Page images


TANEY, a S. of Missonri, bordering altogether unfit to associate with the white on Arkansas, and drained by White river and race either in social or political relations; and its affluents; area, 1,540 sq. m.; pop. in 1860, so far inferior that they had no rights which 3,576, of whom 82 were slaves. The surface the white man was bound to respect;" that is hilly and the soil fertile. The productions consequently such persons were not included in 1850 were 301,116 bushels of Indian corn, among the people in the general words of 11,557 of wheat, 38,826 of oats, and 78,585 lbs. that instrument, and could not in any respect of butter. Capital, Forsyth.

be considered as citizens; that the inhibition TANEY, ROGER BROOKE, an American ju- of slavery in the territories of the United States rist, born in Calvert co., Md., March 17, 1777. lying north of the line of 36° 30', known He is descended from a family of English Ro- as the Missouri compromise, was unconstituman Catholics which settled in Maryland about tional; and that Dred Scott, a negro slave, the middle of the 17th century, and received who was removed by his master from Missouri his education at Dickinson college, Penn., where to Illinois, lost whatever freedom he may have he was graduated in 1795. Commencing the thus acquired by being subsequently removed study of the law in Annapolis in 1796, he was into the territory of Wisconsin, and by his readmitted in 1799 to the Maryland bar, began turn to the state of Missouri. to practise in his native county, from which he TANGENT (Lat. tango, to tonch), in gewas also elected a delegate to the general as- ometry, a straight line which meets or touches sembly, and in 1801 removed to Frederic. In & curved surface without intersecting it. In 1816 he was elected a state senator, and upon trigonometry, the tangent of an arc is a perpenretiring from that office in 1822 removed to dicular to the radius drawn from its point of Baltimore, where he has ever since resided. meeting the arc to the secant which passes In 1827 he was appointed attorney-general of through the other extremity of this arc. Maryland, notwithstanding his political views, TANGIER, a town of Morocco, near the W. which were strongly democratic, were opposed entrance of the strait of Gibraltar, in lat. 35° to those of the governor and council; and in 47' N., long. 5° 48' W.; pop. estimated at 10,the summer of 1831 he was appointed by Pres- 000. It is built on high ground overlooking a ident Jackson attorney-general of the United spacious bay, and presents a very striking apStates. Upon the dismissal of Mr. Duane from pearance from the sea. It is surrounded by a the office of secretary of the treasury, Sept. 23, wall and defended by several forts. There are 1833, on account of his refusal to remove the several mosques and Jewish synagogues, and a government deposits from the United States Roman Catholic church. The harbor was once bank, Mr. Taney was appointed to succeed him, good and much frequented by foreign shipping, and immediately issued the necessary orders but it is now greatly incommoded by the ruins for the removal of the deposits to the local of the old mole. The principal trade of the banks selected by him as agents of the govern- place consists in supplying the British garrison ment. The senate, which had an anti-adminis- of Gibraltar and the cities of Cadiz and Lisbon tration majority, rejected his nomination in with cattle, fowls, fruit, &c.—Tangier (anc. June, 1834, by a vote of 28 to 18. In 1835 he Tingis, of which there are remains 3 m. to the was nominated by President Jackson as an as- S. E.) is supposed to have been founded by the sociate justice of the supreme court; but the Carthaginians, from whom it was taken by the senate, being still opposed to the president, Romans, and it afterward passed into the hands postponed the subject indefinitely on the last of the Goths and Arabs. The Portuguese took day of the term, which was equivalent to a re- it in 1471, and ceded it to the British in 1662, jection. Upon the death of Chief Justice Mar- who erected a mole and held the place for 22 shall he was appointed by Jackson as his succes- years. sor, and in March, 1836, the senate, which had TANJORE, a district of British India, Mameanwhile changed its political complexion, dras presidency, bounded N. by South Arcot confirmed the nomination. He took his seat and Trichinopoly, E. and S. E. by the bay of upon the supreme bench in Jan. 1837, and still Bengal, S. and S. W. by Madura, and W. by (March, 1862) holds the office. Of the various Poodoocottah and Trichinopoly; area, 3,781 questions before that court with which his name sq. m.; pop. in 1851, 1,676,086. There are no has been associated, that known as the “ case harbors of any importance on the coast. The of Dred Scott” has gained a special prominence country is well watered by the Coleroon and from the important political interests which it Cavery and their numerous tributaries. The involves. The chief justice, while concurring in surface consists for the most part of an extenthe judgment of the majority of the court, that sive plain of great fertility. Cotton goods are the circuit court of the United States for Mis- manufactured to a considerable extent, and salt souri had no jurisdiction in the suit brought by is made in the neighborhood of Point Calya the plaintiff in error, Dred Scott, on the ground mere. The inhabitants are nearly all Hinthat the latter was not a citizen of Missouri, doos, and their castes and institutions have held, that for more than a century previous to been more perfectly preserved than in most the adoption of the declaration of indepen- other parts of Hindostan.—Tanjore, the capidence negroes, whether slaves or free, had been tal, is situated on a branch of the Cavery, 180 m. regarded as “ beings of an inferior order, and S. W. from Madras and 45 m. from the bay of


