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the tiling of Mercer and the stained glass windows of Van Ingen served as art lessons.

Marywood College assembled a very remarkable collection, issued a special booklet of 16 pages and had exercises every day.

Exhibitions of local artists were made at Indiana, Marywood, Norristown, Philadelphia, Pittsburgh and Warren.

Mrs. Thomas Lynch of Greensburg opened her home and invited the public to view the arts and crafts exhibited there. She published a catalog of 20 pages that they might the better understand and appreciate the collection. Invitations issued to parents to visit schools in many districts contained art designs made by the children.

The Hazleton Plain Speaker devoted a page to the art articles written by teachers and students of the high school.

School grounds were beautified in many districts and numerous schools were the recipients of handsome pictures.

A second important accomplishment of the week was the success of the "Visit Your Schools" campaign. It is safe to say that more people visited schools from November 17 to 23 than during all the previous Education Weeks. The results will be far reaching. A closer bond has been established. People have a better understanding of the aims of the schools, know the teachers better and are sure to co-operate more heartily in educational movements. In this connection it is interesting to know that Canonsburg combined Safety with Education Week and had a most successful Parents' Night. Carnegie had an enthusiastic Parents' Day. Elk and Northumberland counties organized vigorous "Visit the Schools" campaigns. Montour County had a special "Rural Life Day," and held nine two-session community meetings which were attended by 2,600 of its 6,000 population. Lebanon's "Go To School" campaign was a great success. Johnsonburg had a "Better Schools Day." Munhall held evening sessions, invited the public to "Take a Trip Through Your Schools" and had the students act as guides. These are typical reports.

Through the Commonwealth Day programs our State is better known and more appreciated. Much was done to develop interest in local history. Constitution Day ranked high among the successes of the week. The observance was general. Superintendents outlined interesting programs, County Bar Associations furnished speakers, the children recited the creed of the American Bar Association and many districts included Preamble pageants in their programs. Cumberland County followed a uniform program in all school districts. Carbon County had a special observance of Constitution Day. In Blair County Superintendent Davis and the Bar Association did an outstanding piece of work. The results were gratifying not only to superintendents and teachers but to the Bar Association and citizens as well.

There was an enthusiastic observance of Health Day. Pageants, playlets, folk dances

and health demonstrations were common. Hazel Township did a splendid piece of work. In Indiana, doctors and dentists delivered health addresses in the various schools. Reading carried out a comprehensive program and many counties stressed health work in their programs. Adult Education and Conservation were considerably advanced through the unique program carried out.

In many of the churches of the State, sermons were delivered on Education and the relationship of art to religion. In this connection Bishop Hoban of the Scranton diocese loaned his personal art collection, gathered from all sections of the world, to Marywood College. He delivered lectures on art to the students and explained the art in the glass windows, statuary and the paintings of the Cathedral in Scranton.

Private and parochial schools organized unique programs. Many colleges and normal schools observed the week. Albright College had daily exercises. State College issued a Rural Life letter. Shippensburg Normal had an observance that was marked by ingenuity and initiative.

Berks County had a worth-while celebration. Johnstown featured fine art work and a well organized radio program. The Washington papers carried a serial story by Superintendent Stiers on "Who Are Training Your Children?" Lykens Valley put on a Farm Show. In the West Chester programs all features of art were touched. It is felt the results will express themselves in more beautiful homes, improved communities and in the better tastes and better dress of the people.

Summarized, Education Week's contribution to the cause of education was highly satisfactory. People know the aims and objectives of the schools better than before. They have a greater regard for and deeper interest in their Commonwealth. Art has been brought to a greater extent into their lives. Their patriotic impulses have been quickened and a desire for higher citizenship stimulated through the inspiring programs of the week. Problems that were perplexing have become less difficult. Educational needs were co-operatively considered and through mutual understanding can be the more easily supplied.


In response to a request from the Dunmore Branch of the P. S. E. A., the members of the Dunmore School Board early in September instructed their superintendent to draw up a semi-monthly pay schedule. The schedule as adopted by the Board provides that the teachers be paid on the second and fourth Fridays of each month. The schedule has occasioned very little extra work on the part of the Board members and has worked out to the entire satisfaction of the teachers and Board members as well.

John T. McAndrew, Secretary Dunmore Branch P. S. E. A.


