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and their next desire to loaf idly until they are hungry again. Our object is to have them obtain their own food by labor, and then to incite them to labor for something beyond mere animal existence, and when that end is attained to induce them to become citizens of the United States. We cannot complain of their tendency to live an idle life. That is the crowning fault of an uneducated white man. It is only by education and attrition with a cultivated society that we beome ambitious for more than mere livelihood. What incitement to an Indian to get rich, when wealth only brings upon him the hatred of his inseparable companions of his own race? As to the means of advancement, the capital necessary to work with, the Indians are to-day richer than we are. They have an average of 600 acres per head. The government spends nearly $5,000,000 annually upon them. In addition the United States holds $16,000,000 of trust funds belonging to Indians, upon which it pays four and five per cent. interest. Besides this, the Indians

who have done any labor have other property of vast amount and they pay no taxes. They are protected and policed at the expense of the United States government. Their mails are carried by the United States even within their own territories, and to those who tence furnished, which last year amounted 800,000, United States soldiers, under Uni cers of the army, cut up and serve their m United States paid last year $284,680.75 f tion and storage of the goods furnishe They have many inborn prejudices, deep ro In comparing themselves with whites they of shame as to their own condition. Why They are proud of their race. That asser argument. They are obstinate even to m attempt to drive them. The true Indian i any friendly act and he is quick to apprec he will generally suffer very much before He is more likely to become your friend i suade him that he has performed a friend you, even if you have paid him twice its children are quick to learn if led to it in t and this is by sight and oral teaching and but as they naturally follow at home the amples of their parents, it will do no good urge them. The best urging is by reward to be gained, some anticipated pleasure to In teaching the adults need more than the need to be more carefully handled. If no young laziness has become in them second

Miss Fletcher, the well known ethnolo gave a lecture in Philadelphia on the Indi: National Indian Association. The Nat speaks of the lecturer and the lecture as fo among them respectfully, "entering India she said, recognizing that they, like other life, character, fixed customs, and etiquett religion of their own, she showed a just re human individuality, and thus winning the gained hitherto undiscovered scientific sec necessary result, helped the people forwa tion. To her instrumentality largely it is Omahas have now received their lands in s that their desire for education and materia been much strengthened. With calm eye ous heart, her influence with the tribes ha intelligent industry, while those who now moved to a juster interest in our native An of the many instructive points of the lectur posure of popular errors regarding Indi: character. The Indian is thought to be emotionless, she said; but it is etiquette v requires him to be so, in formal interview home in his own family he is both and affectionate. He is thought to be but his religion requires him to take an eye and a life for a life, while his thought that form one great family, as does his own tril even the remotest member of that family m: fer for a wrong done by any other member family, makes him seem revengeful where a his own code of ethics he is only dutiful. Indian is thought to be a selfish and tyranni while in reality, all the property, but his ow and blanket, belongs to his wife and childr wife is the farmer only that the husband 1 hunter and warrior. Of course, now that t gone and the need has come that all be farm dian, naturally enough, feels that he is takin woman's work when he plows and reaps.

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sadly said: "I see a future for my young men, but none for my women. What can they do in the house? There is nothing to do there." The lecture proved that fixed as are the Indian's ideas, he is yet open to conviction; dness will win his confidence; and that justice n to him the path of industry, progress, civilizad Christianity.

GOVERNMENT REPORT.

report of the Commissioner of Indian Affairs for ited States for 1882 was made in November last. 'riend's Review" makes the following quotations and excellent comments upon it:

its and Salaries. He advocates paying much salaries to Indian Agents than at present, so as

As to Co-operation of Religious Societies he says: "I am decidedly of the opinion that a liberal encouragement by the government to all religious denominations to extend their educational and missionary operations among the Indians would be of universal benefit." Last year an expenditure of $216,680 for these purposes by Religious Societies was reported, which he considers as so much saved to the government in money, but an insignificant item compared with the healthy influences exerted by the missionaries and teachers among the Indians. Yet in seeming contradiction to all this the report notes the departure of a commission to treat with the Dakota Sioux for a cession of lands, which if carried into effect will render almost or wholly useless the chapels, schools and mission houses among these Indi ins,

