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taining what was really a beneficial object, the site scale. If he had ambition, it was of very overthrow of the oligarchy; and but for the cour- mean complexion, for he stooped to be but a nomage of Lord North, he must have capitulated to inal prime minister, and suffered the king's prithe Grenvilles, the Rockinghams, or the Bedfords, vate junto to enjoy the whole credit of favor, or surrendered to some combination of the factions while, between submission and laziness, Lord at discretion, when Grafton resigned. North saved North himself was seldom the author of the meathe crown from this degradation :

sures in which he bore the principal part. This “Lord North had neither connexions with the passive and inglorious tractability, and his being nobility, nor popularity with the country, yet he connected with no faction, made him welcome to undertook the government in a manly style, and the king : his having no predominant fault or vice was appointed First Lord of the Treasury on the recommended him to the nation, and his good hu29th, with only one day to intervene before it mor and wit to everybody but to the few whom would he decided whether he would stand or fall. his want of good breeding and attention offended. Could he depend on men whom he had not time One singularity came out in his character, which to canvass? Was it not probable that the most was, that no inan was more ready for extremes venal would hang off till they should see to which under the administration of others, no man more side the scale would incline! Yet Lord North temperate than Lord North during his own :-in plunged boldly into the danger at once. A more effect, he was a man whom few hated, fewer could critical day had seldom dawned. If the court esteem. As a minister he had no foresight, 10 should be beaten, the king would be at the mercy consistence, no firmness, no spirit. He miscarried of the opposition, or driven to have recourse to the in all he undertook in America, was more improlords-possibly to the sword. All the resolutions vident than unfortunate, less unfortunate than he on the Middlesex election would be rescinded, the deserved to be. If he was free from vices, he was parliament dissolved, or the contest reduced to as void of virtues ; and it is a paltry eulogium of a ihe sole question of prerogative. Yet in the short prime minister of a great country, yet the best interval allowed, Lord North, Lord Sandwich, that can be allotted to Lord North, that, though Rigby, and that faction on one side, the Scotch his country was ruined under his administration, and the Butists on the other hand, had been so ac- he preserved his good humor, and neither felt for tive, and had acted so differently from what the his country nor for himself. Yet it is true, too, Duke of Grafton had done, that at past twelve at that he was the least odious of the ministers with night the court proved victorious by a majority whom he acted; and though servile in obedience of forty.”

to a prince who meant so ill, there was reason to Walpole's character of Lord North presents es- think that Lord North neither stimulated, nor was sentially the same features as Lord Brougham's more than the passive instrument of the black dedescription of that minister, but has greater con- signs of the court. sistency of parts and more similarity to life in por- Sir Denis le Marchant, in his notes on this pastraiture :

