of the people of eigner who intended to become a citizen might expression of my opinions on this subject will this Siate, an unnecessary measure; that it contains provisions of doubtful constitutionality; that the mode of pro.

make his declaration of intention immediately | deprive me of my seat in this House. I am not preceeding under it is harsh, unjust, and repugnant to the upon his arrival here, and in five years thereafter pared to believe it. I represent a true, an enlightmoral sense of the people of the States, cruel and despotic perfect his papers. But, sir, I am not wedded to ened, an honest constituency, who never strike toward the person claimed as a sugitive, and that we are in favor of its immediate repeal.

the period of five years, nor do I consider the Dem- || before they hear, who prize principles above expeResolved, That our Senators in Congress be, and they

ocratic party as pledged to this period of time, to diency; who, if they draw the sword, it is to use are hereby, instructed, and our Representatives requested the exclusion of all change. Should it be length it upon an enemy and not upon a friend; a conto use their hest exertions to procure the intediate repeal ened or shortened to meet the necessities of the stituency who glory in religious toleration; who of the act of 1850, known as the fugitive slave law."

country, there could certainly be no sacrifice of never burn churches; who never collect in mobg Ohio, too, has spoken to the same effect, through principle involved in the change. The Democratic for purposes of violence; who neither teach nor the State Journal, an Abolition Know-Nothing | party is emphatically the party of progress, and preach the principles of agrarianism; who never press.

has at all times, and under all círcumstances, seek to array labor against capital; who, in obedi" So far, in this state and the free States generally, the adapted its action to the true wants and interests ence to Heaven's command, gain their bread by Know-Nothings' have coöperated and worked faithfully with the anti-Nebraska and anti-slarery feeling of the people. to the people.

the sweat of their brow, and eat it in peace: ready They bavne hormon themselves tortor e perbelicauis by casting | page with its wisdom, liberal policy, and adapted- U with the needy and the hungry, whether they be

The history of our country is marked on every at all times to share it, with Christian good will, weight uniformly in favor of freedom. "


330 Cong....20 Sess.

Post Office Appropriation Bill Debate.



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born in this or a foreign land; whether they bend sight of some of these places, but they have none his Department as any newly

settled portion of the knee before the Redeemer in one form of of the benefits of the mail, because, under the pres

the United States. In some of those places they church government or another. With such a juryent contract, the vessels are not required to stop now get mails once every month, and in others to try me, I will fear no evil, until I shall have there. The object of this is, to give those places not at all. They are compelled, after the mail done something worse than I have done this day. a regular mail.

goes to Astoria, to carry it several hundred miles, Bui, sir, should I be mistaken; should public sen- Mr. HUNTER. If the mail steamer runs in at a great loss of time, before these intermediate timent have become infected with this raging dis- sight of the places, why give this large additional points can be filled up. Under these circumtemper; should they be prepared to strike down compensation-$120,000? Will the Senator inform stances, I think Congress ought to extend these an humble public servant for attempting to steer me what is now given for this service?

facilities to them. by the old landmarks; for cherishing and uphold- Mr. GWIN. This is a route from San Fran- The amendment was agreed to. ing the sacred principle of religious toleration, cisco to points in Washington Territory where Mr. RUSK. I have another amendment, as an planted upon this continent by the Pilgrim fathers there are no routes. The mail which is now run additional section: when they landed upon Plymouth Rock-I shall is bound by the contract to stop at none of those

And be it further enacted, That the proper meet it with becoming, fortitude; and shall carry points. It runs from San Francisco to Astoria.

Comptroller of the Treasury, under the instructions of the with me to my humble home, in private life, the || There is no mail now between those points from

Attorney General, inquire whether the

contract made by the proud satisfaction of knowing that I have never Astoria to the extreme point that is named there Postmaster General with William L. Blanchard, for carry

ing the United States mail op route 5066, in the year 1853, made a compromise with what I believed to be l in Washington Territory on the proposed route.

was violated by the Postmaster General, without legal and error, for the honor of position, or the poor emol. They have no mails, and they have no possibility

adı quale cause given by said Blanchard; and if it was so uments of office. Whatever may befall me, if I of getting mails except by a line established in this violated, then to ascertain and allow such damages as be can retain my self-respect, and a consciousness of way. Propositions have already been made, and is entitled to, in equily and justice, by reason of such viola. integrity, of 'motive, and of conduct, I shall not I believe a contract has been made to carry this

tion, and such damages be paid to said Blanchard out of

any money in the Treasury not otherwise appropriated. repent at my adverse fortune. In my short career, | mail at the amount stated. Certainly an estimate my mind has often dwelt with unbounded admi- | has been made. We have no mails at all, except Mr. HUNTER. I hope the Senator will ex. ration upon the proud saying of a distinguished one monthly mail running to Oregon from San | plain that. statesman, now no more, and which I trust may | Francisco.

