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Hungary, with four allegorical groups, and medallions of the leaving Arago to make the geodetical connexion of Majorca executed generals. Arad is an important railway junction, with Ivica and with Formentera. and has become the largest industrial and commercial centre The adventures and difficulties of the latter were now only of south-eastern Hungary. Its principal industries are: dis-beginning. The political ferment caused by the entrance of tilling, milling, machinery-making, leather-working and saw the French into Spain extended to these islands, and the ignorant milling. A large trade is carried on in grain, flour, alcohol, populace began to suspect that Arago's movements and his cattle and wood. Arad was a fortified place, and was captured blazing fires on the top of Mount Galatzo were telegraphic by the Turks during the wars of the 17th century, and kept by signals to the invading army. Ultimately they became so inthem till the end of that contury. The new fortress, built in furiated that he was obliged to cause himself to be incarcerated 1763, although small, was formidable, and played a great role in the fortress of Belver in June 1808. On the 28th of July he during the Hungarian struggle for independence in 1849. managed to escape from the island in a fishing-boat, and after Bravely defended by the Austrian general Berger until the an adventurous voyage he reached Algiers on the 3rd of August. ist of July 1849, it was then captured by the Hungarian rebels, Thence he procured a passage in a vessel bound for Marseilles, who made it their headquarters during the latter part of the but on the 16th of August, just as the vessel was nearing Mar. insurrection. It was from it that Kossuth issued his famous seilles, it fell into the hands of a Spanish corsair. With the rest proclamation (11th August 1849), and it was here that he handed of the crew, Arago was taken to Rosas, and imprisoned first in over the supreme military and civil power to Görgei. The a windmill, and afterwards in the fortress of that seaport, until fortress was recaptured shortly after the surrender of Görgei the town fell into the hands of the French, when the prisoners to the Russians at Világos. The fortress is now used as an were transferred to Palamos. After fully three months' imprisonammunition depot.

ment they were released on the demand of the dey of Algiers, The town of Uj-Arad, i.e. New Arad (pop. 6124), situated on and again set sail for Marseilles on the 28th of November, but the opposite bank of the Maros, is practically a suburb of Arad, when within sight of their port they were driven back by a with which it is connected by a bridge. The town was founded northerly wind to Bougie on the coast of Africa. Transport during the Turkish wars of the 17th century. The works erected to Algiers by sea from this place would have occasioned a weary by the Turks for the capture of th fortress of Arad formed stay of three months; Arago, therefore, set out for it by land the nucleus of the new town.

under conduct of a Mahommedan priest, and reached it on Világos, the town where the famous capitulation of Görgei Christmas day. After six months' stay in Algiers he once again, to the Russians took place on the 13th of August 1849, lies on the 21st of June 1809, set sail for Marseilles, where he had to 21 m. by rail north-east of Arad.

undergo a monotonous and inhospitable quarantine in the ARAĒOSTYLE (Gr. ápaiós, weak or widely spaced, and otllos, lazaretto, before his difficulties were over. The first letter he column), an architectural term for the intercolumniation (9.0.) received, while in the lazaretto, was from A. von Humboldt; given to those temples where the columns had only timber and this was the origin of a connexion which, in Arago's words, architraves to carry.

* lasted over forty years without a single cloud ever having ARAEOSYSTYLE (Gr. &pauós, widely spaced, and quotudos, troubled it.” with columns set close together), an architectural term applied to Through all these vicissitudes Arago had succeeded in preserv. a colonnade, in which the intercolumniation (9.0.) is alternately | ing the records of his survey; and his first act on his return wide and narrow, as in the case of the western porch of St Paul's home was to deposit them in the Burcau des Longitudes at cathedral and the east front of the Louvre by Perrault. Paris. As a reward for his adventurous conduct in the cause

ARAGO, DOMINIQUE FRANÇOIS JEAN (1786-1853), French of science, he was in September 1809 elected a member of the physicist, was born on the 26th of February 1786, at Estagel, a Academy of Sciences, in room of J. B. L. Lalande, at the resmall village near Perpignan, in the department of the eastern markably carly age of twenty-three, and before the close of Pyrenees. He was the eldest of four brothers. Jean (1788– the same year he was chosen by the council of the polytechnic 1836) emigrated to America and became a general in the Mexican school to succeed G. Monge in the chair of analytical geometry. army. Jacques Étienne Victor (1799-1855) took part in L. C. About the same time he was named by the emperor one of the de S. de Freycinet's exploring voyage in the “Uranie" from astronomers of the Royal Observatory, which was accordingly 1817 to 1821, and on his return to France devoted himself to his residence till his death, and it was in this capacity that he journalism and the drama. The fourth brother, Etienne Vincent delivered his remarkably successful series of popular lectures (1802-1892), is said to have collaborated with H. de Balzac in the on astronomy, which were continued from 1812 to 1845. Héritière de Birague, and from 1822 to 1847 wrote a great number In 1816, along with Gay-Lussac, he started the Annales de of light dramatic pieces, mostly in collaboration. A strong chimie et de physique, and in 1818 or 1819 he proceeded along republican, he was obliged to leave France in 1849, but returned with Biot to execute geodetic operations on the coasts of France, after the amnesty of 1859. In 1879 he was nominated director England and Scotland. They measured the length of the of the Luxembourg museum.

