Page images

So awed, so silent, land of God! will we

and but a few hours before, uncovered, showed the entire Recall our fancies from thy scenes and thee.

mound to be one vast sepulchre, whose dread contents, ir Ah! we have seen the pictures of thy tale

their confusion, too plainly evidenced the unpeaceful de Like evening rainbow in the misty vale,

parture and the reckless entombment. The scenery or And have forgotten, in entrancement glad,

no mean event, of no trivial contest, was now obviously That earth was round us, and that life was sad !

around me; but multitudinous and unrecorded death Alas! the sights which haunted earth so long !

seemed here involved in double mystery. They linger but to bless the soul of song ;

Resuming enquiry, I found the door of the belfry enly Gone with the thousand isles in ocean hurld

slightly secured, thus reaching, with some difficulty, by a Gone with the patriarch forests of the world!

half ruinous stair, an exterior bartizan. This station So let it be: we have a holier faith

though not elevated above forty feet, commanded a pro Believing life amid the land of death;

spect of surpassing grandeur, which would have presentLooking from darkness upon visions strange,

ed, even to less excited imaginings, no unfitting theatre And down into eternity from change!

for some mighty act in the drama of events. Here, too,

knowledge, far from discrediting, was to give fixelness God of our spirits ! from thy throne sublime,

and veracity to the pourtrayings of fancy. On the pa. Poised o'er the dark profundity of time,

rapet had once been a sun-dial; the gnomon broken away, Breathe on our hearts thine influence good and calm,

the hour lipes defaced, seemed, like the awful secrets le Strength to our souls, and to our sorrows balm ; neath, to have no more doings with time; but there still Our guiding light may deep devotion be,

remained legibly inscribed, as the name of the placeAnd rapt imagination bend to thee!

“ WAGRAM !” May hope and memory close embracing twine,

To the communication of this brief legend there reAnd thought's sole form, her very life, be thine !

quired no addition. The landscape which now extended Till the strong spirit, with the speed of morn,

before and around me, bright, and calm, and beautiful, Up to the presence of thy power is borne;

had been the torn and echoing battle-field, whereon two And even in life the cares of earth shall show,

hundred thousand human beings had toiled in mortal Fair as from mountain-heads, the sun-spread haze below! conflict. Here the Austrian had bled within sight and

W. S. sound of home's endearments, and side by side, his loe,

afar from all “the closing eye requires;" yet did not

home in sunny France mingle sweetly even in his latest THE BATTLE GROUND.

blood-dimined visions! It is when on some battle-plain

we thus view each nameless wreck apart-regard each By J. Memes, LL.D., Author of the Life of

single bosom, in itself a world of life, a little sanctuary of Canova," gc.

loves and charities, desolated as if not an holy thing-as Rimaner dopo vita pien di faville.

if not the holiest of created things—that our souls sicken A SOLITARY ramble along the left bank of the Danube, | at the trade of warfare. It is then we execrate his refor I had escaped from Vienna and all inflictions of regu nown, as formerly we may have contemned the vulgar lar sight-seeing for one day's enjoyment of nature—termi quality that constitutes the military hero, Father of Vernated in a spot which arrested thought with a power still cies! how have thy rational offspring become-how do well remembered. Yet scarcely could the impressiveness they continue—the veriest dupes and slaves of names and be assigned to any definite or striking characteristics of influences the most abhorrent to all that is truly noblest in locality. A village church, the principal object, with their nature and best ends of being ! steep roof and square belfry, supporting its extinguisher | Hope fain would whisper this may not always be. shaped spire of shining tiles, nowise superior to the simi Meanwhile yield we somewhat to the deceit; and do lar buildings of German hamlets, was surrounded by an you, reader, placing yourself beside us in the narrow balhumble cemetery alike unpretending. But something in cony of the church tower, look forth upon the scene while the aspect of the place spake to the heart and engaged at we describe the associations of its history. Turn we first tention. The more observation was indulged, a greater attention eastwards to these low verdant islands, floating intensity, or perhaps individuality of sentiment, awoke. from thence about cannon-shot down the stream where How have these walls been literally ploughed by the the Danube expands to 'receive them in a wider reach. deadly though not recent shower of musketry; and these These, for many weeks, formed the position of the French once magnificent trees, so evidently survivors of them- army, whence it marched on the morning of July 6th, selves as of compeers, what has smitten their giant limbs 1809, “ the day of Wagram.” That village just seen in such ruthlessness ? And, more than all, these numerous | above the coppice of the right bank opposite is Ebersand lengthened ridges reposing green and silent in the dorff, the station of Davoust and the reserve. These dark calm sunshine, how are they to be contemplated ? Too | masses to the rear of the extreme right are the towers of capacious for the last resting-places of the rustic popula- | Vienna, which, then in possession of a French garrison, tion around—if not tombs, why rise they in consecrated extended their line of communication seven miles. The