Mr. RUSK. It provides for compensation to be permitted, without presumption, to repeat

Mr. HUNTER. It seems to me that this must Mr. Blanchard, a mail contractor between Salt with him: “I would rather be right than be Presi- be an extravagant compensation, if the steamer Lake City and San Francisco. Some two years

goes within sight of these places, as the Senator ago, when the Hon. Mr. Hubbard was Postfrom California (Mr. WELLER) has stated. master General, a contract was made with two

Mr. WELLER. I did not state that the steamers men-Choppering, I believe, was the name of POST OFFICE APPROPRIATION BILL.

ran within sight of all these places; within sight of one, and Woodward of the other—at the sum of DEBATE IN SENATE,

some of them they do; but ihey would be delayed || $14,000. The route was through an Indian coun

greatly if they were compelled to go in. Some- iry, and we had several failures on it. One of the Monday, February 26, 1855.

times it would be difficult to get out. They are men lost his life in carrying the mail Mr. WoodThe Senate, as in Committee of the Whole, not now compelled to go in. They choose to ward was killed. Posimaster General Hubbard, proceeded to the consideration of the bill from the steer directly to Astoria, where their contract re- upon some statement given to him by a special House of Representatives, making appropriations quires them to go. It would necessarily produce agent of the Post Office Department, set aside the for the service of the Post Office Department during

a good deal of delay if they were compelled to stop | contract, and made one with Blanchard to carry the fiscal year ending June 30, 1856.

at those intermediate points; yet there is a large that mail at $50,000 a year. It was stipulated in Mr. RUSK. I am instructed by the Committee population there, and, as a matter of course, they that contract that Mr. Blanchard should, at his on the Post Office and Post Roads to offer the fol

are entitled, as well as other portions of the country, own expense, establish in Carson's Valley a post, to mail facilities.

for the protection of the mail as well as of emigrant lowing amendment, as an additional section:

Mr. HUNTER. Do I understand the Senator passengers. The papers accompanying BlanchSec. —. And be it further enacted, 'That the fourth sec.

from New York to say that the Postmaster Gen- ard's petition show that he did, at a cost of some tion of the act of Congress approved the 5th of August, 1854, entitled " An act making appropriations for the service of eral himself estimated it at $120,000?

$35,000, as well as I remember, establish that the Post Office Department during the fiscal year ending Mr. SEWARD. I believe a contract was once post. The present Postmaster General, after the June 30, 1855," be, and ine sarne is hereby, continurd for made, and that contract assumed the sum of contract had been in operation some four or five one year from August 5, 1855, and that the allowance granied by the said section to the deputy postmaster at

$120,000; but on that subject I will refer the Sen- | months, set it aside, on the ground that in making Washington city, District of Columbia, of ope mill per

ator to the chairman of the committee, (Mr. Rusk,} || it with Blanchard there had been no advertisepound upon the aggregate weight of the public documents whose information is more explicit than my own. ment, and he reinstated the party Choppering-I printed by order ot Congress, and deposited in the office of Mr. MORTON. This is a postal route which, || believe that is his name. I believe, also, there said postinaster to be mailed, shall be so construed as 10

I understand, was established at the last session of has been some failure in the service since. Mr. comigence August 5, 1853.

Congress. The amount which is specified in the Blanchard shows that he established the post; Mr. HUNTER. I hope the Senator will ex.

amendment is not the amount which we say shall that he was subjected to very large expense, and plain that. I do not understand it.

be given; but it is the maximum which we author. that he lost, by attacks of the Indians, a good deal Mr. RUSK. It is the amerdment which was

ize the Postmaster General to pay for the service. of his stock upon the route. The amendment, proposed and adopted by the Senate at the last

The Committee on the Post Office and Post Roads | therefore, authorizes the proper accounting officer Bession. It goes back to 1853, covering the exact

were governed, in fixing that maximum, by the of the Treasury, under instructions from the At service which has been performed, and commenc

bids which were received in the Post Office Depart. | torney General, if the contract has been violated ing at the time when the clerks in the other Depart

ment. The service was never put upon the route by the present Postmaster General, to inquire, and ments here had their salaries raised. It was last touching at these particular points. There was a

allow Blanchard a reasonable and equitable sum year lost in the committee of conference. This good deal of competition, if I understand aright, | for the actual damages which he has sustained. goes back, therefore, and covers that year and con

from the representation of the Delegate from It may amount to some $30,000 or $40,000. The tinues it one year longer. It is a small amend.

Washington, and also from the Senators from Cal- losses, I have no sort of doubt, have been incurred ment, sir.

ifornia. The amendment does not instruct the in the attempt to carry out the contract. There The amendment was agreed to.

Postmaster General to pay this amount; but it is a may have been an impropriety in the former PostMr. SEWARD. I am instructed by the Com- | limit put upon the reception of bids which he may master General making that contract without ad. mittee on the Post Office and Post Roads to offer | receive. It is the maximum amount which he is vertisement, but these losses have fallen upon a the following amendment:

authorized, under any circumstances, to pay for citizen of the United States who has performed Bec. - Ant be it further enacted, that the Postmaster the service. There will be great competition, I the service well; and it seems to me that, most General be, and he is hereby, authorized to establish and put doubt not, as on other mails routes in the country; || clearly, on principles of equity and justice, he in operation, a semi-monthly mail by sea, from San Franand the contract will be taken at a proper remu.

should be remunerated. cieco, in the State of California, lo Olympia, in the Terri tory of Washington, touching at Humboldt bay, Trinidad, nerative price. The amount specified is the max

Mr. HUNTER. This seems to me to provide and Crescent City, in the State of California; Port Orford, imum which you will authorize the Postmaster for a private claim, and it is, perhaps, not the best Gardiner City, Umpqua, and Astoria, in the Territory of General to pay. He may have the service for mode of adjusting it. We are to require the First Washington: Shoal Water bay, and Port Townsend, in the Territory of Washington, and such other points as shall be $10,000, if he gets bids for that amount.