January 11, 1825-December 19, 1878

All the schools in Pennsylvania will wish to celebrate the one-hundredth anniversary of the birth of Bayard Taylor, the State's most famous poet, on the school day nearest his centenary, perhaps Monday, January 12. So great a man and so famous an author deserves to be remembered. By his own well directed efforts he rose, with only such help from others as any ambitious youth may receive, from farm life and an apprenticeship in a newspaper office to world renown as poet, novelist, traveler, lecturer and diplomat.

Born on a farm near Kennett Square, January 11, 1825, he died in Berlin, Germany, December 19, 1878. In the fifty-three years of his life, he probably visited more foreign countries and traveled more miles than any other man then living. He wrote books about these countries, describing them and their inhabitants and relating his own experiences. With knapsack and staff we journey with him to the heart of Africa, to Lapland, to India and Japan, across the Steppes of Russia, to the mining camps of California, to the deserts of Arabia or into the Alps of Switzerland.

Two of Bayard Taylor's books have a special interest for young people, though older people, too, read them with enjoyment. The first is Boys of Other Countries-a capital book "for American boys" and American girls as well. The second is The Story of Kennett. This is a most exciting story of the times just after the Revolutionary War and gives us a good understanding of the manners and customs of life in Chester County at that time.

Space permits only the outline for a presentation of his life; the information with which to fill in the outline may be obtained from the school library, from histories of American literature, encyclopedias, etc.

This outline of his life may be developed into a program which can be given in about an hour.

I. Life, with especial attention to

1. Parentage and Quaker traditions.
2. Rural environment and farm life.
3. Education.

4. Apprenticeship in the office of the
Village Record.

5. First book of verse: Ximena and Other Poems, 1844.

6. First trip abroad and the resulting book, Views Afoot, 1846.

7. Later career as Traveler, Author, Lecturer, Diplomat.

II. Recitation from memory or reading of 1. A Song of the Camp.

2. The Burden of the Day.

3. America (a stanza of the National Ode).

4. The Song of 1876.

Robert T. Kerlin, West Chester State Normal School

Controversy equalizes fools and wisemen and fools know it.—Bentley.


January 17-23

Benjamin Franklin's birthday January 17 -is a fitting day on which to begin a thrift campaign. The versatility and accomplishments of Franklin are such as indicate him to have been above all else thrifty in the use of that most precious of substances-Time. He says, "Employ your time well, if thou meanest to gain leisure; and, since thou are not sure of a minute, throw away not an hour."

Arthur Dean of Teachers College, Columbia University, ably summed up Franklin's accomplishments in the Journal of Education last February:

"When you have a Thrift Week remember that Franklin was the original thrifter. When you see a mangle remember that Franklin invented it. When you toast your feet on the stove think that Franklin started this idea of stoves. When you turn on the electric light remember that Franklin was the first electrician. When you praise Volstead recall that Franklin was the original 'water-wagoner' among public men. When you take out a fire insurance recall that Franklin was the organizer of the first insurance company. When your pupils study the Gulf Stream remember that Franklin was the first to have it charted. When you get home an hour earlier from school because of daylight saving think that Franklin first proposed it. When you read your morning mail remember that Franklin organized our postal system."

Those are in themselves accomplishments to be proud of and yet Benjamin Franklin did not consider them his main business in lifethey were only the efforts of his leisure, recreation for his energetic mind.

He lives to posterity, preeminently for his accomplishments as the statesman whom Carlyle called "the father of the Yankees," the diplomat whose presence in France did so much to secure for the revolting colonies French recognition resulting in a substantial war loan.

Franklin considered his real business to be printing which in those days meant knowing every step of the business from the duties of the printer's "devil" to the work at the editor's desk. His will begins: "I, Benjamin Franklin, Printer, late Minister Plenipotentiary from the United States of America to the Court of France." It was the thrifty use of the leisure time of Benjamin Franklin, Printer, which made it possible for him to be of great service to his country.

Poor Richard's sayings are replete with thrifty maxims:

Early to bed, early to rise,

Makes a man healthy, wealthy and wise.
A penny saved is a penny got.

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great sums of money every year but they lavish them on luxuries and unwise investments. We are learning to be more thrifty of our rich natural resources, to economize time and effort and to make use of the waste and by-product. But we still have much to learn about saving money as a nation and as individuals.