[ocr errors]

Bengal; pop. 80,000. It stands in a fertile with effervescence. Its composition, accordplain, and consists of 2 forts and several sub- ing to Strecker, is represented by the formula urbs. The greater fort is about 4 m. in cir- Cs, H., 034. Its aqueous solution exposed to cumference and the lesser about 1 m., and both the air absorbs oxygen, and is converted into are strong and well constructed. The palace, gallic acid. Beside its use in tanning, gallowhich stands in the centre of the great fort, is tannic acid is employed to produce with the an ancient edifice with several high towers. salts of iron the gallotannate of iron, which is The Hindoo temple in the small fort is con- the basis of most of the writing inks. It is sidered the finest building of the kind in Hin- also employed in medicine for its astringent dostan. It is 570 feet long and 200 broad, and property, chiefly in checking hæmorrhages, as has a pyramidal tower 100 feet high. A colos- a wash for ulcers, ophthalmic affections, &c. sal figure of a bull, carved in black granite, The combinations of tannic acid with iron and which surmounts the principal entrance, is á with lead have been applied in the form of fine specimen of Indian art. The manufactures ointments to the dressing of ringworms, ganconsist of silk, muslin, and cotton goods. grenous sores, &c.

TANNAHILL, ROBERT, & Scottish poet, TANNING. See LEATHER. born in Paisley, June 3, 1774, died May 17, TANSY (tanacetum vulgare, Linn.), a plant 1810. He was the son of a weaver, and formerly cultivated for its medicinal properties, throughout his life followed the same occupa- but which, escaping from gardens, has estabtion. A volume of “Poems and Songs,” pub- lished itself by the roadsides and in waste lished by him in 1807, became exceedingly places as a hardy and troublesome weed. It popular; but while engaged upon a revised belongs to the composite order, and to that and enlarged edition, his health gave way, and section which is known as the corymbifere. he fell into a state of morbid despondency, The roots of the tansy are perennial, the stems greatly aggravated by the refusal of Consta- dying down at the end of summer; the leaves ble to print the new work. He burned all his are bipinnately divided, deep green; the flowmanuscript poems as well as those which had er heads in dense fastigiate corymbs, of a golden received revision, and finally drowned himself yellow color, and blooming in August and Sepin a brook near Paisley. An enlarged edition tember. There are two varieties; one with of his poetical remains, with a memoir, was variegated or striped leaves and seldom seen; published in Glasgow in 1838.

