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14. Τὰ τεράστια Συμβάντα τοῦ ̔Ροβινσῶνος Κρούσου, ἐκ τοῦ ̓Αγγλικοῦ, ὑπὸ Περικλέους 1. Ραυτοπούλου. Εν ̓Αθήναις, ἐκ τῆς Τυπογραφίας Εμ. ̓Αντωνιάδου. ̔Οδὸς ̓Αγνιᾶς ̓Αρ. 53. [The Wonderful Adventures of Robinson Crusoe ; translated from the English, by Pericles A. Raphtopoulus. Athens: E. Antoniades, Agyia Street, No. 53. 2 vols. 12mo. pp. 205 and 212.]
Of all things in the world, who would have expected to see Robinson Crusoe in Greek? Yet here he is, most assuredly, printed in the very city of Minerva, and before this, he is no doubt familiar to all the little boys and girls of that venerable metropolis. To a person whose associations with the name of Athens are purely classical, the appearance of this inimitable popular story in Greek, with all the queer names familiar to him as his own, will be very odd. We are so accustomed to look upon Greek as dead and gone, that we find it hard to realize the existence of a nation of men at this day, who speak a language substantially that of the ancient Athenians; a language, that with all the inevitable changes and corruptions of twenty centuries, is still Greek in its essential attributes; a language which can easily be read by a good classical scholar, and would no doubt be quite intelligible to Socrates and Plato, should those reverend sages rise from their graves to see what their countrymen are about at this late day. We can imagine the delight with which the philosopher of the Academy would sit down to read the marvellous adventures of our friend Robinson; the surprise he would feel at the names Πλυμούθης and ̓Εξετέρα ; the curiosity with which he would ask the meaning of the appellation of Robinson's companion "Friday," Пgauxvas; and the philosophical speculations to which the whole narrative would give birth.
As far as we can judge, this translation is very well done. Sometimes the translator misses the meaning of a word, and sometimes he fails to hit the eminently easy and popular tone of the original; and there may be other faults which would naturally enough escape our eye, but which may be obvious to a native Greek. We have been chiefly interested in the work as a curiosity, as a specimen of the Greek which is now spoken and written by educated men; and we think it would be an excellent book for one who might wish to acquire the language. Our readers may like to see what sort of a figure Robinson makes in his Hellenic dress. We take a short passage from the first volume, describing our hero's well-remembered adventure with "Pol," the parrot.
“ ”λπιζε λοιπὸν νὰ φθάσῃ εἰς τὴν κατοικίαν του τὴν αὐτὴν ἡμέραν, ἀλλ' ἐστάθη ἀδύνατον. Πρὸς τὸ ἑσπέρας δύο σχεδὸν ἀπεῖχε μίλια ἀπὸ τὸ σπήλαιόν του, καὶ εὑρίσκετο εἰς τὴν παρ ̓ αὐτοῦ θερινὴν καλουμένην κατοικίαν. Πρὸ ἑνὸς ἔτους ἐν καιρῷ τοῦ θέρους ἐκοιμήθη ἐκεῖ πολλὰς νύκτας, διότι ἠνωχλεῖτο πολὺ ὑπὸ τῶν σκνιπῶν εἰς τὸν παλαιὸν τόπον τῆς διαμονῆς του, καὶ δι ̓ αὐτὸ τοῦτο ὠνόμασε τὴν τοποθεσίαν ἐκείνην θερινόν του κατοικητήριον. ̓Απηυδισμένος ὅμως διόλου, δὲν ἠδύνατο νὰ προχωρήσῃ παραιτέρω. Ὅσον ἐπικίνδυνος καὶ ἂν ἤθελεν εἶναι ἡ διανυκτέρευσις εἰς τοιοῦτον ἀπροφύλακτον τόπον, ἡ ἀνάγκη τὸν ἐβίασεν οὕτω νὰ πράξῃ. Ὢν δὲ εἰς μεγάλην ἀτονίαν καὶ εἰς ταραχὴν νοὸς διὰ τὸν φόβον, τὸν ὁποῖον ἐδοκίμασε τὴν ἡμέραν, ἐκοιμήθη διὰ νὰ λάβῃ ὀλίγην τινα ἀνάπαυσιν, ἀλλὰ μόλις ησύχασε, καὶ εὐθὺς νέον ἀντικείμενον τρόμου ἤθελε πάλιν τὸν ἀφαιρέσει τὸ λογικόν του. Ακουσε φωνὴν ἐναέριον, ἥτις καθαρῶς ἐπρόφερε τὰς λέξεις ταύτας, ‘Ροβινσῶν! ταλαίπωρε Ροβινσῶν! Ποῦ ἤσουν ; Πόθεν ἔρχεσαι;’ ̔Ο Ροβινσῶν εὐθέως ἐγερθεὶς, ἔτρεμε, καὶ δὲν ἤξευμε τὶ νὰ πράξῃ. Κατὰ τὴν αὐτὴν στιγμὴν, ἀκούει τὰς αὐτὰς λέξεις ἐπαναλαμβανομένας· τολμῇ νὰ στρέψῃ τοὺς ὀφθαλμούς του πρὸς τὸ μέρος τῆς φωνῆς, καὶ εὑρίσκει ἐκεῖνο, τὸ ὁποῖον πᾶς δειλὸς ἤθελεν εὑρεῖ, ἐὰν μόνον ἐστοχάζετο, ὅτι πρέπει νὰ ἐξετάσῃ, πρὶν δώσῃ χώραν εἰς τοὺς φόβους του, — ὅτι δηλαδὴ δὲν εἶχε καμμίαν αἰτίαν νὰ φοβῆται· γνωρίζει ὅτι ἡ φωνὴ δὲν ἦτον ἐναέριος, ἀλλ' ἡ τοῦ ἀγαπητοῦ τοῦ ψιττακοῦ καθημένου πλησίον ἐπάνω εἰς κλάδον δένδρου. ̓Αναμφιβόλως τὸ πτηνὸν, τόσον διότι δὲν ἤθελε νὰ κάθηται μεμονωμένον, ὅσον καὶ διότι πολλάκις ἠκολούθησε τὸν κύριόν του μέχρι τῆς θέσεως ἐκείνης, ἦλθε καὶ τὸν ἐζήτει ἐκεῖ, καὶ ἐπρόφερε τὰς αὐτὰς λέξεις, τὰς ὁποίας ἐδιδάχθη πολλάκις παρὰ τοῦ ̔Ροβινσῶνος. Τότε ὁ φόβος του μετεβλήθη εἰς χαρὰν, πληροφορηθεὶς περὶ τῆς ἀνυπάρκτου αἰτίας τοῦ τρόμου του. Εξαπλώνει τὴν χεῖρά του καὶ κράζει, ‘Πόλ· τὸ πτηνὸν πετῇ πρὸς αὐτὸν, καὶ τὸν συγχαίρεται μὲ σημεῖα χαδευτικὰ, καὶ μὲ μυρία κινήματα εὐχαριστήσεως, ἐπαναλαμβάνων ἀδιακόπως, ‘Ροβινσῶν! ταλαίπωρε ̔Ροβινσῶν! Ποῦ ἤσουν;
15. — Boylston Prize Dissertations, for the Years 1838 and 1839, on Scrofula, Rheumatism, and Erysipelalous Inflammation. By EDWARD WARREN, M. D., Fellow of the Massachusetts Medical Society. Philadelphia: Adam Waldie. 8vo. pp. 122.
THE establishment of prizes for literary and scientific labors has often been the occasion of interesting and valuable publications. Such has been the effect of the Boylston Medical Prizes. For more than twenty years questions have been issued annually, with the offer of a premium for the best dis
sertation on each, provided that any should be of sufficient merit to be entitled to it. The prize is not large enough to offer any considerable inducement for the competition, as a mere pecuniary reward; although to most young men, especially just entering upon life, it is not without its value even in this point of view. But as a testimonial to merit, an evidence of talent and industry and successful application, it is a stimulus to effort which has rarely failed to call out from year to year a number of able competitors. Some of the dissertations have been distinguished for original research and inquiry. Others have been rather a collected summary of the knowledge already in existence in a more diffused form. The dissertations of Dr. Warren belong to the latter class. From the nature of the subjects they could not well be the object of direct experimental investigation, and the opportunities for the original observation of diseases of this character on a very extended scale do not occur to many physicians in our new country. All that is left for an author to do, is to survey the whole field of observation as traversed by others, adding such new facts as he may have been able to collect, and, gathering his information from all accessible sources, by a judicious generalization, to form it into a consistent system of knowledge, with such deductions and conclusions as the nature and extent of the information may sustain. This is what Dr. Warren has done, and he has done it ably and well. He has gathered up his facts with industry, with a reasonable share of original observations, and selected them judiciously; and his inferences and remarks evince a sound judgment and good practical sense. His style, too, is good, clear, manly, and free from affectation on the one hand, or negligence on the other, such as a sensible man would naturally use when he feels that he is writing because he has something to say.