There is no more satisfactory time to teach thrift than to the developing child in the school. The trait developed in the growing child will become a characteristic of the adult.

H. R. Daniel, Secretary of the American Society for Thrift, says that it is estimated that during the past year the school children increased their savings more than twenty-five per cent. But of the 25,000,000 school children in the United States only about 3,000,000 are Here is possibility using the school banks.

for greater development.

Olive M. Jones, past president of the N. E. A., throws another light upon the subject of thrift: "There is just as much thrift required for wise spending as for saving money; there is just as much thrift involved in teaching people how to use money they save as in teaching them to put it into banks; more thrift, really, than there is in inculcating the idea that saving is hoarding."

These are the two aspects of thrift which the child must learn (1) To save his money systematically and (2) To spend it wisely.

The kindergartner certainly has a sympathetic feeling for Simple Simon who hadn't saved a penny and so couldn't eat pie at the fair. And the high school boy and girl learns the higher motives and nobler principles of thrift as contrasted to miserliness through a study of Silas Marner.

Theodore Roosevelt said: "Extravagance rots character; train youth away from it. The habit of saving money stiffens the will and brightens the energies.'

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Teachers may secure material on
Week free of cost by writing to the National
Thrift Committee, 347 Madison Ave., N. Y. C.

* THRIFT EDUCATION, a Report of the Thrift Conference, may be secured from the National Education Association, 1201 Sixteenth Street, Northwest, Washington, D. C. The report includes all of the addresses that were made, the reports and recommendations of the group chairmen, and the address of Brigadier-General Herbert M. Lord, director of U. S. Budget, entitled The Nation's Business. 50c per copy.


The effect of its introduction is to assure elementary teachers compensation equal to that of high school teachers, provided that certain conditions are met. These include equally good academic and professional preparation, equal length of service and equal efficiency. That is, no discrimination in favor of high school teachers is made on the ground that their work is either more important, more difficult or more exacting in point of knowledge and ability. The knowledge and ability required may not be the same in the two positions, but it is equally worthy and difficult to attain.-James F. Hosic.

Superintendent of Schools, Ware, Mass.

Better Speech Week

February 18-23

I believe in the dignity and the beauty of the English language, in the grace and power of the tongue of Shakespeare and Milton, of Keats and Shelley, of Wordsworth and Tennyson in poetry, and of Raleigh and Browne, of Addison and Goldsmith and Burke, of Ruskin and Carlyle and Newman in prose. I believe it my duty to make my pupils see the glory and the greatness of English speech, its music, its eloquence, its passion, its pathos, its rhythmic splendor, its rippling laughter, its mournful cadences that they may hear once more the living voices of the mighty dead, and know them for the men they were, in all their hopes, their fears, their yearnings, their failures and aspirations, their weaknesses, their triumphs, their struggles for human advancement, their unshaken faith in the things that are divine.

I highly resolve to do my utmost that through the study of English my students may be uplifted in spirit, broadened in mind, enriched in intellect and made conscious of the nobility of their heritage, in the firm hope that they may become more worthy of a great past, more keen to know the dross from the fine gold of the present, more resolute that all things that are lovely and of good report shall abide undefiled in the future.

Beyond the vague Atlantic deep,
Far as the farthest prairies sweep,
Where forest-glooms the nerve appall,
Where burns the radiant western fall,
One duty lies on old and young—
With filial piety to guard,

As on its greenest native sward,
The glory of the English tongue.

That ample speech! That subtle speech!
Apt for the need of all and each;
Strong to endure, yet prompt to bend
Wherever human feelings tend.
Preserve its force-expand its powers;
And through the maze of civic life,
In Letters, Commerce, even in Strife,
Forget not it is yours and ours.

-Richard Monckton Milnes.

I am almost a fanatic on the subject of saving. I could not waste a dollar knowingly. I do not mean that I believe in being stingy or in going without things that will add to comfort or contentment, but I do believe that regardless of income everyone should save. It is possible to save something, even if you have only fifteen dollars a week.—Mary Pickford.