seconds-pendulum at Leith, and in Unst, one of the Shetland Showing decided military tastes François Arago was sent to isles, the results of the observations being published in 1821, the municipal college of Perpignan, where he began to study along with those made in Spain. Arago was elected a member mathematics in preparation for the entrance examination of of the Board of Longitude immediately afterwards, and contri. the polytechnic school. Within two years and a half he had buted to each of its Annuals, for about twenty-two years, mastered all the subjects prescribed for examination, and a important scientific notices on astronomy and meteorology great deal more, and, on going up for examination at Toulouse, and occasionally on civil engineering, as well as interesting he astounded his examiner by his knowledge of Lagrange. memoirs of members of the Academy. Towards the close of 1803 he entered the polytechnic school, In 1830, Arago, who always professed liberal opinions of the with the artillery service as the aim of his ambition, and in 1804, extreme republican type, was elected a member of the chamber through the advice and recommendation of S. D. Poisson, he of deputies for the Lower Seine, and he employed his splendid received the appointment of secretary to the Observatory of gifts of eloquence and scientific knowledge in all questions conParis. He now became acquainted with Laplace, and through nected with public education, the rewards of inventors, and the his influence was commissioned, with J. B. Biot, to complete encouragement of the mechanical and practical sciences. Many the meridional measurements which had been begun by J. B. J. of the most creditable national enterprises, dating from this Delambre, and interrupted since the death of P. F. A. Méchain period, are due to his advocacy-such as the reward to L. J. M. (1744-1804). The two left Paris in 1806 and began operations Daguerre for the invention of photography, the grant for among the mountains of Spain, but Biot returned to Paris the publication of the works of P. Fermat and Laplace, after they had determined the latitude of Formentera, the the acquisition of the museum of Cluny, the development southernmost point to which they were to carry the survey, of railways and electric telegraphs, the improvement of the

navigation of the Seine, and the boring of the artesian wells at researches in this subject, which led to the enunciation of the Grenelle.

fundamental laws of the polarization of light known by their In the year 1830 also he was appointed director of the Observ- names (sce POLARIZATION). As a result of this work Arago atory, and as a member of the chamber of deputies he was able constructed a polariscope, which he used for some interesting to obtain grants of money for rebuilding it in part, and for the observations on the polarization of the light of the sky. To him addition of magnificent instruments. In the same year, too, is also due the discovery of the power of rolatory polarization he was chosen perpetual secretary of the Academy of Sciences, exhibited by quartz, and last of all, among his many contriin room of J. B. J. Fourier. Arago threw his whole soul into its butions to the support of the undulatory hypothesis, comes service, and by his faculty of making friends he gained at once the experimentum crucis which he proposed to carry out for for it and for himself a world-wide reputation. As perpetual comparing directly the velocity of light air and in water secretary it fell to him to pronounce historical éloges on deceased or glass. On the emission theory the velocity should be accelermembers; and for this duty his rapidity and facility of thought ated by an increase of density in the medium; on the wave his happy piquancy of style, and his extensive knowledge theory, it should be retarded. In 1838 he communicated to the peculiarly adapted him.

Academy the details of his apparatus, which utilized the reIn 1834 he again visited England, to attend the meeting of volving mirrors employed by Sir C. Wheatstone in 1835 for the British Association at Edinburgh. From this time till 1848 measuring the velocity of the electric discharge; but owing to he led a life of comparative quiet-not the quiet of inactivity, the great care required in the carrying out of the project, and to however, for his incessant labours within the Academy and the the interruption to his labours caused by the revolution of 1848, Observatory produced a multitude of contributions to all depart. it was the spring of 1850 before he was ready to put his idea ments of physical science, -but on the fall of Louis Philippe he to the test; and then his eyesight suddenly gave way. Before left his laboratory to join in forming the provisional govern his death, however, the retardation of light in denser media ment. He was entrusted with the discharge of two important was demonstrated by the experiments of H, L. Fizeau and functions, that had never before been united in one person, viz. J. B. L. Foucault, which, with improvements in detail, were the ministry of war and of marine; and in the latter capacity based on the plan proposed by him. he effected some salutary reforms, such as the improvement of Arago's Euvres were published after his dcath under the direction rations in the navy and the abolition of flogging. He also of J. A. Barral, in 17. vols., 8vo, 1854-1862; also separately his abolished political oaths of all kinds, and, against an array of Astronomie populaire, in 4 vols.: Notices biographiques, in 3 vols.: moneyed interests, succeeded in procuring the abolition of negro Mémoires scientifiques, in 2 vols.; Mélenges, in 1 vol.; and Tables slavery in the French colonies.

