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For the New England Farmer. fectly free from stones, easy of cultivation, and Mr. Editor :- My husband has for several adapted to wheat, corn, rye, oats, barley, potatoes, years been a subscriber to the New England Far- &c. Fruit, of all kinds, will grow here as welí mer, and I am a constant reader of its pages. I as in any part of New England, if we except the have taken the liberty to send you a copy of my peach, which has not yet, to my knowledge, been scribbling on “Spring.” It is a homely produc
tried. tion, I am well aware; but if you think it is not All the surplus produce raised by the farmer too late in the season, and is any way worth a can be sold at his door, and is consumed by implace in the corner of your paper, I shall be glad migrants and laborers in the pineries. There are to see it published.
no houses ready for the reception of immigrants. Yours respectfully, MYRA MYRTLE. Two men, in two or three days, will throw up a
log cabin, or a board shanty, that will be toleraSPRING.
bly comfortable, and such are in general use in The poets they sing of the beauty of Spring,
all new countries. Lumber can be obtained at But they don't sing you half of the story;
$22 a $25 in the yard, and for $14 a $16 at The poets they tell of the flowers in the dell,
the pineries on the Black and Chippewa rivers. But they don't tell you half of Spring's glory.
The country is generally healthy. Most of the Why! each old granny goose and the hens on the roost diseases are connected, more or less, with biliary Know full well when the Spring time is coming ;
derangement-some cases of fever and ague, but So each builds her a nest, and then lays like “possessed," healthy immigrants are seldom troubled with it. Sits, and soon with her young is seen running.
There is no wet, marshy land in this vicinity, or There's the litters of pigs, dancing gallopade jigg
in this part of the State. We have no parks or To music of their own creating ;
commons laid out in our town. He who piled There's the old turkey gob, strutting round like a "snob,” up the hills and scooped out the valleys of this On his flocks of young long-legs is waiting.
locality, has forever rendered all such places unThen the calves in the stable, fat and plump for the table,
necessary. The current of the river, at this Are a part of the beauties of Spring ;
place, is about four knots an hour. And the flocks of young lambs, frisking after their dams, Without particularizing the prices of provisAh! their bleatings make music again.
ions, it may be safely calculated that the price of The wild geese flying o'er to some far northern shore,
living here is 50 per cent cheaper than in New Crying on, on, as onward they fly;
England. Stoves can be purchased here at about The old mother hen's clucks and the quacking of ducks eastern prices, adding cost of transportation. Is music to both you and I.
Osen, measuring of feet, are worth from $110
to $125 ; cows, $25 to $10; horses, $100 to Yes, the poets they sing of the beauties of Spring, But they don't sing you half of the story ;
$200. Carpenters and masons, good workmen, The poets they tell of the flowers in the dell,
get $1.75 to $2.00. Persons coming from New But they don't tell you half of Spring's glory.
England should purchase tickets through to GaSomersei, Mass.
lena. There are several routes at about the same
expense, and persons can make their own selecFor the New England Farmer.
tion. From Galena, by steam to our landing.
It is on the direct route to Minnesota, and perTHINGS IN WISCONSIN.
sons wishing to visit that country, can do so by Mr. Editor :-A communication from my pen
taking Winneshiek on the route. Fare from appeared in the columns of a late number of your
Boston to this place about $33. paper, the result of which is that the last two Iloping the information herein communicated mails have brought me about fifty letters of in- satisfactory to all inquiries, I close. quiry, all requesting information of a character
JAMES Osgood. so similar, that, with your permission, I will give
Winneshick, Bad At Co., Wis., April 18, 1855. a general reply through the medium of your paper. I design to be as brief as possible in reply
For the New England Farmer. ing to the questions proposed, and my communication must necessarily appear somewhat inco
CALVES MARKED BY FIRST SIRE. herent, except to those particularly interested. Mr. EDITOR :-On looking over the well-ar
Land for sale here is government land, and can ranged pages of the Agriculture of Massachube purchased at a distance of from 2 to 10 miles setts, page 273, it is said, to be “an established from the river at $1.00 an acre. No credit is fact, that calves possess the distinctive traits of given on land, and gold only taken in payment. character which prevailed in the animal that The most that one purchaser can take up at that first impregnated the heifer that bore them.” price is 320 acres, and he must then make oath By which, I understand that all the offspring of that he wants it for actual occupation. Persons the same mother will be more or less marked with who have not cash to pay down, can pre-empt the peculiarities of the sire of the first calf. As160 acres, or less, and by commencing improve- sertions of this kind I have more than once seen, ments upon it within 30 days, can secure it for but never before in a form so authoritative. Can one year. If not paid for at the end of the year, this be a law of generation, among animals? If it is subject to entry by any other person. Oak true in animals, why not true in other classes of openings are tracts of land sparsely covered with beings? The principle is too important to be astímber, and free from under brush. Prairie and sumed without ample proof. It was long ago timber land, in juxta position, can be found in said that “one swallow does not make a sumlarge quantities. There is plenty of wood for mer.'' I confess, that I was a little started at fuel and fences. No coal has yet been discovered the assertion, without any note explanatory. I in this vicinity. The soil is a dark loam, per- think the cautious editor of the volume would
BLACK LEG IN CATTLE.