Comptroller of the Treasury, under the decision designated by the Postmaster General: Provided, 'The whole

Mr. RUSK. This route was established by a of the Attorney General, not only to ascertain cost of said service shall not exceed the sum of $120,000 former Congress, and several bids were made to whether anything is due, and whether the Postper annum.

perform the service. In fixing the maximum sum master General violated the contract, but also to Mr. HUNTER. I would ask if there is any here, we have been governed by those bius, and ascertain the damages. We have passed a bill recommendation or estimate from the Department put it below the lowest aum, I believe. The mail establishing a court of claims which ought to in regard to this additional service.

route is necessary, but would not be a remuner- take cognizance of such cases as this. I think it Mr. SEWARD. Yes, sir, there is a recommend. ative one. The Postmaster General refused to ought not to be put upon a general appropriation ation—a communication between the Delegate of put it in operation, because of the large bids; and bill. We cannot enier into the consideration of the Territory and the Postmaster General.

no one can blame him for it, when we look at the the case at this time. It would involve a great Mr. HUNTER. In addition to the mail ser- revenues of his Department. But, sir, these are many considerations which we have not time now vice which they now have?

new Territories. They are settling up rapidly to bring up. We do not know what the contract Mr. SEWARD. The recommendation repre- with population. The mail pay returned is, at We are not able to examine it, and it seems sents it to be necessary.

present, very slight, but I have no doubt that if to me that it is not a power which we ought to Mr. WELLER. At many of the points named the Postmaster General is authorized and required, delegate—to require an officer of the Government there is no mail whatever. Besides, the mail within this sum, to put the route in operation, it to ascertain the damages, and award whatever he steamer from San Francisco to Oregon runs within will come as near being a remunerative service to thinks right. The amendment does not require


330 CONG....20 Sess.

Post Office Appropriation BillDebate.


the accounting officer to report the case back to the question. At that time there was no board of which stand pretty much on the same ground. Congress for their decision, but he is to pay whatever he may think right. I should be against and there never may be, for the President some- For compensation to William M. F. McGraw for car. this under any circumstances; but, with the cer: times vetoes a bill which Congress passes. How- rying the nail on route 8911, from Independence, Missouri, tainty that we have a court established where all ever that may be, the question was properly be

to the Great Salt Lake City, Utali Territory, bonthly eacii

way, according to the contraet under which said -ervice is such things can be considered and adjudicated fore the committee, and they thought it should be now being performed, the sum of $30,000 per annum, comhereafter, it seems to me to be manifestly proper disposed of as other similar questions have been mencing with the conıract aforesaid, and in lieu of the that we should vote it down here. disposed of.

compensation therein stipulated. Mr. WELLER. The only question presented The proposition of the committee is in the most I will explain that amendment. This contract by the amendment, is whether you are willing to guarded form. Damages ought to be paid, and for supplying the mail from Independence to Salt trust the Attorney General to decide whether the ought to be paid without delay, if the Government Lake City, was taken by Mr. McGraw, at the Postmaster General has violated a contract with has incurred a liability to pay them. The officer sum of $14,000. The Indian difficulties which one of the citizens of California? If there has been designated in the amendment is the proper person have occurred there, have subjected him to great & violation of the contract on the part of the Gov- to ascertain those damages; and the Treasury is the losses. All his papers are before the Committee ernment, and the individual has sustained loss in proper Department to pay them. Then the ques- on the Post Office and Post Roads. My own consequence of that violation, it seems to me that tion arises whether the Postmaster General has opinion is that, although this is a pretty considercommon justice would award him a compensa- | violated the law, or acted unjustly in regard to this able allowance for the mail service, it is absolutely tion. He entered into this contract in good faith contract? We were not prepared, and were not necessary if the mail is to be carried there at all. with the predecessor of the present Postmaster i willing, to sit in an investigation upon the conduct He will be compelled to employ pretty strong General. "He performed his duties under that of the Postmaster General in regard to a matter of guards. He has lost many of his mules and some contract faithfully for a period of six months. | this kind, and we said among ourselves, if this Gov. of his drivers; and upon that route, in the present Then, the present Postmaster General, on his ac- ernment can trust anybody to ascertain the truth state of the country, he will have to employ a very cession to power, annulled that contract, after the of the matter, it will be the Attorney General; and, strong guard. Under such circumstances I think party had expended a large sum of money in at all events, the Government of the United States it nothing but proper and right that the compenmaking the necessary arrangements for carrying will have least right to complain when we select sation should be allowed. out the service of the contract. That contract the law officer of the Government to determine There is another amendment which stands provided for the establishment of military posts. that question. Therefore we associated him with

pretty much on the same footing which I shall Those military posts were indispensable for the the Comptroller for the purpose of ascertaining offer in a few minutes, in regard to the route from protection of the mail of the United States; and whether ihere had been any violation of law, or San Antonio to Santa Fé, at a less sum—not $3,000 while they were protecting the mail, which was any injustice, and if so, then, under his direction

less however. There may be one other route the carried through a country inhabited by Indians, the damages should be audited and paid.

contractor on which will hereafter make a demand they were incidentally giving protection to the The only remaining question is, whether the for similar extra compensation, and that is the emigrants who were passing from Salt Lake to case ought to come back to Congress hereafter. route from Independence to Santa Fé. At present the Sacramento. The only question here is, | If it is not proper for Congress to investigate it there are no Indian depredations committed upon whether there has been a violation of the contract. now, it ought not to come back to us again, for that route. The amendment will leave that question to the Congress is so unfit a body for the investigation of Mr. HUNTER. I understand that there is no determination of the law officer of this Govern- | such cases, that we have established a board for recommendation for that from the Department, ment; and if there has been a violation, then the the examination of private claims.