analytiques et documents importants (with portrait), in i vol. English In the beginning of May 1852, when the government of translations of the following portions of his works have appcared Louis Napolcon required an oath of allegiance from all its Treatise on Comets, by C. Gold, C.B. (London, 1833); also translated functionaries, Arago peremptorily refused, and sent in his by Smyth and Grant (London, 1861): Hist. Eloge of James Wau, by resignation of his post as astronomer at the Bureau des Longi- Lord Brougham; Popular Lectures on Astronomy, by Walter Kelly

James Muirhead (London, 1839); also translated, with notes, by tudes. This, however, the prince president, to his credit, de- and Roy. L. Tomlinson (London, 1854); also translated by Dr W. H. clined to accept, and made an exception in favour of a savant Smyth and Prof. R. Grant, 2 vols. (London, 1855); Arago's Autowhose works had thrown lustre on France, and whose existence biography, translated by the Rev. Baden Powell (London, 1855, his government would regret to embitter.” But the tenure boldt, translated under the superintendence of Colonel Sabine

1858); Arago's Meteorological Essays, with introduction by Humof office thus granted did not prove of long duration. Arago (London, 1855), and Arago's Biographies of Scientific Men, transwas now on his death-bed, under a complication of diseases, lated by Smyth, Powell and Grant, 8vo (London, 1857). induced, no doubt, by the hardships and labours of his earlier ARAGON, or ARRAGON (in Span. Aragón), a captaincyyears. In the summer of 1853 he was advised by his physicians general, and formerly a kingdom of Spain; bounded on the to try the effect of his native air, and he accordingly set out N. by the Pyrences, which separate it from France, on the E. for the eastern Pyrenees. But the change was unavailing, and by Catalonia and Valencia, S. by Valencia, and W. by the two after a lingering illness, in which he suffered first from diabetes, Castiles and Navarre. Pop. (1900) 912,717; area, 18,294 then from Bright's disease, complicated by dropsy, he died in sq. m. Aragon was divided in 1833 into the provinces of Huesca, Paris on the 2nd of October 1853.

Teruel and Saragossa ;-an account of its modern condition is Arago's fame as an experimenter and discoverer rests mainly therefore given under these names, which have not, however, on his contributions to magnetism and still more to optics. He superseded the older designation in popular usage. found that a ragnetic needle, made to oscillate over non Aragon consists of a central plain, edged by mountain ranges. ferruginous surfaces, such as water, glass, copper, &c., falls on the south, east and west, these ranges, though wild and more rapidly in the extent of its oscillations according as it is rugged, are of no great elevation, but on the north the Pyrenees more or less approached to the surface. This discovery, which attain their greatest altitude in the peaks of Aneto (11,168 st.) gained him the Copley medal of the Royal Society in 1825, was and Monte Perdido (10,998 st.)--also known as Las Tres Sororcs, followed by another, that a rotating plate of copper tends to and, in French, as Mont Perdu. The central pass over the communicate its motion to a magnetic ncedle suspended over Pyrences is the Port de Canfranc, on the line between Saragossa it (“magnetism of rotation "). Arago is also fairly entitled and Pau. Aragon is divided by the river Ebro (9.0.), which flows to be regarded as having proved the long-suspected connexion through it in a south-easterly direction, into two nearly equal between the aurora borealis and the variations of the magnetic parts, known as Trans-ibero and Cis-ibero. The Ebro is the prinelements.

cipal river, and receives from the north, in its passage through In optics we owe to him not only important optical discoveries the province, the Arba, the Gallego and the united waters of his own, but the credit of stimulating the genius of A. J. of the Cinca, Esera, Noguera Ribagorzana, Noguera Pallaresa Fresnel, with whose history, as well as with that of E. L. Malus and Segre--the last three belonging to Catalonia. From the and of Thomas Young, this part of his life is closely interwoven. south it receives the Jalon and Jiloca (or Xalon and Xiloca) Shortly after the beginning of the 19th century the labours of and the Guadalope. The Imperial Canal of Aragon, which was these three philosophers were shaping the modern doctrine begun by the emperor Charles V. in 1529, but remained unof the undulatory theory of light. Fresnel's arguments in finished for nearly two hundred years, extends from Tudela to favour of that theory found little favour with Laplace, Poisson El Burgo de Ebro, a distance of 80 m.; it has a depth of g ft., and and Biot, the champions of the emission theory; but they were an average breadth of 69, and is navigable for vessels of about ardently espoused by Humboldt and by Arago, who had been 80 tons. The Royal Canal of Tauste, which lies along the north appointed by the Academy to report on the paper. This was side of the Ebro, was cut for purposes of irrigation, and gives the foundation of an intimate friendship between Arago and fertility to the district. Two leagues north-north-east of AlbarFresnel, and of a determination to carry on together further racin is the remarkable fountain called Cella, 3700 st. above the

