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taken place in the State, within the last | and intelligence. Sufficient testimony has been twenty-five years, in the attention paid to adduced to prove that the present state of Ameri
can manufactures is superior to any in the world, education. By an act of the Legislature,
as it respects the rate of wages, the means of inpassed in 1828, a permanent school fund tellectual improvement, and their moral condiwas commenced, which was invested, and tion." has since received many additions. The
The hostility of the Democratic party, so sum of $25,000 per annum is paid from called, to the establishment and support of the State Treasury to the several towns for manufactures, has been shown on various the support of public schools. The interest occasions for the last twenty years, not only of the portion of the State of the United in their legislation in Congress, but in the States' surplus revenue, divided in 1836, sentiments of their leaders expressed in apand moneys arising from several other peals to popular prejudice. When the sources, are also applied to the support of administration of Mr. Polk adopted the freepublic schools.
In 1844, the number of trade doctrines of the Secretary of the Treathese schools in the State was 428, and the number of scholars attending them was Democratic party creed, and that President
sury, Robert J. Walker, as a portion of the 22,156. The amount paid by the State for
recommended those doctrines as the true the support of free or public schools in that policy of the nation, the Democratic Convenyear was $25,095, and by the towns for the tion of Hamilton county, Ohio, addressed & same $27,918; total, $53,013. In 1840, letter to the Secretary of the Treasury, in there were in Brown University and in a Oct.
, 1845, avowing the following views :high school, 324 students. There were then in the State 52 academies and grammar desire to a free people, or of favor for a free
" Manufactures are not of themselves objects of schools, with 3,664 students. The elevation of the religious character of the people, which crowded population, subject to a very arbitrary
government. They involve the necessity of a we have seen was formerly so much behind control over their comfort by a few wealthy perthe other New-England States, has been sons, and devoted to unwholesome employment, similar to the favorable change in public Surely such establishments do not deserve political sentiment with regard to education, and it is favor, where land is abundant and the people believed that Dr. Dwight and other philanthropists of the last generation would not now The falsity of these sentiments is shown have cause to complain of the state of religion by the experience of this country, wherever and morals among the people of Rhode- manufactures have been established ; and Island, or to contrast the state in that re- nowhere can they be more fully disproved spect with its neighbors. It should be here than in the industrial history of Rhodementioned that the first Sunday - school Island. We have chosen the example of taught in New-England was at the manufac- that State, as one exhibiting the greatest turing village of Pawtucket.
contrast in the condition of the people under We will here again quote Mr. White, agricultural and commercial pursuits, with the biographer of Slater, on this subject :
-only slight attention to manufactures; with
its wonderful improvement since the intro“ It cannot be concealed that there have been duction of manufactures and labor-saving apprehensions of the evil effects of manufacturing machinery. establishments in this country. But these forebodings have been chiefly prospective. It is not pre
It would be difficult, in the history of tended that they have been productive of evil; mankind, to exhibit a more striking picture indeed, the evidence is positive, that much good of moral and physical improvement; and has been produced. With regard to the State f this change has been effected by the system Rhode Island, I had an opportunity of knowing its moral condition previous to 1812; and I have in the moral and physical condition of the
we advocate, in a comparatively short period, since travelled in nearly every part of the State, and the change for the better, especially in the people of the whole State. In other parts of manufacturing districts, is incredible. No one but the country, where the population and teran eye-witness could believe that such a favorable ritory are less compact, the contrast and imshort period of twenty-five
years. I am persuaded provement have been less marked. But we that wherever a village is under good regulations, are not unmindful of the great benefits that the tendency is altogether favorable to morals I wrought by the manufacturing system in
Annual value manufactured.
other States, wherever industrial pursuits of these manufactures eleven years since, by the this class have been introduced by capital census of 1840 :and enterprise. The great moral and successful example of Lowell, that wonderful
$46,350,453 creation of the genius, capital, and industry
20,696,999 of our own times, is familiar to all. It has
16,034,225 been often described, and never fails to in- Hardware, &c.,
6,451,967 terest the friends of manufactures who have Precious Metals,
Leather and Manufactures of, .. 48,785,332 an opportunity of visiting it, by its admira
6,135,092 ble establishments, conducted on a system Cordage,
4,078,306 unsurpassed in the world, and its highly Hats, Caps, &c.,.