and no estimate for it. I do not raise the question proper accounting officer of the Treasury is to be Mr. RUSK called for the yeas and nays, and of order, because the committee have the right to reauthorized to inquire into his loss and damages they were ordered; and being taken, resulted - port it as an amendment, and yet, it seems to me, in consequence of the violation. If there has been yeas 16, nayo 20; as follows:

ihat it is hardly safe to be putting on these amend a loss, I think the Senator from Virginia ought to YEAS-Messss, Adams, Brainerd, Bright, Brodhead, ments without some estimate from the Departbe willing to remunerate him to the extent of his Brown, Foot, Gwin, James, Morton, Pettit, Rusk, Seward, ment, some reliable information, something more loss. Thompson of Kentucky, Thomson of New Jersey, Wade,

than the loose statement of the parties who come and Weller-16. Mr. HUNTER. I wish to suggest to the SenNAYS–Messrs. Allen, Bell, Benjamin, Cass, Chase,

here applying for additional compensation. ate that this is a departure from the precedents in Cooper, Dawson, Evans, Fessenden, Fitzpatrick, Geyer, Mr. ADAMS. I have been in the habit of opall such cases. When we have directed these Hunter, Mason, Pratt, Stuart, Sumner, Toombs, Walker, posing, and voting against all extra allowances inquiries to be made, we have ordered the result Wilson, and Wrighe--20.

over and above the contract which the parties of the inquiry and investigation to be reported

So the amendment was rejected.

made. I favored, however, the amendment which back to us for our action and decision; but in this

Mr. RUSK. I offer the following amendment, is now pending before the Senale, as well as the case the decision of the officer is to be final and as an additional section:

other referred to by the chairman of the Commitee the money is to be paid out on their award. They

Sec. — And be it further enacted, That the right to frank

on the Post Office and Post Roads. I did so for are not only to be the judges, but the jury, too. letters and documents now allowed by law to the Vice this reason: The proof abundantly shows that at They are not only to judge on the legal rights of President, be continued, to those who have heretofore or the time these contracts were bid off, the country the party, but they are to award and assess the shall hereafter occupy that office, during life.

was at peace with the Indians. A new state of damages.

The amendment was agreed to.

things exist, however, which could not have reaMr. SEWARD. The ingenuity of the honorable chairman of the Committee on Finance is able tional section:

Mr. RUSK. I offer the following, as an addi- sonably been anticipated and was not ascertained

by the parties making the contracts at the time to suggest new objections as long as the bill is

Sec.—. And be it further enacted, That all books,

they were made, over a country over which the under consideration. I wish to notice those that

maps, charts, or other publications entered for copyright, contractors had no earthly control. As hostilities have already been made.

and which, under the act of August 10, 1816, are required have broken out in different portions of the coun. It is first urged against it that it is a private to be deposited in the Library of Congress and in the try with the Indians, these men must be ruined claim. It is a private claim; but it is one that

Smithsonian Institution, may be sent through the mails
free of postage, under such regulations as the Postmaster

unless we make them additional compensation to arises from a contract of the Post Office Depart- General may prescribe.

cover their additional and necessary expenses, in ment, and necessarily connects itselt with the appropriations to be paid by the Government for the

You require those publications to be sent by order to enable them to comply with the contract law, and, I suppose, there can be no objection to

made with the Government. I thought it was maintenance of the postal communication on the franking them

reasonable, right, and proper, that in cases of this route which is the subject of this difficulty. The

Mr. HUNTER. Do we pay for it now?

sort, the Government should conform iis comcontractor who had a contract with the Postmaster General, comes before the committee and says,

Mr. PEARCE. The expenses now are paid | pensation to the circumstances of the case. If the the Postmaster General has violated my contract they have absorbed almost the whole of it. Those out of the contingent fund of the Library, and parties could have anticipated this state of things,

if they had made their contract with reference to and taken it from me without right, without jus- which go to the Smithsonian Institution are paid it, with the knowledge of it, I should not be in tice, and without law. That committee is quite as for out of its funds.

favor of allowing them one cent over what they proper a one to examine that subject as the Com.

The amendment was agreed to.

agreed upon. But the amount reported by the mitiee on Claims, and I think a little more so. At

Mr. RUSK. The next amendment is to insert their additional risk and their additional expense.

committee will only barely compensate them for all events, the question as to the proper committee to which it should be referred was settled by us. I the following:

The amendment was agreed to. The Committee on the Post Office and Post Roads For the transportation of the United States mail over the

Mr. RUSK. I have another amendment of a were charged with the investigation. Before the Michigan Central railroad, five hundred and eighteen

similar character. Pretty much the same state of committee, good reason was shown for the belief miles from the 9th of June, 1849, to the 28th of Novem

ber of the same year, $5,177 66. that, while there were distresses and losses sus

facts applies to it as to the other: tained by the contractor, there was some misun

Mr. HUNTER. Was there no contract for For compensation to George H. Giddings for carrying the

mail on route 12900, from Santa Fé, New Mexico, to San derstanding or misapprehension which induced the that?

Antonio, Texas, monthly, each way, according to the conPostmaster General interfere and terminate the Mr. RUSK. There was not at the time. They

tract under which said service is being performed, the sum contract. asked the Senate once or twice for it. At the last

of $33,500 per annum, commencing with the contract aforeThe next question that presented itself to our

session it was neglected, or it would have been said, and in lieu of the compensation therein stipulated. minds was whether we should sit as a tribunal | put upon the appropriation bill. The service was

Mr. HUNTER. I will only suggest to the and try the case. We thought such a trial would performed, under the direction of the Postmaster

Senator from Texas-I am not disposed to revive have been an er parte proceeding, and not safe General, at a cheaper rate than it was afterwards the discussion; I know we have not time to do for the Government. Therefore we conclude that taken by the railroad.

that-that, perhaps, we may be interfering imthe proper mode was to refer it to some court or

The amendment was agreed to.

properly with Executive duty. These are Execauthority competent to ascertain and determine Mr. RUSK. I have two other amendments utive matters, it seems to me. The Postmaster

330 CONG....20 Sess.
Post Office Appropriation Bill-Debate.

General ought to look into this case and report | ber, no contract had been made with the former

cumstances they have lost money, it is the duty upon it before we adopt it. We have not the Postmaster General. On the accession to office of of the Government to pay it back to them. If means of ascertaining the facts. These are cases the present Postmaster General the bids had just your high official, your high executive officers in which we cannot act properly and understand- come in, and he suspended their acceptance at commit errors like this, you must be accountable ingly; and I think it is a hazardous kind of legis- || the instance of several Senators living upon the to the innocent parties who have endeavored to lation.