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sea, which forms the source of the Jiloca; and between this river | twinning is usually often repeated on the same plane (fig. a), and the Sierra Molina is an extensive lake called Gallocanta, and gives rise to striations on the terminal faces (k) of the covering about 6000 acres. The climate is characterized by crystals; often, also, three crystals are twinned together on extreme heat in the summer and cold in the winter; among the two of the prism planes of one of them, producing an apparently mountains the snowfall is heavy, and thunderstorms are frequent, hexagonal prism. The mineral is colourless, white or yellowish, but there is comparatively little rain,

transparent or translucent, has a vitreous lustre, and, in fact, is Within a recent geological period, central Aragon was un not unlike calcite in general appearance. It may, however, doubtedly submerged by the sea, and the parched chalky soil always be readily distinguished from calcite by the absence of remains saturated with salt, while many of the smaller streams any marked cleavage, and by its greater hardness (H. =31-4) run brackish. As the mountains of Valencia and Catalonia and specific gravity (2.93); further, it is optically biaxial, whilst effèctually bar out the fertilizing moisture of the sea-winds, calcite is uniaxial. It is brittle and has a subconchoidal fracture; much of the province is a sheer wilderness, stony, ash-coloured, on a fractured surface the lustre is decidedly resinous in character. scarred with dry watercourses, and destitute of any vegetation The mineral was first found, as reddish twinned crystals with except thin grass and heaths. In contrast with the splendid the form of six-sided prisms, at Molina in Aragon, Spain, where fertility of Valencia or the south of France, the landscape of it occurs with gypsum and this region, like the rest of central Spain, seems almost a con- small crystals of ferruginous tinuation of the north African desert area. There are, however, quartz in a red clay. It is extensive oak, pine and beech forests in the highlands, and many from this locality that the beautiful oases in the deeply sunk valleys, and along the rivers, mineral takes its name, especially beside the Ebro, which is, therefore, often called the which was originally spelt “Nile of Aragon.” In such cases the flora is exceedingly rich. arragonite. Fine groups of Wheat, maize, rice, oil, flax and hemp, of fine quality, are grown crystals of the same habit in considerable quantities; as well as saffron, madder, liquorice, are found in the sulphur sumach, and a variety of fruits. Merino wool is one of the chiel deposits of Girgenti in products..

Sicily; also at HerrenIn purity of race the Aragonese are probably equal to tne grund near · Neusohl in

Fig. 1.

FIG. 2. Castilians, to whom, rather than to the Catalans or Valencians, Hungary. At many other they are also allied in character. The dress of the women is less localities the mineral takes the form of radiating groups of distinctive than that of the men, who wear a picturesque black acicular crystals, such as thosc from the haematite mines of and white costume, with knee-breeches, a brilliantly coloured west Cumberland: beautiful feathery forms have been found sash, black hempen sandals, and a handkerchief wound round in a limestone caye in the Transvaal. Fibrous forms are also the head.

common. A peculiar coralloidal variety known as flosferri Three counties--Sobrarbe, situated near the headwaters of(" flower of iron ") consists of radially arranged fibres; the Cinca, Aragon, to the west, and Ribagorza or Ribagorça, magnificent snow-white specimens of this variety have long to the east-are indicated by tradition and the earliest chronicles been known from the iron mincs of Eisenerz in Styria. The as the cradle of the Aragonese monarchy. These districts were calcareous secretions of many groups of invertebrate animals never wholly subdued when the Moors overran the country consist of aragonite (calcite is also common); pearls may be (711-713). Sobrarbe especially was for a time the headquarters specially cited as an example. of the Christian defence in eastern Spain. About 1035, Aragonite is a member of the isomorphous group of minerals Sancho III. the Great, ruler of the newly established kingdom comprising witherite (BaCO3), strontianite (SrCO3), cerussite of Navarre, which included the threc counties above mentioned,(PbCOs) and bromlite ((Ba, Ca)COs); and crystals of aragonite bequeathed them to Gonzalez and Ramiro, his sons. Ramiro sometimes contain small amounts of strontium or lead. A soon rid himself of his rival, and welded Sobrarbe, Ribagorza variety known as tarnowitzite, from Tarnowitz in Silesia, and Aragon into a single kingdom, which thenceforward grew contains about 5 % of lead carbonate. rapidly in size and power and shared with Castile the chief part Aragonite is the more unstable of the two modifications of in the struggle against the Moors. The history of this period, calcium carbonate. A crystal of aragonite when heated becomes which was terminated by the union of Castile and Aragon under converted into a granular aggregate of calcite individuals: Ferdinand and Isabella in 1479, is given, along with a full account altered crystals of this kind (paramorphs) are not infrequently of the very interesting constitution of Aragon, under SPAIN met with in nature, whilst in fossil shells the original nacreous (9.v.). At the height of its power under James I. (1213-1276), layer of aragonite has invariably becn altered to calcite. From the kingdom included Valencia, Catalonia, the Balearic Islands a solution of calcium carbonate in water containing carbon and the considerable territory of Montpellier in France; while dioxide crystals of calcite are deposited at the ordinary temPeter III. (1276-1285) added Sicily to his dominions.