sage, calls attention to a fact, first revealed to the “He had knowledge, and though fond of his English public by the Atheneum, that Lord North amusement, seemed to have all necessary activity disapproved of the policy pursued towards Ameritill he reached the summit. Yet that industry ca, that he wished to resign his office, and only ceased when it became most requisite. He had kept in place by the king's personal solicitations. neither system, nor principles, nor shame ; sought The important letter which we published, and cirneither the favor of the crown nor of the people, cumstances connected with the publication which but enjoyed the good luck of fortune with a many of our readers will recollect, led to a reasongluttonous epicurism that was equally careless of able expectation that Lord North's correspondence glory and disgrace. His indolence prevented his would, ere this, have been before the public, and forming any plan. His indifference made him leap we cannot conjecture any plausible reason for its from one extreme to another; and his insensibility continued suppression. That correspondence to reproach reconciled him to any contradiction. would, we have reason to believe, show that the He proved as indolent as the Duke of Grafton, but evils attributed to the personal influence of the his temper being as good as the duke's was bad, Earl of Bute, came from a different quarter, and he was less hurt at capital disgraces than the duke indeed this did not escape the sagacity of Walhad been at trifling difficulties. Lord North's con- pole : duct in the American war displayed all these fea- “ If the earl himself did not preserve the same tures. He engaged in it against his opinion, and degree of credit with his majesty, the king acted yet without reluctance. He managed it without on the plan in which he had been initiated, and had foresight or address, and was neither ashamed cunning enough, as most princes have, to employ when it miscarried, nor dispirited when the crown and trust those only who were disposed to sacrifice itself became endangered by the additional war the interests of the country to the partial and selfwith France. His good humor could not be good ish views of the crown ; views to which his majesnature, for at the beginning of the war he stuck at ty so steadily adhered on every opportunity which no cruelty, but laughed at barbarities with which presented itself, that, not having sense enough to all Europe rung. It could not be good sense, for discover how much the glory and power of the in the progress he blushed at none of the mischiefs king is augmented by the flourishing state of the he had occasioned, at none of the reproaches country he governs, he not only preferred his perhe had incurred. Like the Duke of Grafton, he sonal influence to that of England, but risked, exwas always affecting a disposition to retire, yet posed, and lost a most important portion of his donever did. Unlike the duke, who secured no minions by endeavoring to submit that mighty poremoluments to himself, Lord North engrossed tion to a more immediate dependence on the royal whatever fell in his way, and sometimes was will. Mystery, insincerity, and duplicity were ihe bribed by the crown to promote acts, against engines of his reign. They sometimes procured which he pretended his conscience recoiled—but success to his purposes, oftener subjected him to it never was delicate when profit was in the oppo-Igrievous insults and mortifications, and never obtained his object withont forfeiting some share of honesty, and virtue ; and the Scotch were whathis character, and exposing his dignity to affronts ever their masters wished them to be, and too enand reproach from his sobjects, and his authority vious of the English, and became too much proto contempt from foreign nations. He seemed to voked by them, not to lend all their mischievous have derived from his relations the Stuarts, all abilities towards the ruin of a constitution, whose their perseverance in crooked and ill-judged policy benefits the English had imparted to them, but did without profiting by their experience, or recollect- not like they should engross. All these individing that his branch had owed the crown to the at- uals or factions, I do not doubt, accepted and fotempts made by the former princes at extending mented the disposition they found predominant in the prerogative beyond the bounds set to it by the the cabinet, as they had severally access to it ; and constitution. Nor does a sovereign, imbued with the contradictions which the king suffered in his such fatal ambition, ever want a Jeffries or a Mans- ill-advised measures, riveted in him a thirst of defield, or such less ostensible tools as the Dysons livering himself from control, and to be above conand Jenkinsons, who for present emolument are trol he must be absolute. Thus on the innate deready to gibbet themselves to immortal infamy by sire of unbounded power in all princes, was enseconding the infatuation of their masters." grafted a hate to the freedom of the subject, and

We have dwelt at greater length on the history therefore, whether the king set out with a plan of of a period remarkable for nothing but “great lit- extending his prerogative, or adopted it, his subsetlenesses, as Jared Sparks justly describes it, quent measures, as often as he had an opportunity than we should probably have done under the guid- of directing them himself, tended to the sole object ance of any historian but Walpole. He was one of acting by his own will. Frequent convulsions of those men, more common than generally sup- did that pursuit occasion, and heavy mortifications posed, who threw away the fame to which 'nature to himself. On the nation it heaped disgrace, and prompted, for the indulgences which over-pam- brought it to the brink of ruin; and should the pered taste suggested. The view he has taken of event be consonant with the king's wishes of estabthe history of the twelve years through which we lishing the royal authority at home, it is more sure have followed him, embodies every lesson that we that the country will be so lowered, that the soveshould wish to deduce from the survey :

