« ՆախորդըՇարունակել »
COMMODITY EXCHANGE Aor
Act of September 21, 1922, ch. 369, 42 Stat. 998, 7 U.S.C. 1 et seq.
Chap. 369.-AN ACT For the prevention and removal of obstructions and bur
dens upon interstate commerce in grain, by regulating transactions on grain future exchanges, and for other purposes Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States of America in Congress assembled,
Sec. 18. (a) The Commission shall establish and maintain, as part of its ongoing operations, research and information programs to (1) determine the feasibility of trading by computer, and the expanded use of modern information system technology, electronic data processing, and modern communication systems by commodity exchanges, boards of trade, and by the Commission itself for purposes of improving, strengthening, facilitating, or regulating futures trading operations; (2) assist in the development of
educational and other informational materials regarding futures trading for dissemination and use among producers, market users, and the general public; and (3) carry out the general purposes of this Act.
(b) The Commission shall include in its annual reports to Congress plans and findings with respect to implementing this section.
17 0.8.C. 22. Added by section 416 of the Act of October 23, 1974, Public Law 93-463, 88 Stat. 1415. The term “Commission” refers to the Commodity Futures Trading Com. mission.
AGRICULTURAL TRADE DEVELOPMENT AND ASSISTANCE ACT OF 1954
(PUBLIC LAW 480)
Act of July 10, 1954, Public Law 83480, 68 Stat. 454,
7 U.S.C. 1691 et seq.
AN ACT To increase the consumption of United States agricultural commodities in foreign countries, to improve the foreign relations of the United States, and for other purposes Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States of America in Congress assembled, That this Act may be cited as the "Agricultural Trade Development and Assistance Act of 1954".
Sec. 2. The Congress hereby declares it to be the policy of the United States to expand international trade; to develop and expand export markets for United States agricultural commodities; to use the abundant agricultural productivity of the United States to combat hunger and malnutrition and to encourage economic development in the developing countries, with particular emphasis on assistance to those countries that are determined to improve their own agricultural production; and to promote in other ways the foreign policy of the United States. In furnishing food aid under this Act, the President shall
(1) give priority consideration, in helping to meet urgent food needs abroad, to making available the maximum feasible volume of food commodities (with appropriate regard to domestic price and supply situations) required by those countries most seriously affected by food shortages and by inability to meet immediate food requirements on a normal commercial basis;
(2) continue to urge all traditional and potential new donors of food, fertilizer, or the means of financing these commodities to increase their participation in efforts to address the emergency and longer term food needs of the developing world;
(3) relate United States assistance to efforts by aid-receiving countries to increase their own agricultural production, with emphasis on development of small, family farm agriculture, and improve their facilities for transportation, storage, and distribution of food commodities;
(4) give special consideration to the potential for expanding markets for America's agricultural abundance abroad in the allocation of commodities or concessional financing; and
(5) give appropriate recognition to and support of a strong and viable American farm economy in providing for the food security of consumers in the United States and throughout the
17 U.S.C. 1691. Amended and restated by section 2(a) of Public Law 89–808. 80 Stat. 1526, 7 U.S.C. 1691, to include the use of abundant agricultural productivity of the United States to combat hunger and malnutrition.
world. SEC. 3.3 Pursuant to the World Food Conference recommendation that donor countries provide a total of at least ten million tons of food assistance to needy nations annually, the President is urged to maintain a significant United States contribution to this goal and to encourage other countries to maintain and increase their contributions as well.
Sec. 101. In order to carry out the policies and accomplish the objectives set forth in section 2 of this Act, the President is authorized to negotiate and carry out agreements with friendly countries to provide for the sale of agricultural commodities for dollars on credit terms or for foreign currencies.
Sec. 102.5 For the purpose of carrying out agreements concluded under this Act the Commodity Credit Corporation is authorized to finance the sale and exportation of agricultural commodities whether from private stocks or from stocks of the Commodity Credit Corporation and, when requested by the purchaser of such commodities, may serve as the purchasing or shipping agent, or both, in arranging the purchasing or shipping of such commodities.
Sec. 103.6 In exercising the authorities conferred upon him by this title, the President shall
(a) take into account efforts of friendly countries to help themselves toward a greater degree of self-reliance, including efforts to increase their own agricultural production, especially through small, family farm agriculture, to improve their facilities for transportation, storage, and distribution of food commodities, and to reduce their rate of population growth;
(b) take steps to assure a progressive transition from sales for foreign currencies to sales for dollars (or to the extent that transition to sales for dollars under the terms applicable to such sales is not possible, transition to sales for foreign currencies on credit terms no less favorable to the United States than those for development loans made under section 122 of the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961, as amended, and on terms which permit conversion to dollars at the exchange rate applicable to the sales agreement) at a rate whereby the transition can be completed by December 31, 1971: Provided, That, except where he determines that it would be inconsistent with the objectives of the Act, the President shall determine the amount of foreign currencies needed for the uses specified in subsections (a), (b), (c), (e), and (h) of section 104 and in title III, and the agreements for such credit sales shall
* The sentence commencing with "In furnishing food aid was added by section 201 of the International Development and Food Assistance Act of 1975, Public Law 941661, 89 Stat. 850. 37 U.S.C. 1691a. Added by section 202 of Public Law 94-181, 89 Stat. 851.