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ure the services of competent officers. This he ds as a measure of sound economy to the govern"These Indian Agents furnish the precept and ex to which we must look more than to any other or influence as a means of changing the habits, ers, and customs of the Indians. If the Agent is onest, industrious, and intelligent Christian man, the physical ability and disposition to endure hardand courageously encounter difficulty and disapment, or in other words, if he is morally, mentally, hysically above the average of what are considered men, he will work wonders among these wards of ation." He says such men must be paid well. asionally men have been found who, for the good 1 they hoped to accomplish, have voluntarily exiled selves and families and labored for the good of these e, but they generally found more trouble from surroundings and less moral support from the govent than was expected, and becoming discouraged lisheartened, have retired from the service, leaving places to be filled by less competent men." "We ot get men for $1,000 to $1,500 salaries to do work h $3,000 to $4,000." Commissioner Price denies the ping charge of dishonesty sometimes made against in Agents.

which have cost many thousands of dollars to the churches carrying on mission work among them.

The number of Indians, exclusive of Alaska, is 262,366, a slight increase over the report for 1880. The report urges the destruction of the liquor traffic among the Indians by laws more severely punishing any one who sells liquor to an Indian, and forbidding of the sale of liquors at any military post in the Indian country.

Intrusions.-At present, intruders on Indian lands can be put off but not punished except by fine, and the report asks that imprisonment as well as fine shall be the penalty of such intrusion. The notorious Payne has over and over gone into the Territory, caused the expenditure of thousands of dollars by the governm nt for the arrest of himself and his accomplices, and having no money to pay the fine imposed, has been set free to repeat his wickedness.

The Commissioner well says that "law for Indians" has been so often recommended that it seems useless to repeat it. But the great difficulty is that Congressmen have not the knowledge necessary to make laws suited to the varying requirements of the Indian tribes, and the Commissioner fails to recommend the formation of a proper legal commission to draft such schemes of law as. would be useful.

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and their next desire to loaf idly until they are hungry again. Our object is to have them obtain their own food by labor, and then to incite them to labor for something beyond mere animal existence, and when that end is attained to induce them to become citizens of the United States. We cannot complain of their tendency to live an idle life. That is the crowning fault of an uneducated white man. It is only by education and attrition with a cultivated society that we beome ambitious for more than mere livelihood. What incitement to an Indian to get rich, when wealth only brings upon him the hatred of his inseparable companions of his own race? As to the means of advancement, the capital necessary to work with, the Indians are to-day richer than we are. They have an average of 600 acres per head. The government spends nearly $5,000,000 annually upon them. In addition the United States holds $16,000,000 of trust funds belonging to Indians, upon which it pays four and five per cent. interest. Besides this, the Indians

who have done any labor have other property of vast amount and they pay no taxes. They are protected and policed at the expense of the United States government. Their mails are carried by the United States even within their own territories, and to those who have subsistence furnished, which last year amounted to over $1,800,000, United States soldiers, under United States offcers of the army, cut up and serve their meats, and the United States paid last year $284,680.75 for transportation and storage of the goods furnished to Indians. In comparing themselves with whites they have no sense They have many inborn prejudices, deep rooted opinions. of shame as to their own condition. Why should they? They are proud of their race. That assertion needs no argument. They are obstinate even to mulishness if you attempt to drive them. The true Indian is grateful for any friendly act and he is quick to appreciate one, but he will generally suffer very much before asking a favor. He is more likely to become your friend if you can persuade him that he has performed a friendly service for you, even if you have paid him twice its value. children are quick to learn if led to it in the right way, and this is by sight and oral teaching and not by books; but as they naturally follow at home the idle, lazy examples of their parents, it will do no good, but harm, to urge them. The best urging is by rewards-some prize to be gained, some anticipated pleasure to be gratified. In teaching the adults need more than the children and need to be more carefully handled. If not trained when young laziness has become in them second nature.