reign will become as subject to the mandates of * Let it be observed, however, that, when I im- France, as any little potentate in Europe. pute to the king and his mother little more than a In noticing the preceding volumes, we bore tesformed design of reducing the usurped authority timony to the skill and care which Sir Denis le of the great lords, I am far from meaning that Marchant has bestowed on the editing of the work ; there were not deeper designs at bottom. Lord we must do more than renew this testimony, and Mansfield was by principle a tyrant; Lord Holland declare that we should gladly see an original work was bred in a monarchic school, was cruel, revenge- on the early history of George III. from one who ful, daring, and subtle. Grenville, though in prin- obviously has excellent sources of information at ciple a republican, was bold, proud, dictatorial, and his command, with the ability to discriminate testiso self-willed that he would have expected Liberty mony, and the honesty of purpose necessary to herself should be his first slave. The Bedford fac- elicit truth. tion, except the duke himself, were void of honor,


From the Edinburgh Philosophical Journal. duced by themselves. Without insisting on the On the Luminousness of the Earth. By Baron problematical, but very common phenomenon of Von HUMBOLDT.

sheet-lightning, in which the whole of a deep

massy cloud is flickeringly illuminated for several If the luminous phenomenon which we ascribe minutes at a time, we find other examples of terto a galvanic current, i. e., a movement of elec- restrial evolutions of light. To this head belong tricity in a circuit returning into itself, be desig- the celebrated dry-fogs of 1783 and 1831, which nated by the indefinite name of the Northern light, were luminous by night; the steady luminousness or the Polar light, nothing more is thereby implied of large clouds, perfectly free from all flickering, than the local direction in which the beginning of observed by Rozier and Beccaria ; and even the a certain luminous phenomenon is most generally, pale diffused light, as Arago has well observed, but by no means invariably, seen. What gives which serves to guide us in the open air, in thickthis phenomenon its greatest importance, is the ly clouded autumn and wintry nights, when there fact which it reveals, viz., that the earth is lumi- is neither moon nor star in the firmament, nor snow nous ; that our planet, besides the light which it upon the ground. As in the phenomenon of the receives from the central body, the sun, shows Polar light occurring in high northern latitudes, itself capable of a proper luminous act or process. in other words, in electro-magnetic storms, floods The intensity of the earth-light, or rather the de- of flickering, and often party-colored light stream gree of luminosity which it diffuses, exceeds by a lit-through the air ; so in the hotter zones of the tle, in the case of the brightest colored rays that earth, between the tropics, are there many thousand shoot up to the zenith, the light of the moon in her square miles of ocean which are similarly liglitfirst quarter. Occasionally, as on the 7th of January engendering. Here, however, the magic of the light 1831, a printed page can be read without strain- belongs to the organic forces of nature. Lighting the sight. This light-process of earth, which foaming flashes the bursting wave, the wide level the Pular regions exhibit almost incessantly, leads glows with lustrous sparks, and every spark is the us by analogy to the remarkable phenomenon vital motion of an invisible animal world. So manwhich the planet Venus presents. The portion of ifold is the source of terrestrial light. And shall we this planet which is not illuminated by the sun, conceive it latent, not yet set free in vapors, as a glows occasionally with a proper phosphorescent means of explaining Moser's pictures-a discovery gleam. It is not improbable that the moon, Jupi- in which reality still presents itself to us as a vision ter, and comets, besides the reflected sun-light re-shrouded in mystery ?-Kosmos, s. 200, and Coscognizable by the polariscope, also emit light pro- mos, English edition, p. 209.

From the Edinburgh Philosophical Journal. of being rolled out into long pieces or flat plates. On Gulta Percha," a peculiar variety of Ca- When in the soft state, il possesses all the elas

outchouc. By Douglas Maclagan, M.Ď., F. ticity of common Indian-rubber, but it does not reR.S.E., &c. Communicated by the Royal tain these properties long. It soon begins again Scottish Society of Art.*

to grow hard, and a short time, varying according

to the temperature and the size of the piece opeGutta Percha is the Malayan name for a sub-rated on, regains all its original hardness and stance which is the concrete juice of a large forest rigidity. A ball one inch in diameter was comtree, native of the shores of the Straits of Malacca, pletely softened by boiling water in ten minutes, Borneo, and the adjacent countries. The tree and regained its hardness completely in less than yielding it is unknown botanically, all the informa- half an hour. It appears to be capable of untion we possess regarding it being, that it is a large dergoing this alternate softening and hardening forest tree, and yields this product abundantly. any number of times without change of proWe are indebted for our knowledge of it to Dr.