Mississippi river. I know I signed it, amongst serve you according to their contract. The amendment was agreed to.

others, for we did not believe that a double service I do not intend, nor do I deem it necessary, to Mr. RUSK. I have another small amendment was necessary. It was in the hurry and confusion go into a full review of the whole question of the to offer:

of the adjournment of Congress, and when the Mississippi mail, nor is it involved in this malter,

new Administration was going in, and he was re- These parties claim that they have been injured Sec. –. And be it furth-enacted, That the Postmaster General be, and he is hereby, authorized, in the settlement quested to suspend the acceptance of the contracts. by the failure of the Government to execute its of the accounts of the late postmaster at Waterville, Maine, He did so.

contract with them, and if they have, clearly they to allow such sum, in addition to the commissions which

Upon examining it afterwards, he dropped the are entitled to indemnity. I know the ground on accrued at his office during his term of service, as willinake

way service, which was paid for at a very high which the Postmaster General puts this thing. It his compensation equal to $175 per quarter, and cover all such necessary items of incidental expenses as have been rate, and entered into a contract for the other is that these parties did not own the boats; that usually incurred and allowed in post offices of his class : service at, I believe, $295,000 a year. These they had merely chartered them for the service, Prorided, however, that the whole compensation and ex- parties, as they show, prepared themselves for the and that they were doing no more than he was : penses shall not exceed $425 per quarter.

performance of the service, expended considerable | able to do through his agents, that was, shipping Mr. HUNTER. We cannot legislate on this

sums of money, got several boats, and when the the mail by bcats. I invoke the attention of Sen. bill for the raising

of the salaries of postmasters. time for them to carry the mail commenced, the ators to this, because I know there has been an Mr. RUSK. This is only to comply with one agent at Louisville refused to deliver it to them, | industrious effort made in some quarters to proof the provisions of the existing law. The office

because they had freight upon their boats. He duce a wrong impression upon the point that they is a separating office.

found the boat taking freight; and he alleged || did not own the boats, that they had their agent Mr.'HUNTER. It is legislating for an individ- he was instructed by the Postmaster General, there simply to ship the mail. Suppose they did ual upon a general appropriation bill.

if the boats carried freight, not to give them the not own the boats; suppose they were shipping the The amendment was agreed to.

mail. That was repeated iwo or three different mail; if they shipped and carried it according to Mr. BRODHEAD. The Committee on the times. Under the old law the mail was sent on the contract, what business was it with the PostPost Office and Post Roads have instructed me to boats. I am not sure as to whether it was sent master General whether they owned the boats or report the following amendment:

by a special contract with the Department. These not? Suppose a man agreed to carry the mail from Sec. –. And be it further enacted. That the First Comp- contractors repeatedly, for several days, demanded here to Baltimore, is any business of the Posttroller of the Treasury be instructed to examine the claim of

the mail. The agent of the Department, under master General whether he owns the railroad that William R. Glover and Thomas W. Mather, and their asso

instructions from the Postmaster General, refused carries it or not? Suppose he undertakes to carry ciates, and ascertain and allow such arrearage as they are entitled 10, in justice and equity on account of the refusal it, because the boat was taking on freight, or had it from here to Warrenton, is it any business of of the Postmaster General to carry into effect the contract on freight, until it was agreed between the parties the Postmaster General whether or not he owns entered into between William R. Glover and Tbomas W.

that it was unnecessary to make the demand for the coaches in which it is carried ? It is his busi. Mather, and the Postmaster General in 1853, for the transportalion of the mail on the Mississippi and Ohio rivcrs;

the mail, as no boat having freight upon it could ness to carry it according to the schedule, and, if and that such damages shall be paid to William R. Glover be furnished with the mail. The parties contended he carries it in that way, the Government is bound and Thomas W. Mather and their associates, out of any that the Postmaster General had violated the con- to pay for it. The difference between the manner moneys in the Treasury not otherwise appropriated. tract. The Postmaster General contended that in which Glover & Co., and the manner in which

Mr. BENJAMIN. This amendment refers, I he had not, on the ground that the service should the Postmaster General proposes to carry the mail think, to a contract for carrying the mail on the be performed according to the advertisement. It is, that he simply charters a boat when he happens Mississippi river. It was in relation to that con- is due, however, to the parties to say, that no such to find one going out; he employs one and ships tract that the Senator from Tennessee, (Mr. Jones) | requirement was in the contract, except that they his mail upon it as he would flour, or whisky, who is not now in his seat, introduced a resolution should be safe and suitable boats.

or any other article of commerce; but these parties calling for information from the Postmaster Gen- Mr. BROWN. The Senator from Texas has did not contract to carry the mail in this way. eral. As that subject is now before the Senate, I stated this case, as I understand it, pretty fairly. They were to have boats there, and to start and should be exceedingly happy if the chairman of Glover & Co. entered into a contract with the carry the mail whether they had freight or not. ; the Committee on the Posi Office and Post Roads, Government to carry the mail in safe and sub- If they had no passengers, or no freight, if they to which that information was referred, would in- || stantial boats. The advertisement required that had nothing but the mail, they were to start acform us as to the action of the committee on the they should simply be passenger boats, and that cording to the contract. There, sir, is the subsubject. This has immediate reference to it. no freight should be carried on them. When stantial difference between the Postmaster Gen.