ut who shall unfold the story of their indwell- | main force, however, commanded by Napoleon in person, ers, if tenanted they be by unknown dead thus lonely and lay in Lobau, the largest of the islands, three, or perhaps unhonoured ! Here no sumptuous monument proclaimed four miles in circuit, and joined to the left bank by an its tale of flattery or of pride, nor modest stone recorded isthmus seemingly artificial, where these grassy inequalithe tribute of affection. Nothing indicated the sympa ties still mark the strong entrenchments opposed to hosthies or interests of this world—not even the rude cross tile attack on that side, while, on the other, friendly inof wood, (rarely, in Austria, omitted over the lowliest tercourse was secured by a bridge of boats. Here a spegrave,) on which might be read the initials of some loved cies of military colony was established, and not unintename, traced with bare intelligence by the unpractised resting relics of the habits and tastes of the French solhand. Nature's sweets had here strewn, it might be, over diery may yet be discovered in the ruins of regular streets human decay, the sole and affecting ornament in the and squares of turf habitations, intermingled with parspring flowers that gemmed the undulating sward. terres, miniature gardens, and promenades. On this hand

A consequent search conducted to the extremity, close a battery, on that a theatre—here a champs de Mars, upon the river, of the largest of these mysterious eleva thero a circus rises. Beyond this once-crowded spot, tions. At this point a late inundation had burst the where men, cut off by situation and hostility from all tbe cerement that shrouded from the eye-formless nothings world, and from all aid save their swords, could be tbus that had once been mon! The portion thus singularly, careless and gay, the noblest of European rivera winds hļa

majestic course through a champaign of luxuriant ferti

ANECDOTES OF AN AUTHOR OF THE OLD lity, bounded only by the horizon where the blue waters

SCHOOL. gleam along the azure plains of distant Hungary.

By Robert Chambers. The Austrian force, under the Archduke Charles, confined wholly to the left bank of the Danube, occupied a

Dr Walter Anderson, who died about thirty years strong position in front of these two villages, about three ago, minister of

Labout three ago, minister of Chirnside in Berwickshire, was a man miles to the westward, or up the river, whence they are

of excellent private character, of the best intentions, and about half a mile distant. From our present station their

great benevolence; but he was unfortunately spoilt by white walls glisten cheerfully amid the fresh green of the

he the idea that he possessed the qualifications of a great cultivation which surrounds them, but their magnitude

author. Perhaps not a single reader of this Journal is and appearance may seem to contrast strangely with the

acquainted with Dr Anderson's name as an author ; yet it importance attached in history to the names of Asperne

is certain he published a prodigious number of books—aye, and Esseling. The immediate field of battle, however,

and books of a substantial nature, toonone of your light was upon the plain, or rather two plains, above and below

gossamer royal eighteenmos, or your slim twelvemos Wagram ; interjacent between the Danube and these ir

but thick, honest-like quartos, or decent octavos, at the regular heights, which, on the point where the church

very least. Had the Doctor's works been only solid and stands, forming a kind of isthmus with the river, after

massive in their physical or external structure, there wards recede to a distance in the shape of a double cres

would have been no occasion to speak of him here ; but, cent. Eastwards, below Wagram, these elevations gra

alas! they were equally solid in their moral constitution, dually subside into the general level ; but to the west, and

and lay upon the public stomach like so many masses of the above Asperne, they rise into grandeur, presenting a mag

lead. The means by which he contrived to gratify his nificent amphitheatre of hanging forest, broken cliff, and

literary ambition, in the face of general disapprobation, d! castled steep, with woodland and cultivated valley be

were curious. He was a man of some property, and, tween, while far beyond tower the mountains of the Mo

for a long time, he regularly sold a house in Dunse, and ravian chain, behind whose rampart the discomfited Aus

published a book in Edinburgh, every other year ; the trian first sought refuge.