perature, but from a warm solution aragonite crystallizes The literature relating to Aragon is very extensive. See, in out. The thermal springs of Carlsbad deposit spherical addition to the works cited in the article Spain (section History), concretions of aragonite, forming masscs known as pisolite or "Les Archives d'Aragon et de Navarre," by L. Cadier, in Bibliothèque de l'École des Charles, 49 (Paris, 1888). Among the more important

Sprudelstein.

(L. J. S.) original authorities, the following may be selected:- for general

ARAGUA, one of the smaller states of Venezuela under the history, Anales de la corona de Aragón, by G. Çurita, 3rd ed. in 7 redivision of 1904, lying principally within the parallel ranges folio volumes (Saragossa, 1668-1671; ist ed. 1562-1580);-for of the Venezuelari Cordillera, and comprising some of the most ecclesiastical history. Teatro histórico de las iglesias de Aragón fertile and healthful valleys of the republic. It is bounded E. (Pamplona, 1770-1807);, for economic history, História de la economia politica de Aragón, by I. J. de Asso y del Rio (Saragossa. by the Federal District and Maturin, S. by Guárico and W. by 1798). For the constitution and laws of Aragon, see Orígines del Zamora and Carabobo. Pop. (1905, est.) 152,364. Aragua Justicia de Aragón, &c., by J. Ribera Tarrago (Saragossa, 1897), and has a short coast-line on the Caribbean west of the Federal Instituciones y reyes de Aragón, by V. Balaguér (Madrid, 1896). The District, but has no port of consequence. Cattle, swine and goats described in a volume of the series España entitled Aragón, by J. M. are raised, and the state produces cofice, sugar, cacao, beans, Quadrado (Barcelona, 1886).

cereals and cheese. The climate of the higher valleys is subTARAGONITE, one of the mineral forms of calcium carbonate tropical, the mean annual temperature ranging from 74 to 80° F. (CaCO3), the other form being the more common mineral calcite. The capital, La Victoria (pop. 7800), is situated in the fertile It crystallizes in the orthorhombic system, and the crystals are Aragua valley, 1558 ft. above sea-level and 36 m. south-west of either prismatic or acicular in habit. Simple crystals are, how- Caracas. Other important towns are Barbacoas (pop. 13,109) on ever, rare; twinning on the prism planes (M in the figures) the left bank of the Guárico in a highly fertile region, Ciudad being a characteristic feature of the mineral (hg. 1). This I de Cura and Maracay (pop. 7500), 56 m. west-south-west of

Caracas near the north-east shore of Lake Valencia. The last | which period until its cession to the British in 1826, under the two towns are on the railway between Caracas and Valencia. treaty of Yandaboo, its history forms part of that of Burma.