Mr. RUSK. The committee have just this morn- they came, however, to enter into the contract, eral's mode of furnishing the mail upon the Mising come into possession of the answer of the that portion of the advertisement was left out, and sissippi, and the mode of these parties. It was no Postmaster General. The amendment refers to they were simply required to supply themselves reason for refusing them the mail that they did not another subject. The law which the honorable with good and substantial boats to carry the mails. | own the boats, that they simply proposed to take Senators from Tennessee (Mr. Jones) and Mis- || Now, the Postmaster General undertakes to as. somebody else to perform the service, because that sissippi (Mr. Brown) complained was not carried sume the ground, that because a particular kind of somebody else was to start according to the sched. into effect, was passed at a subsequent date to this service was advertised for, therefore they were ule. contract. The committee have only this morning || bound by the advertisement, not by the contract. Mr. BENJAMIN. I put the question to the received the information, which they will lay be I think that is the most extraordinary position in chairman of the Committee on the Post Office and fore the Senate at the proper time. I have not had || law that was ever assumed. Why, sir, suppose Post Roads, with the view of bringing again to the time, myself, to examine it; but I see that it con- you advertise to sell land upon a quit claim, and attention of the Senate the conduct of the Post. tains some statements from special agents of the afterwards sell it and give a warranty, by what master General. It was not that I had any special Post Office Department, and perhaps it would not are you bound ? By the advertisement, or by objection to the amendment now before the Senate. be proper to allude to them at this time, because | your deed? Are you not bound by the contract I am satisfied that the conduct of that official upon the Postmaster General is seeking to enter into a as you enter into it? I am not going to discuss that occasion, as upon all other occasions in which contract to obtain the best service he can on the before the Senate a principle of law which every I have had an opportunity of examining it, so far Ohio and Mississippi rivers, I think he is doing, man who ever read one of the horn books of the as regards the transportation of the mail upon the as far as he can do it, his duty in the matter, in law must recognize as being correct. The parties western waters, was in gross violation of his public reference as well to the accommodation of the are bound by the contract which they sign, and duty, and in disregard of the repeated legislation people on the rivers, as to the revenues of the De

conversations and advertisements which of Congress on the subject. I do not desire now partment. The hasty glance which I have been occurred antecedent to the signing of the contract. to enter into any special examination of the case, able to cast over the communication, shows me, I What did Glover & Co. propose to do? They | but simply to reply to some suggestions which fell think, that it will be perfectly satisfactory to the were there at the appointed time, and asked to from the honorable Senator from Texas, to the Senate, and to the honorable Senators from Mis- || carry the mail. It was refused to them on a effect that he was satisfied, from a personal inspecsissippi and Tennessee also. That, however, is ground which was no violation of the contract tion of the papers in his hands, that both Congress not connected with this amendment.

into which they had entered. There is no pre- and the Senators putting these questions would It will be remembered that Congress twice re- tense that they were not prepared to execute the be perfectly satisfied with the action of the Postpeated the requirement for the Postmaster General contract according to the bond, according to the master General. I, for one, anticipate no such to put the service on the Mississippi and Ohio agreement into which they had entered. The results from such an examination; but I believe rivers. The former Postmaster General adver- || Postmaster General refuses to deliver the mail. || the result of such examination will leave me in tised for the service under the former law of Con- | They come here and complain that they had some | precisely the same train of mind in which I am gress-advertised for a double service, a line from | twenty or more boats on their hands engaged to now, a frame of mind which would induce me, Louisville to New Orleans, and then another line | perform this service, and that in violation of the with singular satisfaction, to vote in favor of a to supply the way post offices. In the advertise | contract, the Postmaster General refused to allow | resolution that the Senate of the United States ment various things were required, such as that them to do it; and they ask that an account be advise and consent to the appointment of a sucthe boats in which the service was to be performed stated, and that they may be indemnified for cessor to the present inefficient and incompetent should be constructed for passengers only. That | whatever losses they have sustained. I do not head of that Department. was the case, as well as I'now remember. I am know that they sustained any losses. I take it Mr. RUSK. I had hoped that the conduct of pretty sure that was the fact. There were several || for granted that if they do not show before the || the Postmaster General, any further than it is bids, and very high bids too, both for the through accounting, officers that they did sustain loss, necessary in connection with this matter, would line and for the way service. As well as I remem. Il nothing will be allowed them. If under these cir- not bo alluded to in refusing to carry out this



331 CONG....20 Sess.

Post Office Appropriation Bill-Debate.


contract, especially after what I had stated, that creased pay in future on other routes. That the rate pro- Postmaster General may make immediate temporary arthe committee had only received the information

posed was unusually high will appear in a more glaring rangements for carrying said mail by the trip; and if he

light by contrasting it with the pay to the same parties on fails to obtain acceptable bide, alter advertising for thirty this morning, and at the proper time would lay it

the route between Louisville and St. Louis. Here the dis- days, be may make private contracts for carrying said before the Senate. I do not think there is any tance is five hundred and forty-four miles, for the most part mail, and the said mail shall be carried daily from Cairo to necessity, at this late stage of the session, to make on the Ohio river, where the service is liable to many ob- New Orleans."

