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(2) that land-grant and other universities in the United States have demonstrated over many years their ability to cooperate with foreign agricultural institutions in expanding indigenous food production for both domestic and international markets;

(3) that, in a world of growing population with rising expectations, increased food production and improved distribution, storage, and marketing in the developing countries is necessary not only to prevent hunger but to build the economic base for growth, and moreover, that the greatest potential for increasing world food supplies is in the developing countries where the gap between food need and food supply is the greatest and current yields are lowest;

(4) that increasing and making more secure the supply of food is of greatest benefit to the poorest majority in the developing world;

(5) that research, teaching, and extension activities, and appropriate institutional development therefor are prime factors in increasing agricultural production abroad (as well as in the United States) and in improving food distribution, storage, and marketing;

(6) moreover, that agricultural research abroad has in the past and will continue in the future to provide benefits for agriculture in the United States and that increasing the availability of food of higher nutritional quality is of benefit to all; and

(7) that universities need a dependable source of Federal funding, as well as other financing, in order to expand, or in some cases to continue, their efforts to assist in increasing agricultural pro

duction in developing countries. (b) Accordingly, the Congress declares that, in order to prevent famine and establish freedom from hunger, various components must be brought together in order to increase world food production, including

(i) strengthening the capabilities of universities to assist in increasing agricultural production in developing countries;

(2) institution-building programs for development of national and regional agricultural research and extension capacities in developing countries which need assistance;

(3) international agricultural research centers:
(4) contract research; and

(5) research program grants. (c) The United States should

(1) effectively involve the United States land-grant and other eligible universities more extensively in each component;

(2) provide mechanisms for the universities to participate and advise in the planning, development, implementation, and administration of each component; and (3) assist such universities in cooperative joint efforts with

(A) agricultural institutions in developing nations, and

(B) regional and international agricultural research

centers, directed to strengthening their joint and respective capabilities and to engage them more effectively in research, teaching, and extension activities for solving problems in food production, dis

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tribution, storage, marketing, and consumption in agriculturally underdeveloped

nations. (d) As used in this title, the term "universities” means those colleges or universities in each State, territory, or possession of the United States, or the District of Columbia, now receiving, or which may hereafter receive, benefits under the Act of July 2, 1862 (known as the First Morrill Act), or the Act of August 30, 1890 (known as the Second Morrill Act), which are commonly known as “land-grant' universities; institutions now designated or which may hereafter be designated as sea-grant colleges under the Act of October 15, 1966 (known as the National Sea Grant College and Program Act), which are commonly known as sea-grant colleges; and other United States colleges and universities which

(1) have demonstrable capacity in teaching, research, and extension activities in the agricultural sciences; and

(2) can contribute effectively to the attainment of the objective of this title. (e) As used in this title, the term “Administrator” means the Administrator of the Agency for International Development.

(f) (Repealed) (g) (Repealed)

SEC. 297.** GENERAL AUTHORITY.-(a) To carry out the purposes of this title, the President is authorized to provide assistance on such terms and conditions as he shall determine

(1) to strengthen the capabilities of universities in teaching, research, and extension work to enable them to implement current programs authorized by paragraphs (2), (3), (4), and (5) of this subsection, and those proposed in the report required by section 300 of this title;

(2) to build and strengthen the institutional capacity and human resources skills of agriculturally developing countries so that these countries may participate more fully in the international agricultural problem-solving effort and to introduce and adapt new solutions to local circumstances;

(3) to provide program support for long-term collaborative university research, in the developing countries themselves to the maximum extent practicable, on food production, distribution, storage, marketing and consumption;

(4) to involve universities more fully in the international network of agricultural science, including the international research centers, the activities of international organizations such as the United Nations Development Program and the Food and Agriculture Organization, and the institutions of agriculturally developing nations; and

(5) to provide program support for international agricultural research centers, to provide support for research projects identified for specific problem-solving needs, and to develop and

strengthen national research systems in the developing countries. (b) Programs under this title shall be carried out so as to

* Subsections (1) and (g), which defined the terms "agriculture" and "farmers” were repealed by section 103(c) of the International Development and Food Assistance Act of 1978. Similar definitions for these terms can now be found in section 644 (0) and (p) of this Act.

. 22 U.S.C. 2220b.