ARAGUAYA, ARAGUAY or ARAGUIA, a river of Brazil and The old city of Arakan, formerly the capital of the province, is principal affluent of the Tocantins, rising in the Serra do Cayapó, situated on an inferior branch of the Koladaing river. Its where it is known as the Rio Grande, and flowing in a north by remoteness from the ports and harbours of the country, comeast direction to a junction with the Tocantins at São João do bined with the extreme unhealthiness of its situation, have led Araguaya, or São João das Duas Barras. Its upper course forms to its gradual decay subsequenily to the formation of the comthe boundary line between Goyaz and Matto Grosso. The river paratively recent settlement of Akyab, which place is now the divides into two branches at about 13° 20' S. lat., and unites again chief town of the province. The old city (now Myohaung) lies 50 at 10° 30', forming the large island of Santa Anna or Bananal. m. north-east of Akyab. The Maghs, who form nearly the whole The eastern branch, called the Furo, is the onc used by boats, population of the province, follow the Buddhist doctrines, which as the main channel is obstructed by rapids. Its principal are universally professed throughout Burma. The priests are affluent is the Rio das Mortes, which rises in the Serra de São selected from all classes of men, and one of their chief employJeronymo, near Cuyabá, Matto Grosso, and is utilized by ments is the education of children. Instruction is consequently boatmen going to Pará. Of other affluents, the Bonito, Garças, widely diffused, and few persons, it is said, can be found in the Cristallino and Tapirapé on the west, and the Pitombas, Claro, province who are unable to read. The qualifications for entering Vermelho, Tucupa and Chavante on the cast, nothing definite is into the pricstly order are good conduct and a fair measure of known as the country is still largely uncxplored. Thc Araguaya learning-such conduct at least as is good according to Buddhist has a course of 1080 m., considerable stretches of which arc tencts, and such Icarning as is esteemed among their votaries. navigable for small river steamers, but as the river below Santa The Arakanese are of Burmese origin, but separated from the Anna Island is interrupted by rccfs and rapids in two placcs— parent stock by the Arakan Yoma mountains, and they have one having a fall of 85 ft. in 18 m., and the other a fall of so st. a dialect and customs of their own. Though conquered by the in 12 m.-it affords no practicable outlet for the products of Burmese, they have remained distinct from their conquerors. the state. It was explored in part by Henri Coudreau in i897. The Northern Arakan Hill Tracts district is under a super

See Coudreau's Voyage au Tocantins-Araguaya (Paris, 1897). intendent, who is usually a police officer, with headquarters

ARAKAN, a division of Lower Burma. It consists of a strip at Paletwa. The arca of the Hill Tracts is 5233 sq. m.; pop. of country running along the castern seaboard of the Bay of (1901) 20,682.

(J. G. Sc.) Bengal, from the Naaf estuary, on the borders of Chittagong, ARAKCHEEV, ALEKSYEI ANDREEVICH, COUNT (1769to Cape Negrais. Length from northern extremity to Capc 1834), Russian soldier and statesman, was descended from an Negrais, about 400 m.; greatest breadth in the northern part, ancient family of Great Novgorod. From his mother, Elizabeth 90 m., gradually diminishing towards the south, as it is hemmed Vitlitsaya, he inherited most of his characteristics, an insatiable in by the Arakan Yoma mountains, until, in the extreme south, love of work, an almost pedantic love of order and the most it tapers away to a narrow strip not more than 15 m. across. rigorous sense of duty. In 1788 he entered the corps of noble The coast is studded with islands, the most important of which cadets in the artillery and engineering department, where his are Cheduba, Ramrce and Shahpura. The division has its hcad ability, especially in mathematics, soon attracted attention. quarters at Akyab and consists of four districts_namely, Akyab, In July 1791 he was made an adjutant on the staff of Count Northern Arakan Hill Tracts, Sandoway and Kyaukpyu, N. I. Saltuikov, who (September 1792) recommended him to formerly called Ramrce. Its area is 18,540 sq. m. The popu- the cesarevich Paul Petrovich as the artillery officer most capable lation at the time of the British occupation in 1826 did not exceed of reorganizing the army corps maintained by the prince at 100.000. In 1831 it amounted to 173,000; in 1839 to 248,000, Gatchina. Arakchecv specdily won the entire confidence of and in 1901 to 762,102.

Paul by his scrupulous zeal and undeniable technical ability. The principal rivers of Arakan are-(1) the Naaf estuary, in His inexorable discipline (magnified into cruelty by later legends) the north, which forms the boundary between the division and soon made the Gatchina corps a model for the rest of the Chittagong; (2) the Myu river, an arm of the sea, running a Russian army. On the accession of Paul to the throne Arakcourse almost parallel with the coast for about 50 m.; (3) thc cheev was promptly summoned to St Petersburg, appointed Koladaing river, rising near the Blue mountain, in the extreme military commandant in the capital, and major-gencral in the north-east, and falling into the Bay of Bengal a few miles south grenadier battalion of the Preobrazhenskoe Guard. On the of the Myu river, navigable by vessels of from 300 to 400 tons 12th of December 1796, he received the ribbon of St Anne and burden for a distance of 40 m. inland; and (4) the Lemyu river, a rich estate at Gruzina in the government of Novgorod, the a considerable stream falling into the bay a few miles south of only substantial gift ever accepted by him during the whole of the Koladaing. Farther to the south, owing to the nearness his career. At the coronation (5th of April 1797) Paul created of the range which bounds Arakan on the cast, the rivers are of him a baron, and he was subsequently made quartermasterbut little importance. These are the Talak and the Acng, general and colonel of the whole Preobrazhenskoe Guard. It navigable by boats; and the Sandoway, the Taungup and thc was to Arakcheev that Paul entrusted the rcorganization of the Gwa streams, the latter of which alone has any importance, army, which during the latter days of Catherine had fallen into owing to its mouth forming a good port of call or haven for a state of disorder and demoralization. Arakcheev remorselessly vessels of from 9 to 10 ft. draught. There are several passes over applied the iron Gatchina discipline to the whole of the imperial the Yoma mountains, the easiest being that called the Aeng forces, beginning with the Guards. He soon became generally route, leading from the village of that name into Upper Burma. detested by the army, but pursued his course unflinchingly The staple crop of the province is rice, along with cotton, tobacco, and introduced many indispensable hygienic reforms. “Clean sugar, hemp and indigo. The forests produce abundance of barracks are healthy barracks," was his motto. Nevertheless, excellent oak and teak timber.