10,180,847 intellectual industrial population. But the States of Massachusetts, New Hampshire,
$168,492,663 Maine, Vermont, and Connecticut, with the The increase of these manufactures, under Middle States, afford abundant instances of the tariff of 1842, probably raised the anthe prosperity and moral i aprovement nual value to two hundred millions of dollars. which have been caused in those States by This immense interest, with all its attendthe introduction of manufactures.
ant benefits, some of which we have endeaIn an evil hour, the passage of the tariff vored to exhibit in this essay, it is proposed of 1846 checked the march of improvement by the advocates of free trade to destroy; or then in progress under the benign influence to reduce the wages of labor to the standard of the Whig protective tariff of 1842. How of that of Europe. But we cannot believe far the effect of foreign competition may the people will long continue to countenance arrest the increase and extension of manu- such doctrines. In the language of Henry factures in those States where they have Clay, in 1824: “The cause of protection is the been established or commenced, time only cause of the country, and it must and will can determine. But it may be well to look prevail. It is founded in the interests and at the amount of the principal manufactures affections of the people; it is as native as of the United States which may be placed the granite deeply imbedded in our mounin danger by free trade or importations of tains. And I would pray God, in his infithe same articles from foreign countries. We nite mercy, by enlightening our councils, to have not the returns of the census of last conduct us into that path which leads to year, but the following shows the value of riches, to greatness, to glory."
AD TURBATOREM PLEBIS.
BY RUFUS HENRY BACON.
All earthly things are subject to decay:
The fairest temple and the proudest State
Crumble at last to ruin. But the great
Have perennial life; and, soon or late,
Burst the rude soil wherein they germinate.
If thy base arts shall cause the State to fall,
Thy hideous name will cover with a pall
With TRAITOR carved on thy unholy tomb!
BOYHOOD AND BARBARIS M.
“ Infans non multum a Furioso distat.”—THE LAW BOOKS.
CONCERNING that very handsome bit of materially differ from him, I agree with Latin which we have prefixed to this article as you. an intimation of the course we may pursue, for Yes, we are all born savages. It is only a short time, in discussing in a grim and iron because certain persons, assuming themselves manner certain metaphysical truths which to be wiser than Nature, have trained our are not expatiated upon with sufficient free- faculties to such distorted shapes as seemed dom in the approved text-books on mental good to their morbid vision, that you and I science, and concerning the authors of this are not this day free barbarians, wearing extremely polite comparison, we may have eagles' quills, and hailing each other as Crossa word to say by-and-by, if this philosophi- Wolf and Curling-Cloud. The hand which cal disquisition has not attained an unwhole guides this philosophic pen should of right some and indigestible magnitude by the time whisk a tomahawk. Yonder mild lady that we are ready to pay our compliments pacing the garden walks and murmuring sad to the gentlemen who have made so injuri- words of the poets among the dying flowers, ous an allegation against the juveniles of the or watching the wild pigeons as they cleave Solar System ;-for we doubt not that what- with unmatched swiftness the still air of ever is truthfully predicated of the urchins autumn, to vanish in the mists that veil the of this planet, may with equal justice be pre- wooded hill-sides, and mourning when presdicated of their gigantic and lubberly cou- ently the guns of the fowlers ring through sins who snap marbles of the bigness of the groves where the timid birds have folded bomb-shells under the rings of Saturn, and their wings,--she, the soft-hearted, who of minors generally in all the planets and whispers to the dying flowers and mourns asteroids in our immediate neighborhood. for the doves of the Indian Venus torn by For the present we merely remark, that if shot whizzing from the barrels of frightful Ulpian when he uttered, Grotius when he blunderbusses, is sister to the quiver-bearing echoed, and Mr. Justice Story when he re- Amazons, to the jingling belles of Nootka, to verberated the charge, through the pages of the yelling damsels of Mozambique. Grum his stupendous treatise on Equity Jurispru- Judge, sitting with fixed frowns while barrisdence, had in their eye a Carib, 'a Maurita- ters smite with clenched fists the leathern nian, a Pict, or a Pawnee, as the model of a covers of Kent, but that certain influences Furiosus, they were clearly in the right which have been accumulating for forty cenUsing the word in such a sense, the boy is turies were brought to bear upon your young a born Furiosus. That however was not the brain years ago, when those bristling grayidea of the learned jurists. In the slang of hairs were scarce rougher than a kitten's fur, the Courts, the term signifies a non compos, you I might now see sitting upon the couna lunatic, a crack-brain, a crazy fellow; and cil-log of Hurons discussing questions of whether even wise men are warranted in state with the dusky senators of the woods, likening all youngsters here and elsewhere while those barristers and hawking sheriffs to loons, (to fall in with the popular notion should gratify their now misdirected instincts that these water-fowls are maniacs,) may well by forms of action unknown to Mansfield, be questioned. When, however, you intro- and by seizures of horses and poultry conduce to me as a Furiosus a red gentleman cerning which Sir Thomas More might ask, rejoicing in the name of Big-Tall-Thunder, with tears in his eyes, for