structions and difficulties; on which route Messrs. Sherly a bill of indictment against the Postmaster General, & Sherlock conveyed mails daily at $70,000 per annum,

Three times that order is repeated to him. Upon or to enter into his defense. I am as much in favor

which was considered high pay. Yei, on the Cairo and every occasion he is told no discretion is to be of furnishing the community, and especially that New Orleans route, one thousand and fifty-nine miles, not pleaded by him hereafter as an excuse. He is

twice the length of the former, and on a river comparaportion of it in the Mississippi valley, with mail

told, you may make temporary arrangements, tively exempt from obstructions, they bid more than quadfacilities, as the honorable Senator from Louiruple that suin, being over one hundred per centum above

but you shall carry the mail. He is told, make Biana. But, sir, there is a wide distinction in my pro rata.

public bids, but you shall carry the mail. He is mind between a profitable contract or job with Not receiving acceptable proposals, I proceeded to inquire told, if the public bids do not suit the state of your the Government and furnishing mail facilities to

as to making a private contract, according to the provisions ideas of what is right and proper in your Depart.

of the act of Congress. Two special agents were sent to the community. It is known to every one that the Cairo for the purpose of examining into the service, ascer

ment, you may make private bids, but you shall Central Illinois railroad has just been finished. taining the number of suitable boats on the river, and of carry the mail daily. And now nine or ten months Owing to the severity of winter, there is, so far, obtaining generally such information as would facilitate have elapsed since that imperative order of Convery little travel upon it. In all probability, early

the making of a contract. The report of these agents


gress was made, and on a call for information, on that there is, as yet, but little travel on the Illinois Central in the spring, or during the next summer, and railroad, and that no steamboats are regularly connected

the motion of my friend from Tennessee, the Postthereafter, there will be a large travel there. That with it, but that probably by the 1st July next the Ohio and master General tells us that he is examining into will, as a matter of course, induce boats to go Mississippi railroad will be extended so far eastwardly as to the subject; that, in his opinion, it would cost 100 through to Cairo for the purpose of taking the effect important changes in the course of trade and travel,

much. The Senator from Texas, the chairman and render a line of steamboats between Cairo and Now passengers from the Central Illinois railroad, going Orleans, in connection with the Illinois Central railroad,

of the Committee on the Post Office and Post in the direction of New Orleans, and then the Post- both necessary for the public accommodation and profitable Roads, can find nothing to say except to repeat master General will be enabled to make a contract to the owners.

the lame and paltry excuse of this contumacious which shallaccommodate the communication much

Messrs. Sherlock, Rowe & Sherlock have reduced their bid of $300,000 10 $255,000, being at once a difference or

public officer. belter and at a vastly cheaper price than he could $45,000 per annum; and I am now also expecting propo

He gives us another reason. When we tell him make is forced by law to make it now.

sals from other parties, and shall endeavor to make a con- that he shall carry the mail daily, he reports to us I do not intend to consume the time of the Senate tract, so soon as it can be done on proper terins, and with that when the Illinois Central railroad is completed, on this subject. My intercourse with the Post

parties who are fully responsible and able to satisfy the
demand of the public for belter mail facilities than have

so as to make some connection with other mails, master General has satisfied me that he is an offiheretofore existed on the Mississippi river. It may be

he will comply with the law. I do not know cer of efficiency. Perhaps the Senator from Lou. proper to add that I have offered to give $150,000 a year for where the Postmaster General has slept the Rip isiana is anxious to have mail facilities extended ihis service, a rate which I consider high in view of the

Van Winkle sleep which seems to have buried at whatever cost; I confess I am anxious to have

prices paid in other sections, and of the almost certainly
ihat this route must soon become one of the best traveled

his whole faculties in such a state of slumber that these facilities, and I grumble at the Postmaster routes in the country.

he does not know that, upon the western waters, General very frequently because he does not It is of the first importance that the contractors should be this mail route upon the Mississippi connects with furnish me with such as I desire in my own State; able to keep the mail line wholly and absolutely under their

all the rest of the country, irrespective of the Illicontrol; olherwise the mails will continue to be shipped, but, at the same time, we must see that the Postin whole or in part, on transient boats, thus perpetuating

nois Central railroad. He tells us, in his last remaster General has a double duty to perform. the evils which the act of Congress was evidently designed port, that, until the Illinois Central railroad is comWhile he is required to extend, so far as he can, to remove.

pleted, the mail between Cario and New Orleans the mail facilities, he has, also, to look to the rev

Tiransmitherewith a copy of the report of W.M. Murphy,

does not connect with any of the great public mails special agent, and also a table showing the pay on the sevenues of his Department; and if you will observe eral steamboat routes in the Union.

of the country. He is not yet awake to the fact that them, you will see that they are greatly behind. I have the honor to be, &c., JAMES CAMPBELL. that is a great public line nf itself. He considers I send to the Secretary a statement of the Post- Hon. Tuomas J. Rusk, Chairman of Committee on Post the whole valley of the Mississippi as a mere admaster General in answer to a request of mine, Office and Post Roads, United States Senale.

junct of his railroad lines. He considers it as out and also an additional statement about the steam- Mr. BENJAMIN. The communication just | of the official world, and when the progress of boat service, and the propositions which were read, from the Postmaster General is, in substance, population and wealth of the western country made to carry the mail on this route. I ask for a repetition of the report recently made to the shall meet his view and ideas of what are sufficient the reading of the letter.