proceeds of the house to defray the expenses of the publiBank It falls not in with our purpose to describe the battle.

cation. By this expedient, he converted a row of goodly Both from its situation, and the circumstances of attack,

houses in one of the best streets of his native town, into ! Wagram formed the principal object of contest, as being

a row of goodly volumes in one of the best shelves of his in reality the key of the position. During the early por

library. $ tion of the day the Austrians remained in possession, and

Dr Anderson was one of those pregnant wits who re# the French were confined to the lower semicircle of plain

quire nothing but to have a subject suggested to them in opposite Lobau, whence they had deployed; but after va

order to write a book. One day he was dining at the rious captures and re-occupations, the latter became the

house of the patron of the parish, Mr Hume of Mirefinal masters of this important point, whence they could

wells; and in the company assembled was the illustrious not be driven, the former retreating nearer their first

David Hume, brother of the host. “Mr Dauvit,” said ground in the upper plain. And from the rude balcony

the mortal to the immortal, with all the familiarity which of Wagram tower, from the very spot where the broken

a clergyman may use towards a parishioner, “ you have sun-dial lately stood, did Napoleon Bonaparte behold the

got a great name by your writings; but the worst of it closing hours of that conflict, whose issues affected the

| is, that you, and sic as you, have engrossed all the good most distant thrones of Europe. Thus, reader, the place

subjects, so that we who come a little later can find noon which we had stationed you, was, in common par

thing to employ our pens upon."-" Why," said Hume, lance, one of no ordinary interest. The moral grandeur

“ I rather believe there are a few good subjects still unof endurance, too, and of persevering endeavour under du

handled.”_" Could you mention any?" asked Anderson,

_" What, for instance," said the philosopher, “ would bious or even adverse circumstances, which latterly are by

you think of a history of Cræsus, king of Lydia ?” — no means conspicuous qualities in Napoleon's character, were here eminently displayed. During the early part

“ The best possible !” exclaimed the poor Doctor, in rapof the day, more than once, by his own personal exer

tures; “ there is no such book in existence, and I think tions, exposing himself to every danger, had he re-esta

it is just exactly the sort of subject I could make the most blished his broken and retreating legions. After all ef

of.” Accordingly, upon this hint he spoke : The Life forts and a partial success, he beheld the fortunes of that

of Cræsus, King of Lydia, came forth in a splendid ocfield on which so much depended-often more than

tavo, at the expense of a three-story house. But, alas ! doubtful-yet even then, from this post where we have

although the subject was the richest in the world, the

book was no better than the rest of Dr Anderson's prostood, he gazed upon its varying array, and wielded its

ductions, being simply a crude compilation from Heromovements, with firm eye and unblanched cheek. Nor

dotus and such writers of antiquity, without a single ray (we report the evidence of a witness, though no friend, of

of mind to illuminate the mass. one, in fact, who was cut down and made captive in a

Anderson imitated the example of Burke, by writing a dash upon that very station_nor did one changing expression for a moment disturb the marble composure of his

pamphlet in vituperation of the French revolution ; but

he did not imitate Burke in making it sell. It cost a fine and statue-like countenance, or turn aside his intense concentration of thought, fixed on one great crisis, yet

two-story house, and the public purchased five copies. alive to minor incidents, till perceiving the Austrian

About a twelvemonth after the work appeared, the aucentre to be injudiciously and irretrievably extended, he

thor came to Edinburgh, and called upon the historian exclaimed, in tones as if a spell had been broken, “ We

Robertson, with whom he was intimately connected, have gained !" Then rushing down the narrow stair

through the means of church politics. “ Doctor,” said Ainging himself into the nearest saddle-several of his

he, “ I've come to town to see about the publication of favourite chargers having been in readiness for hours in

an appendix to my pamphlet on the French revolution." the church below, he poured the shock of bis columns

Robertson expressed surprise at the object of the expe

dition, seeing that the original work had not done any upon the weakness of his adversary, and verified his own

good. “ Ah," said the author, “but this is three times prediction.