Abraham Lincoln-Born February 12, 1809 George Washington-Born February 22, 1732 Turning over pages and files to find material for teachers to use in observing the birthdays of Washington and Lincoln, I came upon a page on which were summarized the Great Wars of the World's History. There in neat, compact paragraphs were summaries of the two wars which before the last Great War represented our country's dearest offering upon the altar of national liberty:

"American Revolution (1775-83): Successful revolt of the thirteen English Colonies in America against British rule; Bunker Hill, Saratoga, Yorktown; independence recognized by Great Britain.

"Civil War in the United States (1861-65): Between Union government and Southern Confederacy over latter's attempt to secede from the Union; Vicksburg, Gettysburg; Union preserved."

And in those wars there were men as well as issues and battles and results.-I wonder how the children really value the past of this country whose inception and development has cost such labor, such life and such yearning. Are they learning history in terms like the foregoing summaries-chunks of information, tabloids of data to be swallowed in haste and digested at leisure or are they learning history through understanding and appreciation of the men who have lost themselves in the ebb and flow of national life, who, so losing themselves, chancing all on the cause nearest their hearts, have found a place in history as it should be taught a history that breathes the ambitions, struggles, successes and failures of men who have served.

History should mean to boys and girls the men who serve, the service given and its benefits to themselves as American citizens. Even more, it should mean that they themselves are the connecting link between the men of the past and the men of the future, that they are themselves a page of history. Then history is more than a subject they learn by conning pages in a text. It is nascent, alive with human contact, fixed in the child's heart as well as in his mind.

February 12, Lincoln's birthday, and February 22, Washington's birthday, offer you opportunity to study with young America two great American types. The two men are very unlike. You have but to contrast Washington's Farewell Address with Lincoln's Gettysburg Speech to realize how different they are. Yet both speeches-different in style, viewpoint and background-breathe the theme so dear to both great leaders: the Union must be preserved. Personal interests were unimportant to them in comparison to the success of the Union. Washington served a second term as president against his personal inclination lest a change of administration should endanger the fledgling Union. Lincoln did not allow personalities to sway his judgment. Once when someone deplored General McClellan's lack of

consideration of the president, Lincoln said, "I would hold General McClellan's horse if that would bring us victories."

February is a fitting time to study these two great men. Not to idealize their personalities. Such truly great men would not wish that. But to show how self may be merged and lost in the good fight which, whether a man emerge victor or loser, gives him, rightfully enough, the homage and love of posterity. -R. S. T.

Suggestions for the Observance of Lincoln's Birthday and Washington's Birthday

WASHINGTON Biography-Books

Brooks, E. S.-True Story of George Washington
Hill, F. T.-On the trail of Washington
Irving, W.-Washington and his country
Lodge, H. C.-Washington, in Lodge and Roosevelt's
Hero tales from American history, pp. 1-15
Mace, W. H.-Washington, a Virginia cavalier
Scudder, H. E.-George Washington
Seelye, E. E.-Story of Washington

Biography-Short accounts in books of Collective

For first four grades Baldwin, J.-Going to sea, in Fifty famous people, pp. 60-62

Eggleston, E.-Washington, in First book in American history, pp. 102-126

Eggleston, E. Washington in Stories of great Americans, pp. 61-69

Haaren, J. H. & Poland, A. B.-George Washington, in Famous men of modern times, pp. 264-279 For upper grades Blaisdell, A. F. & Ball, F. K.-Our greatest patriot, in Hero stories from American history, pp. 62-76 Coe, F. E.-George Washington, our first president, in Makers of the nation, pp. 179-185 Eggleston, G. C.-Young Washington in the woods, in Strange stories from history, pp. 149-162 Faris, J. T.-George Washington, canal builder, in Real stories from our history, pp. 147-153. Gordy, W. F.-George Washington, the boy surveyor and young soldier; George Washington, a Virginia planter and the revolutionary soldier, in American leaders and heroes, pp. 116-134, 189-209 McMurry, C. A.-George Washington, in Pioneers on land and sea, pp. 277-281

Stone, G. L. & Fichett, M. G.-Inauguration of Washington, in Days and deeds a hundred years ago, pp. 36-52 see also Mount Vernon; Washington's birthday.


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Baldwin, J.-Story of Abraham

great Americans, pp. 186-246.