the opposition of the officers proved too strong for him, and on The natives of Arakan trace their history as far back as the 18th of March 1798 he was dismissed from all his appoint2666 B.C., and give a lineal succession of 227 native princes down ments. Arakcheev's first disgrace only lasted six months. On to modern times. According to them, their empire had at one the uth of August he was received back into favour, specdily period far wider limits, and extended over Ava, part of China, reinstated in all his former offices, and on the 5th of May 1799 and a portion of Bengal. This extension of their empire is not, was created a count, the emperor himself selecting the motto: however, corroborated hy known facts in history. At different " Devoted, not servile.” Five months later he was again in times the Moguls and Pegus carried their arms into the heart of disgrace, the emperor dismissing him on the strength of a the country. The Portuguese, during the era of their greatness denunciation subsequently proved to be false. It was a fatal in Asia, gained a temporary establishment in Arakan; but in step on Paul's part, for everything goes to prove that he would 1782 the province was Hnally conquered by the Burmese, from I never have been assassinated had Arakcheev continued by his

side. During the carlier years of Alexander, Arakcheev was from the Kirghiz designation of Aral-denghiz, or Sea of Islands. completely overlooked. Only on the 27th of April 1803, was In virtue of its area (26,233 sq.m.) it is the fourth largest inland · the count recalled to St Petersburg, and employed as inspector- sea of the world. It has ncarly the same length as width, general of the artillery. His wise and thorough reorganization namely about 170 m., if its northern gulf (Kichkineh-denghiz) of the whole department contributed essentially to the victories is left out of account. Its depth is insignificant, the maximum of the Russians during the Napoleonic wars. All critics agree, being 220 ft. in a depression in the north-west, and the mean indeed, that the Arakcheev administration was the golden era depth only 50 ft., so that notwithstanding its arca it contains of the Russian artillery. The activity of the inexhaustible only eleven times as much water as the Lake of Geneva. Its inspector knew no bounds, and he neglected nothing which altitude is 242} ft. above the Caspian, i.e. about 155 ft. above could possibly improve this arm. His principal reforms were the ocean. The lake is surrounded on the north by steppes; on the subdivision of the artillery divisions into separate inde- the west by the rocky plateau of Ust-Urt, which separates it from pendent units, the formation of artillery brigades, the estab- thc Caspian; on the south by thc alluvial district of Khiva; and lishment of a committee of instruction (1808), and the publishing on the cast by the Kyzyl-kum, or Red Sand Desert. On the north of an Artillery Journal. At Austerlitz he had the satisfaction the shores are comparatively low, and the coast-line is broken by of witnessing the actual results of his artillery reforms. The a number of irregular bays, of which the most important are commissariat scandals which came to light after the peace of those of Sary-chaganak and Paskevich. On the west an almost Tilsit convinced the emperor that nothing short of the stern and unbroken wall of rock extends from Chernychev Bay southincorruptible energy of Arakcheev could reach the sources of wards, rising towards the middle to 500 ft. Thc southern coast the evil, and in January 1808 he was appointed inspector-general is occupied by the delta of the Oxus (Jihûn, Amudarya), one and war minister. When, on the outbreak of the Swedish war of the arms of which, thc Laudan, forms a swamp, 80 m. long of 1809, the emperor ordered the army to take advantage of an and 20 broad, beforc it discharges into the sea. The only unusually severe frost and cross the ice of the Gulf of Finland, other tributary of any size that thc sea rcccives is the Jaxartes it was only the presence of Arakcheev that compelled an un- (Sihûn, Syr-darya) which enters towards the northern extremity willing general and a semi-mutinous army to begin a campaign of the east coast, and is suspected to be shifting its embouchurc which ended in the conquest of Finland. On the institution of more and more to the north. This river, as well as the Amu, the “Imperial Council" (1st of January 1810), Arakcheev was conveys vast quantities of sediment into the lake; the delta made a member of the council of ministers and a senator, while of the Syr-darya increased by 134 sq. m. between 1847 and 1900. still retaining the war office. Subsequently. Alexander was The eastern coast is fringed with multitudes of small islands, alienated from him owing to the intrigues of the count's encmics, and other islands, some of considerablc size, are situated in the who hated him for his severity and regarded him as a dangerous open towards the north and west. Kug-Aral, the largest, lies reactionary. The alienation was not, however, for long. It is opposite the mouth of the Syr-darya, cutting off the