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Miss Fletcher, the well known ethnologist, recently gave a lecture in Philadelphia on the Indians before the National Indian Association. The National Baptist speaks of the lecturer and the lecture as follows: Going among them respectfully, "entering Indian society" as she said, recognizing that they, like other races, have a life, character, fixed customs, and etiquette, ethics, and religion of their own, she showed a just regard for their human individuality, and thus winning the Indian heart, gained hitherto undiscovered scientific secrets, and, as a necessary result, helped the people forward in civilization. To her instrumentality largely it is due that the Omahas have now received their lands in severalty, and that their desire for education and material progress has been much strengthened. With calm eyes and generous heart, her influence with the tribes has stimulated intelligent industry, while those who now hear her are moved to a juster interest in our native Americans. One of the many instructive points of the lecture was its exposure of popular errors regarding Indian ways and character. The Indian is thought to be taciturn and emotionless, she said; but it is etiquette which rigidly requires him to be so, in formal interviews, though at home in his own family he is both loquacions and affectionate. He is thought to be revengeful; but his religion requires him to take an eye for an eye, and a life for a life, while his thought that white men form one great family, as does his own tribe, and that even the remotest member of that family may justly suffer for a wrong done by any other member of the great family, makes him seem revengeful where according to his own code of ethics he is only dutiful. Again, the Indian is thought to be a selfish and tyrannical husband, while in reality, all the property, but his own horse, gun, and blanket, belongs to his wife and children; and his wife is the farmer only that the husband may be the hunter and warrior. Of course, now that the game is gone and the need has come that all be farmers, the Indian, naturally enough, feels that he is taking away the woman's work when he plows and reaps. As a chief

sadly said: "I see a future for my young men, but none for ny women. What can they do in the house? There is nothing to do there." The lecture proved that fixed as are the Indian's ideas, he is yet open to conviction; that kindness will win his confidence; and that justice will open to him the path of industry, progress, civilization, and Christianity.

GOVERNMENT REPORT.

The report of the Commissioner of Indian Affairs for the United States for 1882 was made in November last. The "Friend's Review" makes the following quotations from it and excellent comments upon it:

Agents and Salaries. He advocates paying much higher salaries to Indian Agents than at present, so as

As to Co-operation of Religious Societies he says: "I am decidedly of the opinion that a liberal encouragement by the government to all religious denominations to extend their educational and missionary operations among the Indians would be of universal benefit." Last year an expenditure of $216,680 for these purposes by Religious Societies was reported, which he considers as so much saved to the government in money, but an insignificant item compared with the healthy influences exerted by the missionaries and teachers among the Indians. Yet in seeming contradiction to all this the report notes the departure of a commission to treat with the Dakota Sioux for a cession of lands, which if carried into effect will render almost or wholly useless the chapels, schools and mission houses among these Indi ins,

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to secure the services of competent officers. This he regards as a measure of sound economy to the govern ment. "These Indian Agents furnish the precept and ex ample to which we must look more than to any other cause or influence as a means of changing the habits, manners, and customs of the Indians. If the Agent is an honest, industrious, and intelligent Christian man, with the physical ability and disposition to endure hardship and courageously encounter difficulty and disappointment, or in other words, if he is morally, mentally, and physically above the average of what are considered good men, he will work wonders among these wards of the nation." He says such men must be paid well. "Occasionally men have been found who, for the good which they hoped to accomplish, have voluntarily exiled themselves and families and labored for the good of these people, but they generally found more trouble from their surroundings and less moral support from the gov ernment than was expected, and becoming discouraged and disheartened, have retired from the service, leaving their places to be filled by less competent men." "We cannot get men for $1,000 to $1,500 salaries to do work worth $3,000 to $4,000." Commissioner Price denies the sweeping charge of dishonesty sometimes made against Indian Agents.

which have cost many thousands of dollars to the churches carrying on mission work among them.

The number of Indians, exclusive of Alaska, is 262,366, a slight increase over the report for 1880. The re port urges the destruction of the liquor traffic among the Indians by laws more severely punishing any one who sells liquor to an Indian, and forbidding of the sale of liquors at any military post in the Indian country.

Intrusions.-At present, intruders on Indian lands can be put off but not punished except by fine, and the report asks that imprisonment as well as fine shall be the penalty of such intrusion. The notorious Payne has over and over gone into the Territory, caused the expenditure of thousands of dollars by the government for the arrest of himself and his accomplices, and having no money to pay the fine imposed, has been set free to repeat his wickedness.

The Commissioner well says that "law for Indians" has been so often recommended that it seems useless to repeat it. But the great difficulty is that Congressmen have not the knowledge necessary to make laws suited to the varying requirements of the Indian tribes, and the Commissioner fails to recommend the formation of a proper legal commission to draft such schemes of law as, would be useful.

