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bordering on the Caspian sea. The first article J.C. 1724
Heg.1136 fixed the barrier between Russia and Turkey, by means of a line drawn at sixty-six miles from the sea on the confines of the Dagheftan, paffing at a like distance from the shore of Derbent, and ending at the confluence of the Kur and Araxes: by the same article the contracting parties were to name commissioners, and desire a mediator from France for the execution of this clause, and that both should be at liberty to build forts on their own territories. By the second article, the town of Schamachya, the capital of the Shirvan, which was to remain under the sovereignty of the Porte, could not be fortified on any pretence, and the grand seignior was not to keep a garrison there but with the consent of Russia, in case of an infurrection, and solely for that time; the grand feignior engaged likewise never to let his troops pass the river Kur, without informing the czar of it. The third article fixed the limits of the Turkish empire and of the kingdom of Persia, by a line which commenced where the other ended : that is to say, at the confluence of the Kur and Araxes. In the fourth, the czar promifed his mediation or his forces to procure the voluntary cession of, or to conquer by a common effort, the provinces guarantied to the grand seignior by this treaty: the contracting parties agreed, that if Shah Thamas refused to accede to it, they would begin with conquering those provinces which they kad divided between them but were not in pof
J.C.1724. session of, and that they would conjointly make
themselves masters of the rest of Persia, to give it
Shah Thamas having learned in his retreat that
Shah Thamas ex
advance for the succour that they intended him; 1.C.1724.
Heg. 1136, fell into the most violent despair. He fent back & 1737. the czar's resident, bidding him tell his master, The fophi that he would not think of accepting succours which were to be sold him at fo dear a rate, and presses his which he thought too well paid for already by the tion at it to giving up of the Daghestan and Shirvan. He ménaced in his letter this ally, whom he called a perfidious man, and told him that Providence was already come to his succour, since the usurper Mamout, after having been beaten by the people of the Khilan, who were tired of his tyranny, had been obliged to raise the siege of leld in Irac.
And indeed fortune began to forsake Mir Ma- Affairs in mout, and his disgraces raised up the feditious complaints of his soldiers. They reproached him with having let the Perfians in their turn triumph over his courage, by infecting him with their manners, their sensuality, their effeminacy, and even their religion, which he had the weakness to tolerate and partly to adopt, to please them. They talked with enthusiasm of a lieutenant of Mir Mamout's, called Aschraf, whom that jealous prince had sent out of the way, because the soldiers, who had often vanquished under the orders of that general, were continually extolling his talents, sagacity, and bravery. The reiterated clamours of the Afghvans constrained Mamout to recall Aschraf after a few months. The usurper of the Persian throne, full of talents for war, and of that ferocious valour which braves perils and
3.C.1724. delights in blood, absolutely wanted that moral Heg. 1136, & 1137. courage which sagacity alone can give. Mir
Mamout, incapable of resisting his prejudices, and of seeking to regain the public esteem, thought to put a stop to the clamours of the foldiery, by the execution of those who had the boldness to make him just reproaches.
This cruelty naturally increased the number of the malecontents. The imprudent Mir Mamout, who began to fear the fate which he had himself made Shah Hussein suffer, fancied he should pacify his army by austere practices of religion, and that in an intimate acquaintance with God he should receive lights that would enable him to manage a people of soldiers little under subjection. He resolved to execute the Riadhiat, which is an abfolute retreat that the dervises and most devout of the Mussulmen sometimes impose on themfelves. It consists in fhutting one's self up for several weeks in a dark place, without taking any other food than a little bread and water once in twenty-four hours, repeating almost without interval the name of all the attributes of God. This toilsome exercise causes the person who condemns himself to it to fall into an agitated Neep, during which the unusual diet occasions him dreams which he does not fail to take for extafies. Mir Mamout must have been very little better than a madman, to condemn himself to this absurd practice, in a time when his presence was 'fo necessary at the head of his people.
When he came out of his dungeon, after a 1.C.1724.
Heg.1136. month of this odd austerity, he had quite'lost his & 1137, reason, The first order that he gave was to bring Shah Hussein's children into a court of the palace, where they were guarded to the number of seventy. Shah Thamas alone, of this unfortunate race, had escaped during the fiege of Ispahan. When these young victims came before Mir Mamout, he had their hands tied
Malacre of with their girdles, and having armed himself Shah Hufwith a poniard, began to massacre them him- dren by Mir self. The unfortunate Shah Hussein, drawn by the cries of his dying children, ran' to this bloody, scene, when only the two youngest were left to Naughter, the eldest of whom was five years old. The old king covered them with his body, which he offered to the blows of the abomi. nable executioner. Mir Mamout struck Shah Hussein in several places, without being able to touch the two children, to whom this wretched father gave life a second time. The monster, weakened by his long fast and by his rage, fell down with fatigue before he was able to complete his design. His followers, less barbarous, saved the three last victims, escaped from the frenzy of their master. Heaven began in this life the chastisement which so many cruelties merited. ments of
Heaven: A few days after the massacre of Shah Hufrein's children, the tyrant was attacked with an inward distemper that gnawed his bowels, and which, VOL. IV. Oo