the other, not uncommon, with double or TANNIC ACID, or Tannin. The astringent curled leaves, and more in repute for its mildprinciples existing in a great variety of plants ness, being employed in flavoring puddings, &c. which render them capable of combining with The medical qualities of tansy are the aromatic, the skins of animals to form leather, of pre- bitter, tonic, and anthelmintic, for which it is cipitating gelatine, of forming bluish black pre- sometimes used in dyspepsia, intermittents, cipitates with the per-salts of iron (or if a free and gout, or for expelling worms. acid be present a dark green color), were for- shoots are used by the Finns to dye cloths merly termed tannin. These substances, being green. There are several other species, chiefly found to possess acid properties, are now belonging to the East. known as tannic acid, and various distinctive TANTALUM. See COLUMBIUM. Dames are given to them as they are found of TANTALUS, a Greek of the mythical period, different chemical compositions, though agree- differently described as king of Argos, Corinth, ing in their essential properties. Thus the Lydia, or Paphlagonia. Having given offence tannic acid derived from the gall nut is termed to the gods, he was punished in the lower gallotannic acid ; that of the oak, quercitannic world by confinement in a lake, where he was acid; of the fustic (morus tinctoria), moritan- tormented with thirst, yet could not drink, nic acid; of the cinchona, quinotannic acid, for the waters always receded from his lips. &c. The principal sources of tannin have been Branches laden with fruit also hung over his named in the article LEATHER, and the method hes and when he stretched forth his hand to of extracting it has been particularly described take the fruit the branches withdrew. From in the article Gall Nut, which is the most this name the English language has acquired abundant source of it. Beside this variety, the verb “to tantalize." which is the same as that existing in the bark TAOS, a N. E. co. of New Mexico, bonnded and leaves of many forest trees, fruit trees, and N. by Colorado territory and E. by the Indian shrubs, and in some roots, as those of the tor- territory and Texas, and drained by the Rio mentilla and bistort, there is another less Grande and Canadian rivers; area, about 18,000 known, as the tannin of the catechu and kino, sq. m.; pop. in 1860, 14,103. It is mountainwhich precipitates the salts of iron of a dark ons in the W., being traversed by several spurs green instead of a blue color. Gallotannic of the Rocky mountains. The productions in acid when pure is a whitish, uncrystallizable, 1850 were 72,049 bushels of wheat and 26,633 solid substance, without odor, intensely astrin- of Indian corn. There were 11 churches, and gent to the taste; it dissolves freely in water, 40 pupils attending public schools.—Taos, the to a less extent in dilute alcohol, and sparingly capital, is situated on the right bank of a small in ether. It changes blue litmus paper to red, tributary of the Rio Grande, 52 m. N. N. E. and expels carbonic acid from its compounds from Santa Fé. It stands in a valley at the

[ocr errors]

The young

foot of the first range of the Rocky mountains, of gold and silver was introduced in the celeand is divided into two parts by a rivulet. The brated manufacture of Fontainebleau. The inhabitants are nearly all Pueblo Indians, and manufacture of Gobelin tapestry established by are proverbial for their honesty and industry. Louis XIV. is still carried on in the greatest