perty: W. Montgomerie, H.E.I.C.S., whose spirited ex- It is also to a certain extent ductile. When ertions to improve the cultivation of various articles soft it is easily torn across, but when hard it is of colonial produce at Singapore have obtained very tenacious. A piece not an eighth of an inch from him several distinguished marks of approba- in thickness, when cold, easily raised a weight of tion from the Royal Society of Arts of London. forty-two pounds, and only broke when half a hunFor this communication regarding gutta rcha, dred weight was attached to it. Dr. Montgomerie received a silver medal from the From these properties, it seems capable of many society.

applications in the arts. Its solution appears to be This substance, in its crude state, differs, in as well adapted as that of common caoutchouc for many particulars, from common caontchouc. It is making waterproof cloth, and, whilst softened, it of a pale-yellowish, or rather dirty-white, color. It can be made into solid articles, such as knifeis nearly as hard as wood, though it readily re- handles, door-handles, &c. The Malays employ ceives the impression of the nail. It is very it for the former of these, and prefer it to wood. tenacious, and not at all elastic.

A surgeon, furnished with a small piece, could It seemed to me to be worth while to determine, easily, with the aid of a little hot water, supply whether or not this substance really was a variety himself with bougies or pessaries of any size or of caoutchouc, and for this purpose I subjected it form. to the ordinary process of ultimate analysis, and [Dr. M. exhibited a knife-handle, a walking. obtained as its per-centage composition, carbon, cane head, a riding-whip, and other articles, made 86.36 ; hydrogen, 12.15; the remainder, 1.49, of gutta percha.) was most probably oxygen absorbed from the air during the process employed for purifying it, as the substance, whilst heating on the vapor-bath,

THE EXILED LONDONER. acquired a brown color. The only analysis of common caoutchouc with which I am acquainted | I roam beneath a foreign sky, is that of Faraday, who obtained, carbon, 87.2; That sky is cloudless, warm and clear; hydrogen, 12.8. The results are sufficiently near And everyihing is glad but I ; to warrant the conclusion, that the two matiers in But ah! my heart is far from here.. question are generically the same. I found, also, that the guita percha yields the

They bid me look on forests green, same product of destructive distillation as the com

And boundless prairies stretching far ; mon caoutchouc. Without entering into details, I But I rejoice not in their sheen, may briefly state, that both equally yield a clear, And longing turn to Temple Bar. yellow, limpid oil, having no fixed boiling-point, and, therefore, being a mixture of different oleagi! They bid me list the torrent's roar,

In all its foaming, bounding pride; nous principles. In both instances, the distillation proceeds most_freely at temperatures between

But I, I only think the more 360° and 390° Fahr., and seems almost stationary

On living torrents in Cheapside! at 385°. Comparative analysis of similar portions They bid me mark the mighty stream, of the two oils were made, and, as is already Which Mississippi rolls to sea ; known of common caoutchouc, the products ex

But then I sink in pensive dream, hibit a constitution represented by the formula Cio

And turn my thoughts, dear Thames, to thee. H%. The gutta percha thus appears really to be a modification of caoutchouc.

They bid me note the mountains high, In its general properties it likewise shows a Whose snow capp'd peaks my prospect end : similarity to common caoutchouc. It is soluble in I only heave a secret sighcoal naphtha, in caoutchouc oil, and in other. It To Ludgate Hill my wishes tend. is insoluble in alcohol and in water, and floats upon the latter.