Lincoln, in Four

Bolton, S. K.-Abraham Lincoln, in Lives of poor boys who became famous, pp. 342-367 Faris, J. T.-Abraham Lincoln, in Winning their way, pp. 218-225

Gordy, W. F.-Abraham Lincoln the liberator of the slaves, in American leaders and heroes, pp. 282-300 Lodge, H. C.-Lincoln, in Lodge and Roosevelt's Hero tales from American History, pp. 324-335 Mabie, H. W., ed.-The youth of Lincoln, in Heroes every child should know, pp. 309-319 Mowry, W. A. & Mowry, A. M.-Abraham Lincoln, in First steps in the history of our country, pp. 245-256

Mowry, W. A. & Mowry, B. S.-Abraham Lincoln, in American pioneers, pp. 239-255


Mackay, C. D.-Abraham Lincoln episode; Abraham Lincoln, rail splitter, in Patriotic plays and pageants, pp. 88-97, 156-172 Merington, M.-Abe Lincoln and little A. D., in Holiday plays, pp. 107-130

Walker, A. J.-Four scenes from the time of Lincoln, in Little plays from American history, pp. 121-155


Schauffler, R. H., ed.-Lincoln's birthday Stevenson, B. E. & E. S. B., comps.-Lincoln's birthday, in Days and Deeds: verse, pp. 193-198 Taylor, T.-Abraham Lincoln, in Arnold and Gilbert's Stepping stones to literature (abridged) v. 8, pp. 204-206

Cabot's Ethics for children (abridged), pp. 205-206 Whitman, W.-O Captain! My Captain! in Norton's Heart of Oak books, v. 7, p. 342

Stevenson's Days and Deeds; verse, pp. 193, 194


Andrews, M. R. S.-Perfect tribute Lincoln, Mrs. Jeanie-Marjorie's quest Greene, H.-Lincoln conscript


November World's Work contains an article by French Strother "North Carolina's Dreams Come True" in which he pays tribute to the vision which Charles B. Aycock, a former Governor of North Carolina, had of a great educational awakening. He quotes Mr. Aycock as saying "A democracy cannot be built on the backs of ignorant men!" "Educate the people and industry will spring into being." "Educate the Negro and we shall have no Negro question." "Educate everybody and everything: the potato on your table wouldn't know its grandfather in Ireland, it's so much better, and it's better because it's got a college education. If education is good for a potato, it's good for the farmer boy that digs it." "Education is getting out of folks what God Almighty put into them."

"So long as I am Governor it shall be treason for a man in North Carolina to oppose the building of schools." That was twenty-three years ago.

The value of school buildings and grounds in North Carolina in 1900 was $1,000,000. In 1920 their value was $48,000,000.

December World's Work carries an article by Ernest Greenwood, the title of which, "The Little Read School Marm," puns effectively the traditional "Little Red School House." To

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Fiume A mountain in Japan.
Steinmetz-A kind of piano.
Herrin A title used in Germany.
Yokohama-A noted Indian chief.
Paderewski-President of Mexico.
Tariff-A city in France.

It is pointed out that most of the candidates who gave these answers were the failures and that they did not constitute a very large proportion of the applicants.

Harpers Magazine for December has an interesting estimate of General George Washington by Philip Guedalia.

Rabindranath Tagore in The Living Age for November 29 gives a talk to teachers, entitled "The Schoolmaster." The fact that the viewpoint is admittedly unacademic makes it especially refreshing. To quote "It is the utter want of purpose in child life which is important. In adult age, having made our life a bundle of a few definite purposes, we exclude all facts outside their boundaries. Our purpose wants to occupy all the mind's attention for itself obstructing the full view of most of the things around us.... The child, because it has no conscious object in life beyond living, can see all things around it, can hear every sound with perfect freedom of attention, not having to exercise choice in the collection of information. It gives full rein to its restlessness, which leads its mind into knocking against knowledge.... The adult mind in many respects not only differs from, but is contrary to, the child's mind."

The Child Labor Amendment is discussed pro and con in most of the current magazines. The Nation, December 3, runs the slogan "Child Labor Must End" across the top of the cover and carries an article on page 590 deploring the recent action of Massachusetts.

The Liberty Digest, November 20, discusses the proposed amendment under the title "Would Congress Spoil Our Children?"

The New Republic, November 19, contains Reuben Oppenheimer's review of Raymond G. Fuller's new book "A Review of Child Labor and the Constitution," published by the Thomas Y. Crowell Company.

Experience would be a better teacher if she stopped to explain things.

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