+7 U.S.C. 1701. Amended and restated on numerous occasions, most recently by Public Law 89-808, 80 Stat. 1526.
57 U.S.C. 1702. Amended on numerous occasions, most recently by Public Law 90 436, 82 Stat. 450.
87 U.S.C. 1703. Amended on numerous occasions, most recently by Public Law 90_436, 82 Stat. 450.
provide for payment of such amounts in dollars or in foreign currencies upon delivery of the agricultural commodities. Such payment may be considered as an advance payment of the earliest installments;
(c) take reasonable precautions to safeguard usual marketings of the United States and to assure that sales under this title will not unduly disrupt world prices of agricultural commodities or normal patterns of commercial trade with friendly countries;
(d) makes sales agreements only with those countries which he determines to be friendly to the United States: Provided, That the President shall periodically review the status of those countries which are eligible under this subsection and report the results of such review to the Congress. As used in this Act, “friendly country" shall not include (1) any country or area dominated or controlled by a foreign government or organization controlling a world Communist movement, or (2) for the purpose only of sales of agricultural commodities for foreign currencies under title I of this Act, any country or area dominated by a Communist government. Notwithstanding any other Act, the President may enter into agreements for the sale of agricultural commodities for dollars on credit terms under title I of this Act with countries which fall within the definition of "friendly country" for the purpose of such sales and no sales under this Act shall be made with any country if the President finds such country is (a) an aggressor, in a military sense, against any country having diplomatic relations with the United States, or (b) using funds, of any sort, from the United States for purposes inimical to the foreign policies of the United States;
(e) take appropriate steps to assure that private trade channels are used to the maximum extent practicable both with respect to sales from privately owned stocks and with respect to sales from stocks owned by the Commodity Credit Corporation and that small business has adequate and fair opportunity to participate in sales made under the authority of this Act;
(f) give consideration to the development and expansion of markets for United States agricultural commodities and local foodstuffs by increasing the effective demand for agricultural commodities through the support of measures to stimulate equitable economic growth in recipient countries, with appropriate emphasis on developing more adequate storage, handling, and food distribution facilities;
(g) obtain commitments from purchasing countries that will prevent resale or transshipment to other countries, or use for other than domestic purposes, of agricultural commodities purchased under this title, without specific approval of the President;
(h) obtain rates of exchange applicable to the sale of commodities under such agreements which are not less favorable than the highest of exchange rates legally obtainable in the respective countries and which are not less favorable than the highest of exchange rates obtainable by any other nation;
(i) promote progress toward assurance of an adequate food supply by encouraging countries with which agreements are made to give higher emphasis to the production of food crops than to the production of such nonfood crops as are in world surplus; (j) exercise the authority contained in title I of this Act to assist friendly countries to be independent of domination or control by any world Communist movement. Nothing in this Act shall be construed as authorizing sales agreements under title I with any government or organization controlling a world Communist movement or with any country with which the United States does not have diplomatic relations;
(k) whenever practicable require upon delivery that not less than 5 per centum of the purchase price of any agricultural com
5 modities sold under title I of this Act be payable in dollars or in the types or kinds of currencies which can be converted into dollars;
(1) obtain commitments from friendly purchasing countries that will insure, insofar as practicable, that food commodities sold for foreign currencies under title I of this Act shall be marked or identified at point of distribution or sale as being provided on a concessional basis to the recipient government through the generosity of the people of the United States of America, and obtain commitments from purchasing countries to publicize widely to their people, by public media and other means, that the commodities are being provided on a concessional basis through the friendship of the American people as food for peace;
(m) require foreign currencies to be convertible to dollars to the extent consistent with the effectuation of the purposes of this Act, but in any event to the extent necessary to (1) permit
that portion of such currencies made available for payment of United States obligations to be used to meet obligations or charges payable by the United States or any of its agencies to the government of the importing country or any of its agencies, and (2) in the case of excess currency countries, assure convertibility by sale to American tourists, or otherwise, of such additional amount (up to twenty-five per centum of the foreign currencies received pursuant to each agreement entered into after the effective date of the Food for Peace Act of 1966) as may be necessary to cover all normal expenditures of American tourists in the importing country;
(n) take maximum precautions to assure that sales for dollars on credit terms under this Act shall not displace any sales of United States agricultural commodities which would otherwise be made for cash dollars;
(o) take steps to assure that the United States obtains a fair share of any increase in commercial purchases of agricultural commodities by the purchasing country and that commercial supplies are available to meet demands developed through programs carried out under this Act;
(p)' assure convertibility at such uniformly applied exchange rates as shall be agreed upon of up to 50 per centum of the foreign currencies received pursuant to each agreement by sale to United States or purchasing country contractors for payment of wages earned in the development and consummation of works of public
improvement in the purchasing country; and Subsections (0), (p), and (q) were added by section 5 of Public Law 90-436, 82 Stat. 450. Subsection (0) was amended by Public Law 93-86, 87 Stat. 237, by adding after "country" the following: "and that commercial supplies are available to meet demands developed through programs carried out under this Act."