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a distribution of seeds and agricultural implements. The superintendent has also expressed the opinion that it may be necessary to concentrate upon a reservation the Chemihuives and other bands in the eastern part of the State, near the Arizona line, who have recently made much trouble.
From the Hoopa Valley agency we have been advised, from time to time, of the good order prevailing thereon, and the willingness with which the Indians have labored, planting a large breadth of land, from which an abundant crop was expected. The payment by government of the appraised value of the improvements of settlers upon this reservation, authorized by act of Congress, and effected this year, will quiet some apprehensions of trouble, and place the agency in quiet possession of valuable lands, buildings, &c. Agent Fairfield reports the number of Indians at Round valley at 1,063, viz: Wylakies and Pitt Rivers, 361; Eel Rivers, 26 ; Pitt Rivers, 196; Cow-Cow, 238; Yucas, 242. The Indians from Mendocino were to have been removed to this reservation, (that location having been abandoned in accordance with previous arrangements,) but the agent reports that most of them thus far remain at the old place. The Indians at Round valley are represented as peaceable and obedient, healthy, and successful in their farming operations, producing much more food than is necessary for their use.
The report from this ofice, above referred to, and which is before Congress, contemplates the enlargement of this reservation so as to include all of the ad. jacent lands to the mountains, thus forming an ample reserve for all the Indians likely to be concentrated under the charge of government in the pursuits of agriculture in the northern part of the State. Their surplus, but for the isolated position of the reservation, could be disposed of to great advantage, and the income used in the purchase of clothing, in which the Indians are deficient. The estimated crop of this year was some 22,000 bushels grain and 3,000 bushels potatoes, besides 30 acres of vegetables.
Special Agent Hoffman, in charge at Tule river, reported in April, and again in June, as to agricultural operations at that place, which had been very successful, the harvest yielding over 11,000 bushels of grain, besides other produce to a large amount.
Upon the Smith River reserve (a leased farm) there were, early in the year, about 900 Indians, though it is not understood that all of these were located upon the farm, but living in the immediate neighborhood, and in charge of the agent. In the winter it was necessary to issue rations to them for a short time, but by the April report it was stated that they would have enough remaining of last year's crop to subsist them until the new one could be realized.
The Indians, generally, were quiet and obedient, but an unfortunate occurrence in April, resulting in the death of two Indians at the hands of another, and the action of the agent thereupon, interrupted this favorable condition of affairs. The Indian accused, and doubtless guilty, was arrested by order of the agent, and the facts reported to the superintendent for instructions. Without waiting for those instructions, however, the agent, Mr. Bryson, took the responsibility of summarily hanging the Indian, which fact being reported to this office, resulted in his dismissal.
In educational matters there has been no progress in this superintendency, and there is not an Indian school in the State. Occasionally some religious society appears to awake to the fact that there are nearly 35,000 beathens in California, at their very doors, and makes inquiry upon the subject; but, with the reply of this office, that it will gladly aid, to the extent of the means furnished by Congress, in the establishment of schools for the Indians, the matter has ended. It is not creditable to the humanity of the government that this condition of affairs should continue, and the superintendent has been directed to prepare and report an estimate of the amount of funds necessary for establishing a good school upon each of the four reservations recognized. "The
amount reported, $11,300, is very moderate, and it is confidently expected that Congress will furnish the department with the means to remove this reproach. It also appears probable that, with a small outlay, the schools among the Catholic Mission Indians may be revived and put into successful operation again.
The superintendent recommends that in case it shall be determined to remove the Indians from Smith river to Round valley, a special appropriation of $5,000 be made for the purpose, and that measures may be taken to place in market the reservations at Nome Lackee and Mendocino, with the improvemeuts at the latter place and at Smith river.
Considering the number of Indians still in California, the general quiet prevailing, and the incalculable wealth which has accrued to the nation from the lands taken from these Indians by sheer force and without any permanent stipulations for their relief or improvement, the amount of money annually expended for their benefit is very small, and a reasonable increase is confidently expected whenever the subject shall be fairly laid before Congress.
ARIZONA. Although we have as yet no annual report from the superintendent of Arizona, the mails being very irregular and long in transmission, yet, as the monthly reports have been promptly forwarded, we are able to present a fair view of the condition of Indian affairs therein. The officers in charge have shown great interest in the work, and appear to have labored faithfully for the benefit of the Indians, and their valuable suggestions have been from time to time laid before the department and transmitted to Congress. It was hoped that the meagre appropriation hitherto made for Arizona would be so far increased that some of the plans suggested and approved for the improvement of the Indians might be carried into effect, especially because the Indians themselves were well disposed to avail themselves of the benefits proposed; but these hopes were disappointed. There is no superintendency where a reasonable appropriation judiciously expended will confer a lasting benefit upon more Indians—there are nearly 40,000 of them—and relieve more whites of apprehended trouble, than in Arizona.