as big a book as the pamphlet! and I think they'll baith gang aff thegither.”—“ Well," said the learned Principal, “this is the most extravagant business I ever knew you engaged in—to think that a pamphlet wbich has been already found so heavy, will be made lighter by an addi

tion of three times the weight! Nonsense, Doctor! You But this Academy, the establishment of which tecs must give up the idea.”_" But I winna gi'e up the idea. | place in the ninth century, not having been chartered I ken better than you how to make a thing lighter. Do so

soon fell into decay, and centuries were destined to elama

before its revival. During this long period, when all Es you no mind, when ye was a callant at the schule, that ye sometimes found a dragon (a kite) too heavy to go up

rope, and especially France, experienced the beneficial ef

fects of Italian literature, the minstrelsies of the Trual into the air by itself?"_“ Yes, I do," answered Dr Ro. bertson. “Weel, was there ever ony plan sae gude for

dours, and above all, the discovery of printing, no academy making the thing rise, as to tie a tail far langer and

was in existence, por in contemplation, although the un heavier than itsell to the bottom o't? Just sae I intend

versity of Paris, on account of the great reputation it be to do wi' my pamphlet.” Dr Robertson laughed out

acquired, was then attended by more than twenty-five,

thousand students. But in the sixteenth century, a rageously at the humour of the author ; but he found

bright constellation of authors, ascending towards the means to save him the house which the publication would

zenith of French literature, shone forth, and under the have cost, by using some other arguments.

fostering influence the institution of the French Acadeey This ill-starred writer once got a dreadful hit in the

took place. The names of its illustrious founders are stomach of his absurdity, from a band that did not seem

Ronsard, Ponthus de Thiard, Remy-Belleau, Jodelle, the most likely to inflict it. There prevailed in his time

Dubellay, Dorat, and Baïf. These seven celebrated che a very reprehensible custom of making one of every little

racters, in allusion to the Egyptian Pleïades, near the time party the butt, as it was called ; in other words, an indi

of Philadelphus Ptolemy, King of Egypt, were called the vidual was selected, remarkable for either natural or assumed eccentricity of character, who was set up as a sort

French Pleïades,-a name well merited, for like the fair of mark, against which all the rest might direct their

daughters of Atlas, every one of them became the theme witticisms. The custom prevailed immensely in society

of admiration; and the enthusiastic regard evinced by of the second order, and particularly among the clergy,

Queen Mary of Scotland, towards Ronsard, one of tbeir whose presbytery dinners and other meetings gave them

number, is an additional proof how powerful the charras frequent occasion for exercising it. The chief butt of

of that poet must have been. the clergy of Dr Anderson's district was a Dr Ridpath,

The establishment, however, of an academy, the afowed brother to the author of “ The Border History of Scot

object of which was to refine and perfect the French lanland;" a worthy man and a scholar, but whose simpli

guage, was considered by some an encroachment on the city of character made him quite the proper person for

rights of the University, and a remonstrance from that

body was forwarded to Charles IX. then King of France. ! being used as a butt. It was a peculiar feature, however, of Dr Ridpath's character as a butt, that he sometimes

and then also, fortunately for the infant Academy, one of stood at bay, and paid back as good as he got ; and of this

its members. Instead of supporting the University, a noted instance is told in connexion with the name of

Charles became the zealous protector of the French AcaDr Anderson. One day, that gentleman, after a long

demy against the attacks of its enemy; and his patronage course of bantering, fairly told Dr Ridpath that “ it was

was so effectual, that, notwithstanding the odious chaweel kenn'd he was but a weak brother.”—“ Ou ay,

racter borne by that monarch in history, he has a claim Willie, man,” answered the Doctor ; “ I never published

to the favourable remembrance of pesterity, at least for it, though.

the part he acted on this occasion. But by the death of Baïf, one of the Pleïades, and the main support of the Academy, and also by the civil wars then raging in

France, in which Henry IV. was making gigantic efforts SOME ACCOUNT OF THE RISE AND PROGRESS OF THE ROYAL INSTITUTE

to recover his crown from the Ligueurs, this establishment OF FRANCE..