Kichkinehtrue, Arakcheev took no active part in the war of 1812, but denghiz or Little Sea. The next largest island is the Nikolai, all the correspondence and despatches relating to it passed nearly in the middle. Navigation is dangerous owing to the through his hands, and he was the emperor's inscparable com- frequcncy and violence of the storms, and the almost total panion during the whole course of it. At Paris (31st of March absence of shelter. The north-cast wind is the most prevalent, 1814) Alexander, with his own hand, wrote the ukaz appointing and sometimes blows for months together The only other him a field-marshal, but he refused the dignity, accepting, craft, except the steamships of the Russians, that venture on instead, a miniature portrait of his master. From this time the waters, are the flat-bottomed boats of the Kirghiz. Alexander's confidence in Arakchcev steadily increased, and In regard to the period of the formation of the Aral there were the emperor imparted to him, first of all, his many projects of formerly two theories. According to Sir H. C. Rawlinson reform, especially his project of military colonies, the carrying (Proc. Roy. Geog. Soc., March 1867) the disturbances which out of the details of which was committed to Arakcheev (1824). produced the present lake took place in thc course of the middle The failure of the scheme was due not to any fault of the count, ages; while Sir Roderick Murchison contended (Journ. of Roy. but to the inefficiency and insubordination of the district Geog. Soc., 1867, p. cxliv. &c.) that the Caspian and Aral existed officers. In Alexander's last years Arakcheev was not merely as separate scas before and during all the historic period, and his chief counsellor, but his dearest friend, to whom he submitted that the main course of the rivers Jaxartcs and Oxus was deterall his projects for consideration and revision. The most inter- mined in a prehistoric cra. Thc former based his opinion largely esting of these projects was the plan for the emancipation of the on historical cvidence, and the latter trusled principally to peasantry (1818). On the accession of Nicholas I., Arakcheev, geological data. There is no doubt that in recent historical thoroughly broken in health, gradually restricted his immense times Lake Aral had a much greater cxtension than it has at the sphere of activity, and on the 26th of April 1826, resigned all his present time, and that its arca is now diminishing. This is, of offices and rctired to Carlsbad. The 50,000 roubles presented course, due to the excess of evaporation over the amount of to him by the cmperor as a parting gist he at once handed to water supplicd by its two sccders, the Amu-darya and the Syr. the Pavlovsk Institute for the cducation of the daughters of darya, both of which are seriously drawn upon for irrigation in poor gentlemen. His last days he spent on his estate at Gruzina, all the cases they flow through. Old shorc lines and other carefully collecting all his memorials of Alexander, whose memory indications point to the level of the lake having once been so ft. he most piously cherished. He also set aside 25,000 roubles for above the cxisting level. Nevertheless the general desiccation the author of the best biography of his impcrial friend. Arakis subject to temporary fluctuations, which appear to correcheev died on the 21st of April 1834, with his eyes fixed to the spond to the periods recently suggested by Eduard Brückner last on the late emperor's portrait. “I have now done every- (b. 1862), for, whereas the lake diminished and shrank during thing,” he said, " so I can go and make my report to the emperor 1850-1880, since the lat.er year it has been rising again. Islands Alexander.” In 1806 he had marricd Natalia Khomutova, but which were formerly connected with thc shorc are now some they lived apart, and he had no children by her.

distance away from it and entirely surrounded by water. MoreSec Vasily Ratch, Memorials of Count Arakcheev (Rus.) (St Peters, over, on a graduated level, put down in 1874, there was a perburg, 1864): Mikhail Ivanovich Semcvsky, Count Arakchecy and the Military Colonies (Rus.) (St Petersburg, 4871); Theodor Schie.

manent rise of ncarly 4 st. by 190r. The temperature at the mann, Gesch. Russland's unter Kaiser Nikolaus 1., vol. 1, Alex bottom was found (1900-1902) by Emil Berg to be 33-8° Fahr., ander I., &c. (Berlin, 1904).

(R. N. B.) while that of the surface varied from 44.5° 10 80.5° between ARAL, a lake or inland sea in the west of Asia, situated May and September; the mean surface temperature for July between lat. 43° 30' and 46° 51' N., and long. 58° 13' and was 75°. The salinity of the water is much less than that of 61° 56' E. It was known to the ancient Arab and Persian the ocean, containing only 1.05% of salt, and the lake freezes geographers as the Sea of Khwārizm or Kharezm, from the neigh-every year for a great distance from its shorcs. The opinion bouring district of the Chorasmians, and derives its present name that Lake Aral periodically disappeared, which was for a long

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