Plans to colonize the tribes known as the river Indians, the Yavapais, Hualapais, &c., upon a reservation on the Colorado river set apart for them by Congress two years ago, have been considered and presented to the department, but for want of necessary funds, nothing of a permanent character has been done. Nevertheless, the superintendent and Agent Feudge, who was more directly in charge of the enterprise, succeeded in inducing a considerable number of the Mohaves, and of the tribes above named, to commence planting. By the August report it appeared that these tribes, many of the members of which had been disposed to hostility, were peacefully at work, and that for the first time in mouths trains were moving between the river and Prescott, the capital of the Territory, without interruption. The first crops planted by the Indians were swept away by a flood in the river, and another rise had also occurred, the effect being to so far saturate the ground as to assure the Indians of a successful crop.
Much trouble has been encountered with the Chemihuives, who are represented as being at war with most of the other tribes. They reside for the most part in California, and some attempts have been made at a conference with the superintendent for California, in order to devise and unite in recommending measures for quieting this tribe.
In regard to the Moquis, the interesting village Indians living in the northeastern part of Arizona, near the borders of New Mexico, and very similar in character to the Pueblos of that Territory, but little is known in addition to that presented in former reports. They are, however, peaceable and self-sustaining, costing the government nothing except in cases of extreme necessity resulting
from failure of crops.
In regard to the Papagos, Pimos, and Maricopas, in the southeast, we have full advices through the interesting report of Dr. Lord, who was left in charge of the agency by Special Agent Davidson, early in the year. Dr. Lord was willing to accept the permanent charge of these tribes, and his services would have been valuable to the government, but previous to the receipt of his report Captain L. Ruggles had been appointed agent, and had proceeded hence to his destination. The accounts given of the Indians of this agency are very favor. able, especially as to the Pimos and Maricopas, who are an agricultural and manufacturing people, industrious and self-sustaining, and need little from gov. ernment for their physical welfare except a small supply of wagons or carts, and improved agricultural implements. They desire and need schools, and it is to be hoped that Congress will provide a sufficient fund for the service in the Territory to enable the department to respond to their wants in this and other respects.
The tribes of this agency have each furnished a company of men to the United States for service against the Apaches. This last-mentioned tribe is always in hostility. Various rumors have been circulated in the public press in relation to terrible deeds by their braves, a whole garrison of United States troops at Fort Goodwin being reported at one time as being massacred; but there was no truth in this report, and the troubles with those Indians seem to be grossly exaggerated in the accounts which reach us. This office is not convinced that by judicious management the controlling men of the tribe cannot be reached and pacified. It is an ancient feud, however, between them and the Mexican population, to which our people have succeeded of right by annexing and settling in the country:
Most of the Pai-Utes who have hitherto been numbered as belonging in Arizona, bave, by the change of boundaries setting off to Nevada the region lying north and west of the Colorado river, been transferred to that State.
Should the annual reports of the superintendents and agents arrive in season, they will be presented in the appendix to this report among the accompanying documents; and I have placed among those papers an interesting report from Mr. H. Ehrenberg, a gentleman familiar with the subject, as to proposed reservations for the Indians. Although not desiring to commit this office to its sugges. tions and recommendations, yet I deem it of value for reference by Congress, when, as I hope will be the case early in the ensuing session, that body shall be disposed to consider the reasonable demands of this Territory, as relating to the Indian service therein.
I do not think that the sum of $100,000 is an excessive estimate for the Indian service in this Territory, in view of the work to be done, and accordingly recommend the appropriation of that amount.
Superintendent Parker's annual report arrived in good season this year to furnish full information as to the condition of matters in Nevada, although he has labored under various disadvantages in performing the duties of his office, owing to the fact that the superintendency had been vacant for a considerable time previous to his assuming the position, and no records or papers were on file sufficient to advise him of what had been done.
Both Superintendent Parker and Agent Campbell have kept this office well advised, through their monthly reports, of events occurring within their jurisdiction; and it ismatter for great regret that the means at the disposal of the department for Nevada have been so small that it bas been impracticable to carry into effect various good suggestions for the benefit of the Indians.
From the superintendent's annual report we obtain the following facts and suggestions in reference to the tribes of Nevada : The Bannacks, numbering
about 1,500 in Nevada, so far as any location of their bands can be defined, range over a wide district north of latitude 41° north, and extending into taetern Oregon and Idaho. They had until late years been able to subsist themselves without much difficulty upon the game, fish, nuts and roots of the country; but their means of living have been much restricted since the establishment of routes of travel in various directions through their country, and by the settlements in some of the few localities really fertile and suitable for agriculture. Many of the Indians have been driven to hostilities, and forts have been erected in their country, and military expeditions engaged in hunting down their parties. Still many other bands of the same people have been peaceable throughout.
The Shoshonees, part of the great nation which, under various names and sometimes associated with the Bannacks, extend their range into Utah and Idaho, are supposed to number about 2,500 in Nevada, occupying the northeastern part of the State.