suffered severely; and until the time of Cardinal Riche

lieu, under Louis XIII, the Academy seems to have been The French Institute, styled L'Institut Royal de

buried in oblivion. France, is composed of four distinct Academies. The first

In the middle of the seventeenth century, like a Phenix is exclusively devoted to the French language, and is

reviving from its asbes, the illustrious body assumed a called L'Académie Française; the second takes under its

new life, and from the lustre reflected by a Balzac, a care the learned languages, antiquities, monuments, his

Chapelain, a Voiture, a Benserade, and a Sarazin, in the tory, &c. and is termed L'Académie Royale des Inscriptions | houses of whom, from 1628 till 1635. its meetings were et Belles-Lettres; the third, in which matters connected

held, the literary horizon of France became once more with medicine, surgery, mathematics, astronomy, &c. are illuminated. About this period died Malherbe, styled treated of, bear's the name of L'Académie Royale des

“the poet,” par excellence—under the influence of whose Sciences; and the fourth, which is composed of painters,

genius the French language, assuming a new character, sculptors, architects, musical authors, &c. is known by

became more pure, flowing, and harmonious, and also the appellation of L'Académie Royale des Beaux-arts.

| acquired a degree of elevation and dignity, unknown beL'Académie Française having been the cradle of the three | fore the time of this elegant and accurate writer. It is others, its origin should be first explained.

of him that Boileau has said, in his Art Poétique, The first French Academy may be traced as far back as the time of Charlemagne, at which period it was com “ Enfin Malherbe vint, et, le premier en France, posed of the chief personages of his court, Charlemagne

Fit sentir dans les vers une juste cadence; himself being a member. Various were the objects of

D'un mot mis en sa place enseigna le pouvoir, their academical conferences, but they were for the most Et réduit la muse aux règles du devoir." part suggested by the different works, ancient and modern,

Cardinal Richelieu's good taste, liberality, and fond. which had formed the studies of the members. With

ness for every thing connected with French literature, the view of giving greater dignity to their society, a name

can never be forgotten. Under his fostering care, the connected with the literature of antiquity was assumed

Academy acquired a solid reputation ; and it was under by each member. Alcuinus, for instance, an illustrious

his patronage that in 1635, the same year in which was Englishman, whom Charlemagne had called to his court,

erected the first Botanical Garden at Paris, it obtained took the title of Flaccus, the surname of Horace; Augil

the name of l'Académie Française, the objects of which bert, a lord and a poet, called himself Homer; Adelard,

were understood to be exclusively for the improvement, the Bishop of Corbie, was named Augustin ; and Charle

refinement, and perfection of the French language. The magne assumed the appellation of David.

number of its members was limited to forty, out of which

a director, a chancellor, and a secretary, were chosen ; the * This paper is from the pen of an able French writer now resident two first offices being for a limited period, and the latter in Edinburgh.

for life. In the apartment of Cardinal Richelieu the first | Academy, Colbert, always alive to every thing from which legal sittings were held ; but some time after his death, France could derive either honour or benefit, and aware accommodation in the palace of the Louvre, correspond - that meetings of mathematicians, natural philosophers, and ing with the dignity and independence of the illustrious other scientific persons, such as Descartes, Pascal, Merbody, was prepared and appropriated for them. Cor- sennes, Blondel, Montmort, Thevenot, &c. had, for some neille, Racine, Boileau, La Fontaine, Ménage, D’Olivet, years, been frequently held in private, thought proper, as and other luminaries, were members of this Academy, a mark of respect, and also as a stimulus to every indiwhich to this day has retained the exclusive title of vidual versed in particular sciences, to recommend the l'Académie Française, the mcaning of which is l'Aca- erection of an Académie des Sciences; and in 1699, predémie de la langue Française, because the labours of its cisely at the time of the breaking out of the war for the members are confined to that kind of literature, in which Spanish succession, which set Europe in a blaze, it bethe accuracy of style and beauties of diction form the pro- came a legal institution. Its constitution, however, on minent objects. This may account for poets having com account of the multifarious branches of which the Acaposed the majority of the l'rench Academy, which is now demy was composed, was necessarily modelled on grounds the first branch of the Royal Institute of France. differing from the others, for, in the first place, the num