TAPESTRY (Gr. ranns, a carpet), an orna- perfection. (See GOBELINS.)—The working of mental figured cloth, made by interweaving tapestry was practised with much skill in Eng. upon a groundwork or warp of hemp or flax land in the time of William the Conqueror. colored threads of worsted, silk, and sometimes Mention is made of silken curtains embroidered gold and silver, or linen and cotton. It has in gold, and one of the most famous pieces of been used from the earliest times for lining the ancient tapestry is the Bayeux tapestry, workwalls of apartments, and sometimes for cover- ed with wool upon linen by Queen Matilda and ing couches, tables, and other articles of furni- her maidens, commemorating in its designs the ture. The Greeks applied the name to cov- conquest of England. This piece of work was erings for the floor, mention of which is made 214 feet long and 20 inches wide, in 72 divisions, by Homer. Such were also employed by the each with a Latin superscription. In former ancient Egyptians, made of woollen and linen times it was exhibited once a year for a short and ornamented with various figures. These period in church, and then locked up. Napopeople, as also the Hebrews, attained great skill leon caused it to be exhibited in several of the in ornamenting textile fabrics by embroidery. French cities in 1803, and then transferred it (See EMBROIDERY.) The ornaments were form- to the municipality of Bayeux. (See BAYEUX ed by colored yarns worked in by the hand, TAPESTRY.) Works of this character gradually and also by the loom, and in the finer specimens became more common, and about the end of of the art threads of gold were introduced; the reign of Henry VIII. the art of weaving and among the eastern nations the richest fab- tapestry is said to have been introduced into rics were studded with rubies, emeralds, dia England. In the reign of James I. the manu. monds, and pearls. These were hung around facture was established at Mortlake in Surrey, the inner walls of the temples, and used for and was sustained by the patronage of Kings lining private apartments and for the coverings James and Charles. For the earlier designs of couches. The art was early introduced into old patterns were employed, but afterward France, and when Clovis in 496 adopted the original historical and grotesque scenes were Christian religion, it is stated that not only furnished in great perfection by Francis Cleyn. were the churches adorned with rich tapestries, The tapestry hangings were arranged in the but the streets themselves were curtained with houses upon hooks, so as to hang a little out them. The aid of the loom was introduced from the wall, thus admitting the concealment about the 9th century, but the fabrication of of a person behind them. Upon special occatapestries with the needle continued to be the sions tapestry hangings were forwarded from chief occupation of females during a large por- one place to another, for temporary display.tion of the middle ages. Up to the 12th cen- The method of weaving tapestry in what is calltury the use of tapestry was limited to the ed the haute-lisse or high warp, as practised in adornment of churches and monasteries; but France, has been described in the article GOBEafter this period it began to be adopted in the LINS. This method is distinguished by the warp dwellings of the nobility, in imitation, it is threads being arranged vertically in a frame, supposed, of the customs prevailing in the East, and by the weaver standing behind them while with which the crusades had made the people he conducts the work. By the other method, of the western countries familiar. The tapes- known as the basse-lisse, the warp threads are try suspended in front of the walls served not arranged horizontally, with the painting to be merely as a protection from the cold and damp- copied under them. The weaver, sitting in ness of the stone, but it commemorated, in the front of the frame, observes the pattern through designs skilfully executed by the ladies of the the threads, which he occasionally parts with family, the heroic deeds of their ancestors, and his fingers, and then depressing the treadles, he was a grateful memorial to be transmitted to introduces the colored thread or worsted by successivo generations. In France the work- means of a shuttle called a flûte, and drives the men employed in the manufacture were origi- weft thus introduced close up with the teeth nally called sarazins and sarazinois, indicating of a sort of comb. As the face of the work is the origin of the art as derived from the Sara- on the under side and cannot be seen until the cons. The finest work in the 14th and 15th whole is finished, the other or haute-lisse is centuries was produced by the Flemings, and generally preferred. By either method the about this period the principal manufactories work is very slowly conducted. Tapestry is in the west of Europe were at Bruges, Ant- now woven in pieces of any desired breadth; werp, Arras (whence the name arras, generally but formerly the frames were so narrow that applied to tapestry in England in the middle it was necessary to unite different breadths toages), Brussels, Lille, Tournay, and Valen- gether, and this was done so skilfully that no ciennes. Florence and Venice at that time imperfection was perceived in the design. produced tapestry more rich and costly than TAPEWORM. See Entozoa, vol. vii. p. that made in the French cities; but in the 16th 223. century the more ornamental work with threads TAPIOCA. See CassAVA.

TAPIR (tapirus, Cuv.), a genus of pachyderm was chosen professor of divinity in Harvard mammals, characterized by a nose prolonged college, and held that position till his death. into a short, movable proboscis; skin very He published during his life about 30 occasional thick and covered with close short hair, the sermons and addresses, and in 1807 two postneck furnished with a kind of stiff mane; tail humous 8vo. volumes appeared, the one convery short; ears small, erect, and pig-like; 4 taining a selection from his sermons, the other toes on the fore and 3 on the hind feet, sepa- a course of lectures on Jewish antiquities. rate and ending in nail-like hoofs; skull pyram- TAPPAN, HENRY PHILIP, D.D., LL.D., an idal as in the hog, with the nasal bones much American clergyman, born at Rhinebeck, N. arched for the muscles of the proboscis; teeth, Y., in the early part of the present century. He 6 incisors and 2 small canines in each jaw, and was graduated at Union college in 1825, and, molars 14 above and 12 below. The tapirs after studying two years at the Auburn theolohave nothing of the majestic appearance and gical seminary, was for a year assistant passagacity of the elephant, and the proboscis can tor of the Reformed Dutch church in Schehardly be called a prehensile organ; they look nectady. In 1828 he was settled as pastor of a more like hogs, but the legs are longer; they Congregational church at Pittsfield, Mass.; in inhabit the moist tropical forests of South 1831 resigned on account of ill health and visitAmerica and of the Malayan peninsula anded the West Indies; and on his return in 1832 archipelago, usually sleeping by day in retired was appointed professor of moral and intellecplaces, and feeding at night on fruits, grasses, tual philosophy