information and not mounted on a mustang, holding a javelin in for a joke, " utrum possent replegiari." his hand, and adorned with paint and feath- Why is it that these possibilities have ers, and assert to me that the Boy does not failed? Why is it that the hand which nature framed to whisk the terrible toma- robbers who shall dare to grasp at the crown hawk, guides instead the philosophic pen, of Muscovy, whether they come in war-ships and instead of knocking the sense out of from the fast-anchored isle, or march in regithe skull of the gentle reader, is now beating ments from Gaul and the cities of the Gernonsense into it? Why is it that the mild man Empire. What difference in thought or lady, instead of walking sadly among the desire do you surmise may exist in these three dying flowers and mourning the wounded little mortals ? A craniologist might (and pigeons, is not dashing on a hunting horse unless choked, undoubtedly would) talk about into a group of leopards, while attendant Mongolian and Circassian contours, and so Amazons yell
, and pierce the spotted mon- forth; but in the essential elements which sters with arrows and quivering spears; is compose a live baby, wherein differs the Isnot dancing to the hideous discord of conchs lander from the American, the American and kettle-drums like her jingling sisters of from the Prince? Place them together on Nootka; is not sporting with sharks in the the floor: will they not whine, and crawl ocean-surf, or floating over the lagoons of over each other like blind puppies ? When some rude archipelago upheaved from the a few moons have passed, and strength is bottom of the Pacific, and lounging in her given to their limbs, and the first faint ideas grotesque canoe, a Cleopatra of the Islands, dawn in their minds, will they not lay hold while her “gentlewomen like the Nereides” of each other's hair, (a proof that the knack splash in the still water and dive under the of scalping is one of the earliest, and consekeel of her idle barge? What magic has quently one of the most genuine and desimade the lion a sheep; has changed the rable accomplishments which Nature desires tawny hide which Hercules might wear in her children to possess,) and will they not love, the audience hall of Jove into a soft skin hate, and fear the same objects ?' Is there covered with wool, which housewives may any thing in their several gestures or glances spin; has so quenched the regal spirit that that indicates the strangely different loves, now the King of the Desert nips clover, is hates, and fears which will possess them shorn by boors, makes sheepish noises, is hereafter? The little savage does not manipenned at night, and when the bell-wether fest an inclination to make a barbecue of his leaps into a well, as in the fable, follows him comrades; the American, in his conversafaster than a bucket with the ewes and nan- tions with the Prince, is not understood by nies?
the nurses to call his play-fellow a puppet How widely do we, the brothers of the or a blood-sucking despot'; and the latter human family, diverge in our lifetime from seems in nowise anxious to tie strings around the general starting-point; like brooks the neck of the young democrat; nor in his springing from the same mountain and devastations does he discriminate between flowing, some to the St. Lawrence Gulf, pamphlets that argue with the “divine right some to the Chesapeake, and some to the of kings” and newspapers that hoot at the Gulf of Mexico. I show you three infants. Holy Alliance; nor when he creeps on the One, on a savage island, swings in his bark carpet does he always travel in the direction hammock from the limbs of a tree, and of Constantinople. Yet in forty years, where sleeps while the winds that wander over the will you find the three allies. One is a tall Pacific wave him to and fro: the second red cannibal horribly painted, paddling his rocks in his red-cherry cradle in a New- canoe in the coves of New-Zealand; anEngland farm-house, and a thoughtful, other is a rampant republican, working the motherly woman, knitting beside him, sings batteries of a red-hot political journal, and plaintive hymns: the third reposes in a gor- invoking the Demon of Revolution to rise geous little couch, curiously carved, and a from caverns where spangled canopy covers his royal head; gray- « The slumbering earthquake lies pillowed on fire;" headed Field Marshals and sworded Princes stand around; rigid battalions ranked before the third towers above his nobles, a Czar, the palace are ready to defend the right of and gathers together Cossacks from the infant royalty, and huge cannon on the bas- Ukraine, Tartars from the Ural, Siberians tions of the city, which proclaimed to the from the steppes, and Finns from the iceBaltic the birth of its baby admiral, will bergs, and then, like one of the old idols of hurl bullets and bursting globes upon the the North, holding in his band deluge, ter
rors, and storms, hovers over the frontiers of ribs in his foster-mother's lodge; he is imEurope and launches his thunders at sullen pelled by no unaccountable impulse to intervals against the citadels of Danube and expostulate with his play-mates at the occathe Rhine. Observe what a deadly antipa- sional imperfections of their syntax. On the thy against the others has arisen in each of contrary, he hunts prairie-dogs, learns the the former play-fellows. If the Cannibal war-dance, flings hatchets like the cub of a catches the Czar, he will roast him; if the very Powhattan; and when grown to the Czar catches the Republican, he will hang stature of a man, will spear mail-riders and him; if the Republican gets the others in emigrants, and abet a stampede of governhis power, he will shut the Prince in a peni- ment mules, as readily as any born barbarian. tentiary, and probably will kill the savage The rule will not work both ways. Introwith rum.