(1) utilize and strengthen the capabilities of universities in

(A) developing capacity in the cooperating nation for classroom teaching in agriculture, plant and animal sciences, human nutrition, and vocational and domestic arts and other relevant fields appropriate to local needs;

(B) agricultural research to be conducted in the cooperating nations, at international agricultural research centers, or in the United States;

(C) the planning, initiation, and development of extension services through which information concerning agriculture and related subjects will be made available directly to farmers and farm families in the agriculturally developing nations by means of education and demonstration; or

(D) the exchange of educators, scientists, and students for the purpose of assisting in successful development in the cooperating nations;

(2) take into account the value to the United States agriculture of such programs, integrating to the extent practicable the programs and financing authorized under this title with those supported by other Federal or State resources so as to maximize the contribution to the development of agriculture in the United States and in agriculturally developing nations; and

(3) whenever practicable, build on existing programs and institutions including those of the universities and the United States Department of Agriculture and the United States Department of

Commerce. (c) To the maximum extent practicable, activities under this section shall

(1) be directly related to the food and agricultural needs of developing countries;

(2) be carried out within the developing countries;
(3) be adapted to local circumstances;

(4) provide for the most effective interrelationship between research, education, and extension in promoting agricultural de

; (5) emphasize the improvement of local systems for delivering the best available knowledge to the small farmers of such countries. (d) The President shall exercise his authority under this section through the Administrator.

Sec. 298.10 BOARD FOR INTERNATIONAL FOOD AND AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT.-(a) To assist in the administration of the programs authorized by this title, the President shall establish a permanent Board for International Food and Agricultural Development (hereafter in this title referred to as the "Board”) consisting of seven members, not less than four to be selected from the universities. Terms of members shall be set by the President at the time of appointment. Members of the Board shall be entitled to such reimbursement for expenses incurred in the performance of their duties (including per diem in lieu of subsistence while away from their homes or regular place of business) as the President deems appropriate.

(b) The Board's general areas of responsibility shall include, but not be limited to

10 22 U.S.C. 2220c. Added by Public Law 94-161, section 312, 89 Stat. 849.

(1) participating in the planning, development, and implementation of,

(2) initiating recommendations for, and

(3) monitoring of, the activities described in section 297 of this title.

(c) The Board's duties shall include, but not necessarily be limited to

(1) participating in the formulation of basic policy, procedures, and criteria

criteria for project proposal review, selection, and monitoring; (2) developing and keeping current a roster of universities

(A) interested in exploring their potential for collaborative relationships with agricultural institutions, and with scientists working on significant programs designed to increase food production in developing countries,

(B) having capacity in the agricultural sciences,

(C) able to maintain an appropriate balance of teaching, research, and extension functions,

(D) having capacity, experience, and commitment with respect to international agricultural efforts, and

(E) able to contribute to solving the problems addressed by this title; (3) recommending which developing nations could benefit from programs carried out under this title, and identifying those nations which have an interest in establishing or developing agricultural institutions which engage in teaching, research, or extension activities;

(4) reviewing and evaluating memorandums of understanding or other documents that detail the terms and conditions between the Administrator and universities participating in programs under this title;

(5) reviewing and evaluating agreements and activities authorized by this title and undertaken by universities to assure compliance with the purposes of this title;

(6) recommending to the Administrator the apportionment of funds under section 297 of this title, and

(7) assessing the impact of programs carried out under this title in solving agricultural problems in the developing nations. (d) The President may authorize the Board to create such subordinate units as may be necessary for the performance of its duties, including but not limited to the following:

(1) a Joint Research Committee to participate in the administration and development of the collaborative activities described in section 297(a) (3) of this title; and

(2) a Joint Committee on Country Programs which shall assist in the implementation of the bilateral activities described in

sections 297(a) (2), 297 (a) (4), and 297 (a) (5). (e) In addition to any other functions assigned to and agreed to by the Board, the Board shall be consulted in the preparation of the annual report required by section 300 of this title and on other agricultural development activities related to programs under this title.

Sec. 299.11 AUTHORIZATION.—(a) The President is authorized to use any of the funds hereafter made available under section 103 of this Act 1 22 0.8.C. 2220d. See note 10,


to carry out the purposes of this title. Funds made available for such purposes may be used without regard to the provisions of sections 110/b) and 122 (d) of this Act.

(b) Foreign currencies owned by the United States and determined by the Secretary of the Treasury to be excess to the needs of the United States shall be used to the maximum extent possible in lieu of dollars in carrying out the provisions of this title.

(c) Assistance authorized under this title shall be in addition to any allotments or grants that may be made under other authorizations.

(d) Universities may accept and expend funds from other sources, public and private, in order to carry out the purposes of this title. All such funds, both prospective and inhand, shall be periodically disclosed to the Administrator as he shall by regulation require, but no less often than in an annual report.

Sec. 300.12 ANNUAL REPORT.—The President shall transmit to the Congress, not later than April 1 of each year, a report detailing the activities carried out pursuant to this title during the preceding fiscal year and containing a projection of programs and activities to be conducted during the subsequent five fiscal years. Each report shall contain a summary of the activities of the Board established pursuant to section 298 of this title and may include the separate views of the Board with respect to any aspect of the programs conducted or proposed to be conducted under this title.

1 22 U.S.C. 2220e. See note 10.

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