They taunt me with our denser air, Its most remarkable and distinctive peculiarity is And fogs so thick you scarce can see ; the effect of heat upon it. When placed in water Then yellow fog, I will declare, at 110, no effect is produced upon it, except that Though strange to say, I long for thee. it receives the impression of the nail more readily : but when the temperature is raised to 145° or up- And everything in this bright clime wards, it gradually becomes so soft and pliant as But serves to turn my thoughts to thee? to be capable of being moulded into any form, or Thou London, of an earlier time,

O when shall I return to thee! * Read before the society 23d June, 1845.





From Tait's Magazine. may be new, renewing such as may be old, towards ON THE TEMPERANCE MOVEMENT OF MODERN engaged in so great a struggle. My own expe

the encouragement of the information of persons rience had never travelled in that course which could much instruct me in the miseries from wine,

or in the resources for struggling with it. I had Tue most remarkable instance of a combined repeatedly been obliged, indeed, to lay it aside movement in society, which history, perhaps, will altogether; but in this I never found room for be summoned to notice, is that which, in our own more than seven or ten days' struggle: excesses days, has applied itself to the abatement of intem- I had never practised in the use of wine ; simply perance. Naturally, or by any direct process, the the habit of using it, and the collateral habits machinery set in motion would seem irrelevant to formed by excessive use of opium, had produced the object: if one hundred men unite to elevate any difficulty at all in resigning it even on an the standard of temperance, they can do this with hour's notice. From opium I derive my right of effect only by improvements in their own separate offering hints at all upon the subjects of abstinence cases : each individual, for such an effort of self-in other forms. But the modes of suffering from conquest, can draw upon no resources but his own. the evil, and the separate modes of suffering from One peinber, in a combination of one hundred, the effort of self-conquest, together with the errors when running a race, can hope for no coöperation of judgment incident to such states of transitional from his ninety-nine associates. And yet, by a torinent, are all nearly allied, practically analogous secondary action, such combinations are found em-as regards the remedies, even if characteristically inently successful. Having obtained from every distinguished to the inner consciousness. I make confederate a pledge, in some shape or other, that no scruple, therefore, of speaking as from a station he will give thein his support, thenceforwards they of high experience and of most watchful attention, bring the passions of shame and self-esteem to bear which never remitted even under sufferings that upon each member's personal perseverance. Not were at times absolutely frantic. only they keep alive and continually refresh in his 1. The first hint is one that has been often thoughts the general purpose, which else might offered ; viz., the diminution of the particular fade ; but they also point the action of public con- liquor used, by the introduction into each glass of tempt and of self-contempt at any defaulter much some inert substance, ascertained in bulk, and more potently, and with more acknowledged right equally increasing in amount from day to day. to do so, when they use this influence under a But this plan has often been intercepted by an license, volunteered, and signed, and sealed, by the accident : shot, or sometimes bullets, were the man's own hand. They first conciliate his coun. substances nearest at hand ; and an objection tenance through his intellectual perceptions of arose from too scrupulous a caution of chemistry what is right; and next they sustain it through as to the action upon lead of the vineous acid. his conscience, (the strongest of his internal forces,) Yet all objection of this kind might be removed at and even through the weakest of his human sensi- once, by using beads in a case where small decrebilities. That revolution, therefore, which no ments were wanted, and marbles, if it were thought combination of men can further by abating the advisable to use larger. Once for all, however, in original impulse of temptations, they often accom- cases deeply rooted, no advances ought ever to be plish happily by maturing the secondary energies made but by small stages : for the effect, which is of resistance.