On the death of Cardinal Richelieu, which was fol. ber of members was fixed at seventy ; secondly, the memlowed by that of Louis XIII., when the young king was bers were divided into four classes, honorary, pensionary, about four years old, Cardinal Mazarin, taking advantage associates, and pupils; and, in the last place, no one was of the high favour he was in with the queen regent, suc- to be admitted unless he was the author of an invention, ceeded Richelieu in the premiership, and by repeated discovery, or original work of importance. reckless and oppressive measures, the offspring of his un- Such are the elements of which the National Institute bounded ambition, brought France to the point of a gene. of France is now chiefly composed, and such they were ral civil war. Fortunately, however, the excitement was exactly before the French Revolution in 1788, when a confined chiefly to Paris, where, after the conspicuous political storm, which had been gathering for many years, part played, during a whole year, by the Barricades and exhibited, on the horizon of France its hideous and fearthe Fronde, peace and apparent harmony between the ful aspect, and, bursting with indescribable fury, spread queen, the young king, the prime minister, the parlia devastation far and wide, overturning every legal barrier, ment, and the people, were at last restored. Five years rooting out every institution, and rending asunder every after these events, Cardinal Mazarin, sensible of the in- moral tie. After several years of confusion and desolafluence the fine arts would have in repressing those fierce tion, a successful stop, however, was put to the victorious passions, whence flowed all the miseries with wbich and bloody career of the evil spirit by which that dreadful France had been afflicted since he began to govern, form storm and its destructive concomitants were directed. The ed the liberal and generous resolution of erecting, under extinguishiug of the torch of civil war, which, unfortuhis special protection, an Academy of Painting and Sculp- nately for my country, had been too long burning, was ture, which was accordingly established in 165t, under attended with the re-establishment of those institutions the name of l'Académie de Peinture et de Sculpture. The which, though excellent in themselves, the irresistible tor. office-bearers of this Academy were composed of a di- rent of the Revolution had indiscriminately swept away, rector, a chancellor, a treasurer, rectors, and professors; and France began again to assume that commanding attiand the rank of every member was regulated by the style tude and that high rank, which its acknowledged political of art pursued by him,-historical painters ranking high- intluence so justly entitled it to hold.

G. S. est, portrait painters next, then landscape painters, and so on through all the grades of the profession.

A monarch of an indifferent capacity, or possessing no LITERARY AND SCIENTIFIC SOCIETIES OF taste either for the fine arts or literature, might have re

EDINBURGH. mained a cold spectator of the liberal aud generous efforts

SOCIETY OF ANTIQUARIES. of his prime minister; but, great by principle, magnificent by habit, and enthusiastic by nature, Louis XIV. was

Monday, 17th May, 1830. fired with the glorious design of increasing the fame of

Sir HENRY Jardine in the Chair. France, by extending to Rome a branch of the Parisian Present,_Drs Hibbert, Maclagan, Carson, Borthwick; establishment, so that young artists, who had deserved

Skene, - Dalzel, — Gordon, Gabriel Surenne, well of the Academy at Paris, might be sent to“ the Eter T. G. Repp, Edward Lothian, Donald Gregory, &c. nal City," where they would enjoy the inestimable advan- &c. Esqrs. tage of witnessing the efforts, and imitating the beauties, | A coMMUNICATION from Oriel Hay, Esq. was read, re. of the ancients. This plan was no sooner conceived than lative to the locality in which the Cyrenaic marbles, which executed. The modern Romans were not a little sur-we mentioned some weeks ago, were discovered. The folprised to see within their walls a French Academy of lowing is an extract from the letter of Mr H. Warrington, Painting and Sculpture, so quickly and so skilfully organ

son to our Consul at Tripoli, who discovered them. “ The ised.

The remains of the

female statue* was found at Cyrene. Its foundation, as well as its present prosperity,

!!city stand on the elevation of a mountain; below which, Torm a lasting monument to the glorious memory of Louis facing the north, are various shelving flats, or terraces, in

clining towards the base or plain country. These hill-sides These Academies had not been long on foot, when five contain sepulchral caves, or apartments, evidently constructor six members of the Académie Française, known for ed by human art. It was upon the uppermost of these their intimate acquaintance with antiquity, monuments, terraces, and near to the celebrated fountain of Cyrene, history, &c., and also with foreign languages, were re

where, on digging about seven yards below the surface, I quested to draw up a plan of an Academy of Generall discovered the statue in question, perfect all but the arm,

and some tritling defects. The arm was found the day followLiterature, and its inauguration took place in 1663, just