Senate in reply to the resolution of the Senator to maintain a mail roule, he will give us a new Mr. ADAMS. I desire to inquire whether the from Tennessee. I consider it again a gross in- line. He will exercise his judgment in contradiscommunication to which the Senator refers is not sult to the legislative department of the Govern- tinction to that of Congress until then; but, in the in regard to a different matter altogether from the ment, and I mean to state the reasons why I mean time, the people of the western country are question now before the Senate? characterize it in these terms.

to wait-their representatives in both branches of Mr. RUSK. It is not in reference to this In August, 1854, a discussion took place in the Congress are to wait-until he can make some amendment.

Senate on the subject of this western mail. Years arrangement by which this insignificant commerce Mr. ADAMS. Then I object to its reading. had elapsed from the period when the people of and population are to be accommodated by con

Mr. RUSK. I hope the honorable Senator will the western country commenced first the agitationnecting with some great mail line. This is a small not object. I do not see how he can.

upon the subject of having proper mail facilities | adjunct to a great mail line. The PRESIDING OFFICER, (Mr. Foor in upon the Mississippi and Ohio rivers. Applica- Mr. President, I did hope that the discussion the chair.) The Senator has a right to have it tion had been made to the Executive Department, | the other day would have awakened up the sleepy read in connection with his remarks. It is not again and again, in all its branches, and finding | faculties of this public officer, and that he would for the Chair to decide upon its pertinency to the them deaf to all appeals of the people for relief, we have become awake to the fact, that the western subject before the Senate.

were driven to Congress, and made application to portion of this Confederacy is entitled to some The Secretary read the following letter: the legislative department for proper action on the consideration at the hands of the Executive DePost Office DEPARTMENT, February 26, 1855.

subject. Two years ago, a law was passed by partment, especially after two succeeding acts of Sir: The act of Congress approved 5th Angust, 1854,

which the Postmaster General was ordered to put | Congress making it his imperative duty to act as provided for the establishment of a daily mail on the Mis- this mail upon the Mississippi river, but, under we told him he should act; but here again is the sissippi river, from Cairo, by Memphis, Napoleon, Vicks

the peculiar phraseology of the act, he considered burg, Natchez, and Baion Rouge, 10 New Orleans.

same lame and flimsy defense, the same pretextOn the 29th August I issued an advertisement, inviting

that he had a discretion, when the gentlemen a miserable prelexi-utterly without foundation, proposals for such service, to commence let January, 1855. who represented that section of the country were by which an Executive officer of the Government The 6th November was specified as the last day for receiv- satisfied that he had none. He reported to Con- undertakes to give his views of the policy which ing proposals, and they were to be acted upon by the Dth

gress that he had not put the mail upon the west- dictated a law of Congress. I trust, sir, that this of the same month. Sherlock, Rowe & Sherlock bid $300,000 per annum for

ern rivers in accordance with that aci, by reason of debate will be continued by other gentlemen who the advertised daily service, or $325,000 for that and also difficulty in relation to the contract and the cost of || represent the interests of that valley; and that they the supply of the tri-weekly mails at Columbus, Hickman, the service. The gentlemen representing the States will speak, as I now speak, the voice of the people New Madrid, Ashport, Oceola, Pecan Point, Randolph, Hickman's Bend, 'Fulton, Oldham, Napoleon, Victoria,

upon the Mississippi river, after a long and ani- of the western part of this Confederacy, demandGaines's Landing, Columbia, Greenville, Point Worthing

mated debate, succeeded in having a law passed at ing, ordering, that their wishes shall be obeyed in ton, Grand Lake, Princeton, Lake Providence, Tabula, the last session of Congress. When thai law was this matter, when they have succeeded in obtainPecan Grove, Milliken's Bend, and Young's Point; or under discussion, some gentleman objected to its ing twice, in succession, the sanction of our Legis$350.000 per annum for daily mails to these places with those named in the advertisement.

passage upon the ground that the existing legisla- || lature. The only other bid was from A. J. Cain, at $185,000,

tion was sufficient to make it incumbent upon the Mr. BROWN. I quite concur with the Senwhich was subsequently withdrawn.

Postmaster General to put that mail upon the west- ator from Louisiana, that the Postmaster General, These proposals appeared so extravagant as to induce me ern waters; but the friends of the mail, unwilling in reference to this Mississippi river mail, has to defer any acceptance. The highest rate of pay for similar service, under existing contracts, in the United States

to leave the matter open to doubt or quibble, suc- displayed at all times a degree of obstinacy unis 8191 25 per mile. This is paid on the route from New ceeded in prevailing upon Congress to pass a law | paralleled in the history of an Executive officer, Orleans to Mobile on account of the peculiar difficulties of directing that he should put that mail upon those | resorting continually to quibbles, to every connavigation and tolls at Grant's Pass. The average of pay on steainboat routes is but $60 60 per mile. The rate be

waters, no matter what it should cost. Here is ceivable quibble, to avoid the execution of the tween Cairn and New Orleans, under the $300,000 bid, the language of the law:

law. The Senator from Louisiana has stated the would be $283 28 per mile.

“ The Postmaster General be authorized to establish a action of Congress correctly. In 1852 we passed Such extraordinary increase caused me to hesitate, not mail on the Mississippi river from Cairo to New Orleans, merely in view of this single case, but especially in appre

a law requiring that the mail should be put upon and from Keokuk, lowa, to Galena, in Illinois, and that he hension of the effect which the acceptance of so extravagant contract for the same in one line, or in such divisions, or

that river. The predecessor of the present Posta bid would bave upon the interests of this Department, sections, or both, as may be most compatible with the public

master General entered into a contract to carry causing, as it necessarily would, demands for largely in service; and to facilitate the execution of this section, the the mail in obedience to the law. The first act

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