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Railways.-The report refers to no less than thirteen railways which have recently traversed Indian Reserves. This fact makes it clear that the Indians cannot be isolated from the whites, but must be prepared to live in contact with them, and to bear the temptations and struggle for a livelihood which such contact implies. Education.-The Commissioner marks the increased appropriations of last Congress for Indian education beyond those required by treaty, as a new era in Indian management. The entire sum granted was $482,200; more than five times the largest amount hitherto given. The whole number of Indians at school, exclusive of the five civilized tribes, has been 8,412, of whom 4,113 were at Boarding school, and 3,999 attended Reservation day schools. While the Commissioner justly values the Industrial schools at Hampton, Carlisle and Forest Grove, he assigns an important place to the Reservation schools, especially the Boarding schools, and desires that they should be increased in number and efficiency. Nine new Boarding schools of this class have been occupied during the year. Two more Industrial Training schools are about to be opened, one at Genoa, Nebraska, the other in the Indian Territory. The Commissioner points out that these Indian schools are pioneers in industrial education, a demand for which must almost certainly extend rapidly among white communities.

The giving of lands in severalty to Indians has made little progress. Treaties with some bands, as the Santee Sioux, require that patents shall be issued to such of the tribe as shall comply with certain conditions, yet very few have been issued. In the case of the Santee Sioux, although applications were made five years ago for such patents none have been granted, the Department having decided that some technical points connected with the Land Office forbid the issuance of patents without further legislation-legislation which our busy Congresses fail to furnish. The Commissioner seeks the co-operation of Christian churches. Should they not respond with good men for Agents, and with competent teachers and missionaries?

MISSIONS AMONG THE INDIANS.

The church buildings among the Indians in the United States reported in 1881, including those among the five civilized tribes, were 296. The missionaries not included among teachers numbered 184. There were 383 schools, 79 of them boarding schools. The religious bodies expended among them in 1881 for education and missions, $139,440.

cities two years ago his brother chiefs gatherir.g around him and said: "Tell us what of all you saw was most wonderful." After a long silence Mi-ne-ge-shig replied: "When I was in the great churches and heard the great organ and all the pale faces stood up and said: The Lord is in his holy temple. Let all the earth keep silence,' I thought the pale faces had had this religion all these 400 years and did not give it to us and now it is late. That is the most wonderful thing I saw." And the chiefs said "That is indeed most wonderful! Now it is late! It is indeed noon!" The energetic tact of the Catholics, whose Indian missions are largest on the list, commends itself to the church. They appreciate that the govern

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Canadian Indian Missionary.

The American Board has had missions for many years in Nebraska and Dakota, which have been transferred to the American Missionary Association; the Friends in the Indian Territory and Nebraska; the Methodist Episcopal Church in California, Oregon, Washington Territory, | ment helps those who help themselves and last year apMontana, Idaho, and Michigan; the Southern Metho-propriated of government funds to their numerons schools dists in the Indian Territory; the Roman Catholics in and missions $85,000, a sum greater than all denominaOregon, Washington Territory, Montana, and Dakota; tions together report. They have at Washington an the Baptists in the Indian Territory and Nevada; the Indian Mission Bureau and three agents to look after Presbyterians in the Indian Territory, Mew Mexico, Catholic interests among the Indians. Idaho, Washington Territory, Utah, Arizona, Nebraska, Dakota, and Michigan; the Protestant Episcopalians in Oregon; the Evangelical Lutherans in Colorado; the American Missionary Association in Oregon, and commencing with this year in Nebraska and Dakota.

Mrs. Dr. L. D. McCabe says: There are none more acutely sensible of the apathy of the Christian Church to their condition than are the converted Indians. The writer has heard their words of pathos, regretting their friends who have died in the past years without the gos pel. When the pious Chippewa chief, Mi-ne-ge-shig, known to the writer, returned from a visit to our eastern

The United Presbyterian says: The story of the Indians is a sad one. Pushed back by the advancing set tlements from the richer to the poor land, wronged and hunted by the greedy pioneers, what wonder if their savage nature resisted and retaliated in horrid massacres? Gospel work has been eminently successful among them, except as it has been nullified by the wrong-doings of the whites. The stories of missionary labors among the Indians of New England and Pennsylvania in the colony times read like romance, and in recent times such work has been rewarded with abundant results. But over against it all has been the rapacity of

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