ing, by digging a few yards distance, and about the saine as the foundation of the College Mazarin at Paris was depth. Above the spot where the statue was discovered, a laid. In 1710, five years before the death of Louis XIV., half-legible inscription, in Greek characters, might be traced at the solicitation of Colbert, his prime minister, tbis body on the hill-side. The bassi-relievi were found near the obtained the royal charter, under the name of l'Aca-l place described, and about the same distance from the surdémie des Inscriptions et Belles-Lettres. Among its mem

face. From the nature of the ruins on that spot, I have

every reason to believe that future excavations would be bers, Charpentier, Gédoin, Godeau, La Monnaie, Charles

attended with success.” The vase, which we are happy to Perrault, and Vaillant, were remarkable for their profound knowledge and sterling merit.

# This is a mistake on the part of Mr Warrington; it is a statue A few years before the legal installation of the above. of E.culapius.


say is a fine specimen, and almost entire, was found at Ben- ' in Velay, is a system of caves, one of which, apparently the gazi, the ancient Berenice.

| baron's ball, is twenty yards long, by six and a half bread. A letter from John Mackinlay, Esq. was next read, con- | Attached to it is a kitchen, opening to the top of a superjataining an account of some ancient carvings in oak panel, cent terrace, and almost as spacious as the famous one of discovered in the refectory of the Priory at Pittenweem in the Abbot of Glastonbury. Among the caves of Roche 1829. One of the medallions is supposed to be a likeness

Robert is a hall twenty yards by five, lighted by a well. of James V. We are happy to learn that the Right Rev.

shaped window. The period when these caves were abajBishop Low, to whom they belong, contemplates present

doned by their feudal proprietors cannot be ascertained. ing them to the Society.

They became subsequently the haunts of banditti. Dr Hibbert read a memoir “ On the caves occupied by The next portion of the memoir was intender to show the early inhabitants of the west of Europe ; with illustra

that, even in the present day, whole villages of Troglodytes tions of some still remaining in France and Italy." The were to be found even in the civilized countries of Europe meagre abstract to which our limits restrict us, can afford | In the neighbourhood of Bagnoven, in the Pope's territories but an imperfect idea of this interesting paper ; and the ab- is a village, of which an Italian traveller has observed, that sence of the numerous drawings by which Dr Hibbert il- a few stones for the purpose of closing the entrance of the lustrated his subject is yet a severer want. He commen- cavern, a hole for the smoke to go out of, and an aperture to ced by stating that his paper bad for its object, to prove that admit the light, suffice to complete each habitation. In the natural caves were the temporary resort of the earliest and

island of Ponza, near the bay of Naples, is another town of rudest inhabitants of Europe ; that even at a more advan

the same kind, the inhabitants preferring to reside in caves, ced stage of civilisation, caves had been used for human ha

although the island abounds with the best materials for bitations; that in certain localities, they had afforded pro

building. The caves are described as being refreshing in tection to the chiefs and vassals of the feudal times; and summer, warm in winter, and without the least humidity. that even at the present day, whole villages of Troglodytes

In France, many villages of inhabited caverns still exist, as might be found in the civilized countries of the Continent.

at Cuzolo in the Cantal, at Mount Perrier in Auvergne, The subject of caves bad lately attracted considerable no and many other places. Swinburne has described a village tice on the Continent; but more on the part of the geolo- | of the same kind, which occurs in the province of Andalugist than of the antiquarian. It had been incontrovertibly sia, in Spain. In Transylvania, the places which the noestablished, that in the caves in the south of France, human | madic gipsies inhabit during the winter, ought to be called remains had been found along with bones of different mam

holes or burrows, rather than caves, which, for fartber se miferæ. As the particular species of animals found in this curity from the weather, are covered over with branches of juxtaposition were now no longer to be inet with, they had

trees, with moss, and turf. Dr Hibbert concluded his mebeen assumed to be antediluvian, but upon insufficient evi

moir by recommending the history of European, and parti. dence. The destruction of the forests in which they found

cularly of Scottish, caves, to the attention of the Society; and shelter, the drying up of the lakes on the borders of which by describing the geological formations in which the search they found their food, and partial convulsions of nature, suf for them was most likely to be attended with success. ficiently accounted for their extinction. In this view the