Scrofula, the subject of the first Essay, is a disease of very frequent occurrence, especially in towns, affecting many parts of the body, and assuming different appearances in each, and producing effects which often lead to a fatal result, perhaps under some other name. These several phases and seats of disease are described, and their tendencies explained, and the treatment pointed out that is best suited to each stage and form. The author agrees with other sensible writers, in not trusting to any specific remedy for scrofula, but recommends that the treatment should be adapted to the peculiarities of We quote his remarks on the effect of the Royal Touch, on which such implicit reliance was formerly placed
for the cure.
"Its prevalence in England may be judged of from the fact, that in
the time of Charles the Second ninety-two thousand one hundred and seven persons were cured of it, according to Dr. Carr, by the royal touch. It is well known, that for many years this was the grand specific for the disease. Writers now treat the account of these cures with ridicule; and yet, if we reflect upon the subject, we may feel disposed to be somewhat less incredulous. Most of the patients were undoubtedly of the lowest class, and extremely ignorant. They came from a great distance, from the most remote parts of the country, to be cured. To see a real living king was with them far more wonderful than to see a spirit; for in those days spirits were common, but there was only one king in the land. If then we place ourselves in their position; if we consider the excitement and delight with which they looked forward to their journey to the capital; if we consider what implicit faith they placed in the power of the royal touch; can we wonder that so many were cured? Have we in the Pharmacopeia any remedies that possess powers either as alteratives or tonics, equal to such a state of excitement? It is not mere imagination; or if it is, it is imagination working in a manner we can easily understand and explain. The spirits are raised, the languid circulation is quickened, the appetite is improved, and the food is well digested. The enthusiastic loyalty with which Charles the Second was welcomed on his return by his devoted partisans, undoubtedly increased in a remarkable degree the sanatory powers of his touch." — p. 3.
Rheumatism, the subject of the next treatise, although less destructive to life than scrofula, is a very painful, and an exceedingly obstinate disease; and there is still much uncertainty in regard to its true pathological character, and much difference of opinion in respect to the best methods of treatment. Indeed, it is not wanting in important influences upon the subsequent health, and upon life itself, when it attacks, as it often does, the membranes and valves of the heart, in connexion with its seizure upon the muscular parts and joints. In all these points of view the subject furnishes a sufficiency of interesting and important questions, which Dr. Warren discusses with ability and good judgment.
Erysipelas, as a grave and fatal disease, is less extensively known, because, in this form, it is not very often seen except in the wards of a hospital, or in other crowded places; and yet it is a disease of great importance when it does occur, and sometimes produces great alarm and distress, not only on account of the difficulty of managing it, and the danger attending it, but especially on account of the great liability, when it prevails, of other surgical diseases becoming affected. Operations, which at another time, are simple and unattended with any serious risk, then become hazardous. There is, therefore, a high degree of interest attending the discussion of its character and its causes, as well as of the proper treatment, which is far enough from being well and conclusively settled.
It thus appears that all the topics treated of in these Dissertations are of great interest to the medical profession, and to the cause of human suffering. We have said that they are ably and judiciously discussed. We scarcely need have said it, for it was already sufficiently told in the award of the prizes by a learned and impartial committee. We doubt not the author will take a high stand among the best medical writers of the country.
16.The Progress of Democracy; illustrated in the History of Gaul and France By ALEXANDRE DUMAS. Translated by an American. New York: J. & H. G. Langley. 12mo. pp. 376.
We can see no reason why this work was selected for translation and publication in this country. Whatever interest attaches to it, seems to exist only for French readers, and with them even to be ephemeral in character, depending on the politics of the day. The historical information it contains can here be more directly obtained from more trustworthy sources; and the application of the narrative, the author's argument, if it can be called such, besides being discreditable to him in spirit and execution, offers little that is novel or instructive to the American reader, in respect to the present movement of parties in France. The title of the work in the original is simply" Gaule et France," which the translator has dilated into a sentence, that expresses one branch, though not, as we believe, the whole of the author's purpose. We have not at hand the means for comparing the book with the original, though judging from a cursory examination, the translator's task seems to be executed with tolerable care and fidelity. Some technical terms in politics, however, seem to be incorrectly or inadequately rendered. The word translated copyholders in the conclusion of the work, according to the context, must mean taxpayers, for the qualifications of the deputies and of their electors depend on the amount of contribution to the revenue of the country, and not on the direct value of their real property. The phrase which is rendered proprietary interest, would be more accurately expressed as landed interest. The established appellation in English for one dynasty of French kings is Carlovingian, and not Carolingian. We object further to the strange and antiquated orthography of proper names, which is introduced to show the etymology and meaning of the word, although this fault is attributable to Dumas, and not to his translator. The derivation of the name