duce a young Camanche into an infantPhilosophy, in view of these things, has school, and it appears that we might as well much to offer. But to-day Philosophy may direct our educational apparatus at a young go hang. Musty speculation is undoubtedly bear. Culture affects hereditarily the faculour forte, (although the reviews and uni- ties, but not the instincts,—at all events, not versities may ignore our pretensions, for nearly so sensibly the latter as the former. which we shall take vengeance by-and-by Hence it is that the son of the civilized man when we have time for it ;) but to-day all with less difficulty becomes civilized than his blowing upon “ Apollo's lute," as Milton has red cousin, for he has hereditary faculties it, will be refrained from. Philosophy, we which if exercised will master instincts; and repeat politely but firmly, may to-day go these the wild boy has not, for his grandhang. We will be content with pointing fathers for ten generations back, instead of out a few traits in the character of the nibbling philosophy at Oxford or Bologna North American juvenile which indicate or Salamanca, were scouring the country behow strongly his healthful savage instincts tween the Nueces and the Californian Colostruggle with the tremendous agencies, the rado, knocking out other wild men's brains, accumulations of forty centuries, which are and whooping like imps of the pit. brought to crush them ; how reluctantly the Yes, mothers of America, your nurserhealthful savage spirit yields to the soft but ies are wigwams of Cherokees, Blackfeet, persevering and mighty genius of Civilization. Apaches; your cradles are nests of Bedouins.
It is assumed that we are born savages. Not many mornings ago I saw a young The civilizing of a wild man's boy is as dis- Anglo-Saxon, who cannot utter six articulate couraging an undertaking as the training of sounds, standing on a chair by the window a fox's whelp to an understanding of our con- and catching and destroying the house-flies, ventional notions about geese and turkeys; whose joints were stiffened by the frosts of but the barbarizing of a tame man's boy is the preceding night, with the same glee that as easy a thing as making wild boars and a Mohawk warrior would exhibit on being jackals of the offspring of domestic swine and let loose, with license to murder, in an mastiffs, by turning them loose in the wil. Asylum for Cripples. That indifference to derness when they are pigs and puppies. the rights of crockery, that apathy of conWhite boys who are captured by Indians in science at the destruction of pitchers and five cases out of ten becoine chiefs ; but how glass-ware, that Gothic exultation over the many red boys who are taken by benevolent ruins of a dinner plate, which the unbreeched persons and put into academies become ju- urchin displays, are manifestations of that rists or mathematicians ? The white boy same barbarian appetite for smashing which takes to savage life as naturally as the duck ruined the marbles of Greece and shattered to water. The culture of universities may the priceless vases of Italy. The original, have been exhausted on his ancestors for ten genuine instinct is suppressed at first by force, generations back; but put him in the hands and afterwards eradicated by artfully imof a Camanche matron when he is a year planting an artificial taste for entire dinner old, and the culture which has been expended plates and for uncracked pitchers. Destrucon the parent stock will not be indicated, on tiveness is almost the first organ which gives the little graft which is severed from it, by signs of activity in the infant brain : only a single blossom. He is visited by no vague allow it fair play, and it will in due time be ideas of the Rule of Three as he gnaws elk- 1 master of the whole cranium.