Along the overland route they have become accustomed to the whites; many of them have learned the English language, and show some disposition to labor for a living. These Indians have usually received an annual supply of blankets and other necessaries at Ruby valley; but the goods last forwarded arrived so late that the superintendent determined to hold them over till this fall, when they will be very welcome. The more southern portion of these Indians neari'r the centre of the State are in a very destitute coodition. Late exploring expeditions-a narrative of one of which' by the Superintendent of Public Iustruction, Rev. Mr. White, accompanies the report-show that for the most part the country occupied by them is a barren desert, unfit for the habitation of man, and the Indians are in many cases in a starving condition. By the report before us it is evident that Superintendent Parker thinks the Indians resident in the Pahranagat mining country, in southeastern Nevada, (a part of the country recently taken from Utah and annexed to Nevada,) are Shoshonees, but it is probable, from other sources of information, that they are Pai Utes, a different people from the Pi-Utes hereafter referred to. The superintendent recommends that a reservation be set apart for these Indians of the southeast, whatever be their proper name, somewhere in the Pabranagat valley.
Temporary provision has been made for them by the appointment of Mr. J. M. Guthrie as a special agent, the intention being to supply them from Utah with a moderate supply of goods and provisions, and thus prevent any disposition to make trouble with the miners. They properly belong to Nevada, but, so far as at present advised, the question of transportation and facility of mail communication will for some time make the existing arrangement the best.
The Pi-Utes are noticed as belonging in the western and southwestern part of the State, the portion in which the mining settlements abound, and the account given of them is very favorable. Numbering some 4.200, they are represented as having derived real benefit from their connexion with the whites ; No explanation is given of this singular anomaly in Indian history, and no reason why this tribe should differ so greatly from the others around them; but it is nevertheless said to be a fact, that the Pi-Utes are willing to labor, and earn a fair living by
among the whites; that they refuse to use intoxicating drinks, that they are docile and anxious to learn, and that they are chaste. With such a character, as might be expected, the tribe is increasing in numbers, and if Congress will but appropriate a reasonable amount of funds for the service in Nevada, We may reasonably expect to make something of these Indians.
The Washoes, about 500 in number, living in the extreme west, are quite the reverse of the last-mentioned tribe in everything but their peaceable behapior, and are represented as rapidly diminishing in numbers from the effects of hard drinking and other vices.
There are three reservations in Nevada, in the Pi-Ute country, one including Pyramid lake, another Walker lake, and a third set apart for timber for the first
named reserve. In regard to this timber reserve, the superintendent says that it includes about 20,000 acres of fine timber, and that the Pacific railroad "will claim the alternate sections," a claim of doubtful validity; but it is alleged that it is found very difficult to protect this timber, and the suggestion is made that it be sold, and the proceeds used for the Indians of the State ; and this course is recommended. A beginning has been made in cultivating the soil upon these reservations, and with some success; but as agricultural operations in Nevada require irrigation for their permanent success, nothing can be done which shall tend to concentrate these Indians to the pursuit of self-sustaining industry until the means are provided for the purpose.
Agent Campbell in his annual report makes such an estimate, and it is hoped that Congress will take the subject into consideration. While Nevada is by her rich mines pouring immense wealth into the lap of the nation, the Indian occupants of the country have never been treated with, and have no permanent provision made for their benefit; while the annual appropriations for the service in that State are less than is annually expended for many small tribes in the east.
In the month of June Agent Campbell reported the arrival of some one hun. dred and twenty Indians at Fort Churchill, in the northern part of Nevada, mostly Bannacks and Pai-Utes, destitute and suffering. They had been hostile, but voluntarily surrendered, and were sent to the Truckce River or Pyramid Lake reservation, and set at work at raising a supply of vegetables for themselves.
Early in the year, certain whites repaired to the last-named reservation, and commenced settlements there. Upon their being notified by the superintendent to leave, and their refusal to obey the order, a small detachment of soldiers accompanied the superintendent to the reservation, and the intruders were compelled to leave it; since which no further difficulty of the kind has occurred.
There is a very encouraging field for the education and christianizing of these Indians open, especially in the case of the Pi-Utes; and upon the request of this office the superintendent furnished an estimate of the amount of funds necessary for establishing a manual labor school, and supporting it for one year, which amount is stated at $11,500. This estimate, I think, was transmitted to Congress by your predecessor, but no action was taken thereon at the last session. It is hoped that early action upon this recommendation will enable this office to put the school in operation during the coming year. Believing that, including the establishment of this school, the sum of $60,000 can be judiciously expended for the permanent benefit of those Indians during the next year, that sum is recommended for Nevada.
The annual reports from this superintendency having arrived at a late hour, I have been unable to give them such full notice as is desirable. Mr. Head, who succeeded Mr. Irish as superintendent early last spring, has performed his duties to the satisfaction of this office, and his report contains much interesting matter.
The arrangements for concentrating the Utah Indians upon the Uintah Valley reservation, in the northeastern part of the Territory, have been pushed forward this year with considerable energy under the direction of the superintendent, and the immediate charge of Mr. Carter, who relieved Agent Kinney in the early summer; and there was a prospect of a fair crop upon the reservation. At one time the bands at this location threatened an outbreak of hostilities; but by a speedy visit to them, in the journey to accomplish which the party suffered great hardships in crossing the mountains, the Indians were quieted, restored the property which they had seized, and promised obedience.
In accordance with the acts of Congress providing for the appraisal and sale