insensible at first, by the tenth, twelfth, or fifAlready in their earliest stage, these temperance teenth day, generally accumulates unendurably movements had obtained, both at home and abroad, under any bolder deductions. I must not stop to a national range of grandeur. More than ten years illustrate this point; but certain it is, that by an ago, when M. de Tocqueville was resident in the error of this nature at the outset, most natural to United States, the principal American society human impatience under exquisite suffering, too counted two hundred and seventy thousand mem- generally the trial is abruptly brought to an end bers : and in one single state, (Pennsylvania,) the through the crisis of a passionate relapse. annual diminution in the use of spirits had very II. Another object, and one to which the gladisoon reached half a million of gallons. Now a ator matched in single duel with intemperance, machinery must be so far good which accomplishes must direct a religious vigilance, is the digestibility its end : the means are meritorious for so much as of his food : it must be digestible not only by its they effect. Even to strengthen a feeble resolu- original qualities, but also by its culinary pre tion by the aid of other infirmities, such as shame paration. In this last point we are all of us or the very servility and cowardice of deference to Manichæans: all of us yield a cordial assent to public opinion, becomes prudent and laudable in that Manichæan proverb which refers the meats ihe service of so great a cause. Nay, sometimes and the cooks of ihis world to two opposite founto make public profession of self-distrust by assum- tains of light and of darkness. Oromasdes it is, ing the coercion of public pledges, may become an or the good principle, that sends the food ; Ahriexpression of frank courage, or even of noble prin- manes, or the evil principle, that everywhere sends ciple, not fearing the shame of confession when it the cooks. Man has been repeatedly described or can aid the powers of victorious resistance. Yet even defined, as by differential privilege of his still, so far as it is possible, every man sighs for a nature, “a cooking animal.” Brutes, it is said, still higher victory over himself : a victory not have faces—man only has a countenance ; brutes tainted by bribes, and won from no impulses but are as well able to eat as man-man only is able those inspired by his own higher nature, and his to cook what he eats. Such are the romances of own mysterious force of will; powers that in no self-fattery. I, on the contrary, maintain, that man were ever fully developed.

six thousand years have not availed, in this point, This being so, it is well that from time to time to raise our race generally to the level of ingenious every man should throw out any hints that have savages. The natives of the Society and the occurred to his experience-suggesting such as Friendly Isles, or of New Zealand, and other fa