in the university of the city of and other vegetable substances, though they New York. In 1838 the faculty resigned in conare as omnivorons and gluttonous as the hog; sequence of troubles in the institution, and for like their congeners, they are fond of rolling some years subsequently he conducted a private in the mud and water, and are excellent swim- seminary, and devoted his leisure to the prepamers; they are naturally of gentle disposition ration of works on philosophy and education. and easily tamed; when pursued they take to In 1851, and again in 1853, he visited Europe. the water if possible, where they easily defend In 1852 he was recalled to the chair of philosothemselves with the teeth; on land they do phy in the New York university, but before ennot go by open paths, but break through the tering upon its duties was elected chancellor of thick undergrowth of the woods by their pow- the university of Michigan, which post he acerful and wedge-like head, in this way escaping cepted and still holds. În 1856 he was elected the larger carnivora; they have an acute sense corresponding member of the imperial institute of hearing and of sight, and are strong and of France, and the same year president of the tenacious of life; their flesh is eaten both in American association for the advancement of South America and Asia. The best known education. His principal works are: “Review species is the American tapir (T. Americanus, of Edwards's Inquiry into the Freedom of the Ouv.), about 6 feet long and 3} high, of a uni- Will” (12mo., New York, 1839); "The Docform brown color, tinged with gray on the trine of the Will determined by an Appeal to head and chest. It is found over almost the Consciousness” (1840); “ The Doctrine of the whole extent of South America east of the Will applied to Moral Agency and ResponsiAndes, and its herds sometimes do great mis- bility" (1841); “Elements of Logic, together chief by trampling down cultivated fields; it with an introductory Review of Philosophy in has only one young at a birth, and in Novem- general, and a preliminary View of the Řeaber. The T. villosus (Wagl.), found upon the son” (12mo., 1844; revised and enlarged ed., high Andes, differs from the preceding in hav- 1856); " Treatise on University Education" ing much longer hair; it is but little known, (1851); “ A Step from the New World to the and may be a mere variety caused by a colder Old” (2 vols. 12mo., 1852); and a large numclimate and less succulent food; it was called ber of addresses and orations. T. pinchaque by Roulin, who first described it. TAR, a thick, black, viscid material, a proThe Asiatic tapir (T. Malayanus, Horsf.) is 7 duct of the destructive distillation of caror 8 feet long, with the hind parts of the body bonaceous substances, as wood, peat, bitumiwhite, and the anterior and the legs black; nous coals, and shales. It is a commercial the trunk is 7 or 8 inches long, the eyes very article, largely produced, and applied to a vasmall, and the rounded ears bordered with riety of uses. It was known to the ancient white; though the largest, it is the gentlest of Greeks, and Dr. Clarke, who describes the the genus. Fossil species are found in the ter- method of manufacturing it in the forests of tiary formations of central Europe; the tapir Bothnia, states that there is not the smallest appears to be connected with the swine by the difference between the processes there pracextinct palæotherium.

tised and those of ancient Greece. Along the TAPPAN, David, D.D., an American cler- whole coast of the gulf of Bothnia the inhabigyman, born at Manchester, Mass., April 21, tants are very generally engaged in this occu1753, died Aug. 21, 1803. He was graduated pation. They make use of the roots of the fir at Harvard college in 1771, and, after study- trees, with logs and billets of the same, which ing theology more than two years, commenced they arrange in a stack of conical shape, fitted to preaching, and in April, 1774, became pastor a cavity in the ground, generally made in the of a church in Newbury, Mass. In 1792 he side of a bank. In the bottom of this cavity is