The present being the last meeting of the session, the Preinvestigation of the caves in which human bones had been

sident, before quitting the chair, briefly addressed the memfound, was as much the province of the antiquary as of the

bers present, congratulating them upon the activity which geologist. Dr Hibbert assumed as an hypothesis, tbat the

had characterized their proceedings, and the increasing richtribes inhabiting Europe, previous to the historical times, es of their museum. He concluded with exhorting them to were in a state similar to that of the Fins described by Ta- I perseverance. citus, as leading an almost brutish life, destitute even of the earliest rudiments of the arts. Such beings might well be

The Royal, Wernerian, and Antiquarian Societies, have conceived to contend with the beasts, above whom they were now closed their winter session. We shall resume our reso little elevated, for places of shelter they knew not how ports of their proceedings as soon as they again meet, and to construct; or, at all events, they might crawl like the

crawl like the are glad to know that those which we have already given beasts into holes, to conceal their dying agonies. At this have proved satisfactory. period the bones could scarcely have been deposited in caves for the purpose of inhumation - the idea of sepulture belonging to a more advanced state. The rude fragments of

THE DRAMA. earthenware found in the same caves, strengthened the conjecture that the bones belonged to an extremely rude and

The trade winds have set in,-which is an obscure and early period. The Celtic and Gothic tribes who supplant- | allegorical mode of saying that the benefits have fairly ed the aborigines of Europe, seem to have reached the agri commenced. At such a season the sternest critic smooths cultural state. The Germans are described as inhabiting down his rugged front, and either looks silently on, or houses built of gross and unhewn materials, constructed without the aid of mortar, and also caves, into which they

pronounces a word or two of benevolent encouragement. retired for shelter from the inclemency of the winter, or

At present we wish to give a little advice, and from benefrom the attacks of a more powerful enemy. Traces of

fits which are passed, propose to suggest a useful hint for these ancient subterraneous habitations are still to be met those which are to come. The first thing which an actor with in Germany, but much more frequently in France and has to attend to in the choice of pieces for his benefit is Italy, where the nature of the rock is in general more fa- novelty; the next is the probability of their being well pervourable to the task of excavation. They are most nume

formed ; and the third and last is their suitableness to b rous in the south of France. Each cave appears to have been entered by a low chink or fissure, situated almost half

own peculiar talents. The two principal benefits which way between the floor of the cave and its roof, and differ. I have taken place this week were those of Mackay and ing as little as possible from the level of the avenue by which

Murray, and in what we have set down as the leading it was approached. The entrance seems intended to have qualification of a benefit-noveltythey were both miserbeen closed, from the invariable presence of a narrow ably deficient. Mackay took “ Speed the Plough," and opening, reaching the external air in an oblique direction “ Cramond Brig ;" the first of which is not particularly for the purpose of ventilation. Soinetimes these caves refreshing, and the second has been played so often here, are isolated, sometimes they are found in groups. It has been conjectured by French antiquaries that these are

that it has become at last a positive drug, especially now the latebræ of the Roman historians, in which the Gauls

that we have no longer Miss Noel to sing the songs of so often eluded pursuit, and re-appeared as suddenly to ha

Marian Howison. Murray, by way of being equally orirass the enemy. Dr Hibbert next proceeded to remark that ginal, fixed upon “ Paul Pry” and “ Masaniello;" the these caves continued to be used even during the feudal pe- foriner being as familiar to all play-going people as the riod. At Ceyssac, in the province of Velay in France, the stage lamps; and the latter, besides being well known, afcastle of the lord crowned the summit of a hill, all of fording him not the slightest opportunity for the display which was excavated into caves, that seem either to have been used as chambers, or to have contained regular stalls for

of his own particular abilities. Mackay has a good many horses, and one has evidently been employed as a chapel.

supporters, and Murray has numerous friends and paThe entrance and lower apartments of a castle which flanks

trons, and the consequence was that they both, particuMont Perrier, in Auvergne, has been scooped out of the solidlarly the manager, had good houses; but we can assure rock; and on the opposite eminence is a system of grottoes, them tbat this was in spite, not in consequence, of the which served for the abodes of the retainers. At Conteaux, performances. Had inferior actors made a similar selec

« ՆախորդըՇարունակել »