vored spots, had, and still have an art of cookery, of bread and of the baker's art, must be aware that though very limited in its range: the French this quality of sponginess, (though quite equal to have an art and more extensive; but we English the ruin of the digestive organs,) is but one in a are about upon a level (as regards this science) | legion of vices to which the article is liable. A with the ape, to whom an instinct whispers that German of much research wrote a book on the chestnuts may be roasted; or with the aboriginal conceivable faults in pair of shoes, which he Chinese of Charles Lamb's story, to whom the ex- found to be about six hundred and sixty-six, many perience of many centuries had revealed thus much, of them, as he observed, requiring a very delicate viz., that a dish very much beyond the raw flesh of process of study to find out; whereas the possible their ancestors, might be had by burning down the faults in bread, which are not less in number, family mansion, and thus roasting the pig-stye. require no study at all for the detection : they Rudest of barbarous devices is English cookery, publish themselves thrvugh all varieties of misery. and not much in advance of this primitive Chinese But the perfection of barbarism, as regards our step; a fact which it would not be worth while to island cookery, is réserved for animal food ; and lament, were it not for the sake of the poor trem- the two poles of Oromasdes and Ahrimanes are bling deserter from the hanners of intoxication, nowhere so conspicuously exhibited. Our insular who is thus, and by no other cause, so often thrown sheep, for instance, are so far superior to any which back beneath the yoke which he had abjured. the continent produces, that the present Prussian Past counting are the victims of alcohol, that, minister at our court is in the habit of questioning having by vast efforts emancipated themselves for a man's right to talk of mutton as anything bea season, are violently forced into relapsing by the yond a great idea, unless he can prove a residence nervous irritations of demoniac cookery. Unhap- in Great Britain. One sole case he cites of a dinpily for them, the horrors of indigestion are relieved ner on the Elbe, when a particular leg of mutton for the moment, however ultimately strengthened, really struck him as rivalling any which he had by strong liquors; the relief is immediate and known in England. The mystery seemed inexcannot fail to be perceived; but the aggravation, plicable ; but, upon inquiry, it turned out to be an being removed to a distance, is not always referred importation from Leith. Yet this incomparable to its proper cause. This is the capital rock and article, to produce which the skill of the feeder stumbling-block in the path of him who is hurry- must coöperate with the peculiar bounty of nature, ing back to the camps of temperance; and many a calls forth the most dangerous refinements of barreader is likely to misapprehend the case through barism in its cookery. A Frenchman requires, as the habit he has acquired of supposing indigestion the primary qualification of flesh meat, that it to lurk chiefly amongst lururious dishes. But, on should be tender. We English universally, but the contrary, it is amongst the plainest, simplest, especially the Scots, treat that quality with indifand commonest dishes that such misery lurks, in ference, or with bare toleration. What we require England. Let us glance at three articles of diet, is, that it should be fresh, that is, recently killed, bbeyond all comparison of most ordinary occurrence, (in which state it cannot be digestible except by viz., potatoes, bread, and butchers' meat. The art à crocodile ;) and we present it at table in a transiof preparing potatoes for human use is utterly un- tion state of leather, demanding the teeth of a tiger known except in certain provinces of our empire, to rend it in pieces, and the stomach of a tiger to and amongst certain sections of the laboring class. digest it. In our great cities-London, Edinburgh, &c.-the With these habits amongst our countrymen, sort of things which you see offered at table under exemplified daily in the articles of widest vse, it the name and reputation of potatoes, are such that, is evident that the sufferer from intemperance has if you could suppose the company to be composed a harder quarantine, in this island, to support of Centaurs and Lapithæ, or any other quarrelsome during the effort of restoration, than he could have people, it would become necessary for the police to anywhere else in Christendom. In Persia, and, interfere. The potato of cities is a very dangerous perhaps, there only on this terraqueous planet, missile; and, if thrown with an accurate aim by matters might be even worse ; for, whilst we an angry hand, will fracture any known skull. English neglect the machinery of digestion, as a In volume and consistency, it is very like a paving- matter entitled to little consideration, the people stone ; only that, I should say, the paving-stone of Teheran seem unaware that there is any such had the advantage in point of tenderness. And machinery. So, at least, one might presume, upon this horrid basis, which youthful ostriches from cases on record, and especially from the reckwould repent of swallowing, the trembling, palpi- less folly, under severe illness, from indigestion, tating invalid, fresh from the scourging of alcohol, of the three Persian princes, who visited this counis requested to build the superstructure of his try, as stated by their official mehmander, Mr. dinner. The proverb says, that three flittings are Fraser. With us, the excess of ignorance, upon as bad as a fire; and on that model I conceive that this subject, betrays itself oftenest in that vain. three potatoes, as they are found at many British glorious answer made by people, who at any time dinner-tables, would be equal, in principle of ruin, are admonished of the sufferings which they are to two glasses of vitriol. The same savage igno- preparing for themselves by these outrages upon rance appears, and only not so often, in the bread ihe most delicate of human organs. They, for of this island. Myriads of families eat it in that their parts, “know not if they have a stomach ; early stage of sponge which bread assumes during they know not what it is that dyspepsy means ;'. the process of baking ; but less than sixty hours forgetting that, in thus vaunting their strength of will not fit this dangerous article of human diet to stomach, they are, at the same time, proclaiming be eaten. And those who are acquainted with the its coarseness; and showing themselves unaware works of Parmentier, or other learned investigators that precisely those, whom such coarseness of or* But judge not, reader, of French skill by the attempts able reaction of suffering, are the favorite sub

ganization reprieves from immediate and seasonof fourth-rate artists; and understand me to speak with respect of this skill, not as it is the tool of luxury, but as jects of that heavier reaction which takes the shape is the handiaid of healıb.

of delirium tremens, of palsy, and of lunacy. It

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