placed a cast iron pan from which a spout leads 67 per cent. of heavy oils, and from 18 to 35 out through the bank. The heap is covered per cent. of pitch ; the best coals, as the cannel over with turf, and is then fired, as in making and Boghead, produce tar more rich in light charcoal. Tar collects in the latter part of the oils, and yield least pitch.-Wood tar is thick process of charring, and runs off through the and hard in cold weather, and softens when spout into barrels placed to receive it. Tar is a warm so as to flow like thick molasses. Its product where charcoal is the chief object of specific gravity is about 1.04. It is applied to the process, but is seldom obtained in quanti- various useful purposes. It is boiled down to ties sufficient to render it an object to collect it, produce pitch, is used to coat the bottoms of except in charring the resinous woods of the vessels to render them water-tight, and to cover pine family. In Sweden, where the business is rigging of ships to preserve it from the action also an important one, some peculiar methods of the weather, and is a useful lubricant for the are adopted to increase the yield of tar in wood. journals of wheels. In medicine it is used Trees of no value for the saw mill are partially internally in chronic catarrhs, and in some cupeeled of their bark a fathom or two up from taneous diseases, as ichthyosis. The inhalathe ground, not enough to kill them, but only tion of its vapor is recommended in cases of to check their growth. After 5 or 6 years, bronchial disease, the air of a room being imwhen cut down, the wood is found to be much pregnated with it by moderately heating the richer in resinous matters which produce tar. tar placed in a cup over a lamp. It has been It is noticed that the condition of the weather found beneficial as an external application to during the process of charring may make a dif- ulcers and various diseases of the skin. It is ference of 15 or 20 per cent. in the yield of tar. administered in pills mixed with flour, or in an In the United States tar is produced in almost electuary of tar and sugar. It yields a portion of all parts of the country where pitch pine and its properties to water with which it is stirred, the pinus australis are found. Along the coast and this preparation, known as tar water, is of the southern states, especially of North Caro- administered as a stimulant and diuretic, and lina, Virginia, and Georgia, the business has been is applied as a wash in chronic cutaneous affeccarried on upon a large scale in connection with tions.-Ooal tar possesses an exceedingly repulthe manufacture of turpentine, rosin, and pitch. sive odor, and was long considered of no value; Old trees, which have ceased to produce tur- but it has recently been found that the heavy pentine, and dead wood which is rich in resin- oils obtained by its distillation may be made to ous matter, are selected for the coal pits. The furnish a variety of singular products possessprocess does not materially differ from that al- ing rare properties, and affording rich colors ready described. The product is not only suf- applicable to dyeing (see Marve), and also cient for home consumption, but large quanti- flavors of various essences and agreeable perties are annually exported. The exports of tar fumes. (See CARBOLIC ACID, EssenTIAL OILS, and pitch for the year ending June 30, 1860, and PERFUME.) Coal tar is now in common were 60,623 barrels, valued at $151,404.-In use as a coating for iron work exposed to the the preparation of pyroligneous acid, tar is one weather, and is used with asphaltum and other of the products of the destructive distillation, substances to form a tight covering for roofs settling in the bottom of the tanks in which and the walls of vaults, &c. Its use in preparthe liquids are collected. The variety known ing a fuel with the dust of mineral coal is as coal tar is obtained in the same way, when noticed in FUEL, vol. vii. p. 782. bituminous matters are distilled for the produc- TAR, a river of North Carolina, which rises tion of illuminating gas or coal oils. (See Gas, in Person co., and flows S. E., passing Tarborand PETROLEUM.) Both wood and coal tars are ough, Greenville, and Washington, and finalcomplex mixtures of a variety of liquids hold- ly discharges its waters into Pamlico sound by ing solid matters in solution or suspension ; an estuary called Pamlico river. Its length is thus, wood tar contains the hydrocarbons in- 140 m., or including Pamlico river 180 m., cluded in the terın eupion, and toluole, xylole, and it is navigable for small steamers to Tarcymole, naphthaline, &c., beside a number of borough, 85 m. from the sound. oxidized compounds, including creosote, pica- TARANTO, or TARENTO (anc. Tarentum), & mar, kapnomor, &c. Rosin and paraffine are town of S. Italy, in the province of Terra found among its solid contents. When its vol- d'Otranto, situated at the N. extremity of the atile products have been driven off by distilla- gulf of the same name, 44 m. W. S. W. from tion or boiling, the black carbonaceous residue Brindisi; pop. about 18,000. It stands upon is known as pitch. The composition of coal an island connected with the mainland by two tar is not materially different; though, as some- stone bridges, is defended by a citadel, and contimes the term is incorrectly applied to coal tains many good houses and fine public edioils, it is then described as containing all the fices. The manufactures include linen and cotgreat variety of products derived from the de- ton goods, and gloves made from the fibres of structive distillation of bituminous coal as ob- the pinna marina, procured in the gulf. The tained from the gas works. Coal tar, the com- purple dye of Taranto, so long celebrated, still monly esteemed refuse product of these works, enjoys some fame. The inner port is so choked may be considered in general as consisting of up as to be inaccessible, while the outer one from 3 to 15 per cent. of light oils, from 60 to is much exposed.—Tarentam was colonized

« ՆախորդըՇարունակել »