never himself have penned such a sentence. If Some interesting facts on this subject were true, I should like to see a more distinct develop- stated, and valuable suggestions made at one of ment of the facts that tend to establish this the- the conversational meetings of the Massachusetts ory:
Horticultural Society. S. Walker remarked that I was more ready to notice this exception, he had used tan, sawdust, litter, leaves, &c., but because I recognize in many of the papers correc- he believed short, newly mown grass one of the tions made that are decided improvements. This best things, -he had mulched a great deal with volume I think a decided advance upon those it, and found it laid close to the soil. He also before published ; and if I do not mistake, there recommended the succulent weeds of the garden is still room for further improvements.
or roadside. He found tan and sawdust to be May 14, 1855.
useful merely by retaining the moisture. D.
Haggerston had found sedge from salts marshes MULCHING.
best, particularly if cut short; a good watering
upon it made it lay close to the ground. He This process, although known and practiced found it excellent for strawberries. He had also for many years by a few cultivators, has become found tree leaves excellent, if they had partls de extensively adopted only at a very late period. cayed, so as not likely to be blown away. Old It seems peculiarly adapted to our hot and dry hot bed materials made of leaves and manure had summers, and operates chiefly in preserving the proved particularly fine. Several spoke of the moisture of the surface, and in preventing the ill effects of too deep a mulching, but we think growth of weeds. The moisture at the surface the more common error is in spreading the coverof the earth from rains and dews, is quickly dis- ing of the soil too thinly. sipated under a hot sun ; and if this surface is
Mulching is a very easy and cheap practice, allowed to become covered with a dense growth and the season is now at hand when our readers of living grass and weeds, there pump out of the may prove by varying experiments the best mode soil and and throw off into the air a much larger of performance.-Country Gentleman. quantity of moisture than is evaporated by a bare surface of earth only. But if this surface is covered with a few inches of old straw, hay or leaves, EXTRACTS AND REPLIES. the moisture is retained in the soil, and the growth of weeds prevented. As a general rule,
Mr. Editor :-I wish to make the following we have found it most advantageous to leave the surface bare and keep the soil well mellowed tili inquiry through the columns of your valuable near mid summer, and then to apply the mulch-journal : -" Is there any known remedy for the ing. For a covering of litter, while it pro
cure of black leg amongst cattle ?”' motes the humidity, also prevents the heating of tle with this disease than by all others combined.
Within the past few years I have lost more catthe soil, in and in this way may retard early Gladly would I know and seek to obtain that growth if applied to soon. There are exceptions, however ; one in the case of large, deeply-rooted preventive, if any there is, which shall arrest the trees not affected by nor needing mulching, and progress and restore to health the creature that the other which are removed in summer, need the may be attacked with this worst, it seems to me, careful and constant retention of the earth. We
of all diseases a creature may die with. It has
been said that bleeding as soon as they were athave succeeded, with scarcely one failure in fifty, in transplanting the strawberry drought this I have not much faith, as one of my neigh
tacked with it, would surely prove a cure; of and heat of summer, by simply giving the sur- bors had one attacked which he bled as soon as face a mulching of two inches of barn manure, he discovered him ailing, and to all appearances and on which the watering was poured when necessary. Indeed, there is nothing that better
it did him no good at all. prevents the ill effects of baking by surface water
It seems "rather hard” to lose cattle, and gening, than a covering of this sort of a moderate erally the best ones in the lot, with this disease,
and not be able to afford relief to them in any depth. Mulching will, however, promote moisture in the soil, even when neither artificial nor way, I hope to hear from some of your corresnatural watering is given, simply by arresting pondents in regard to this subject.
JOSEPH BLAKE. such as rises upwards through the earth. In one instance a striking illustration of this effect was
Ashfield, Mass, April, 1855. furnished during a very long season of drought, which injured and threatened to destroy a row of newly transplanted apple trees. Their leaves
Mr. Editor :-In looking over the last number had already begun to turn yellow, and growth of your paper, I noticed an inquiry by a subscrihad ceased, but on coating ground about them ber from Deerfield, N. H., “How to kill ticks on with a crop of mown weeds, à change was soon effected, and in three weeks the leaves had re- answer, I would say kill the ticks on the sheep;
sheep and lambs without injuring them ?" In turned to their deep green hue, and in some in- and there will not be any on the lambs ; this may stances growth had recommenced. But, on no be done by feeding to his sheep sulphur mixed with kind of tree is mulching more necessary than on salt in the month of March, given to them two or newly transplanted cherry trees. Thousands of
three times ; the quantity should be about three these are lost every season, after they have commenced growing, by the drying heat of mid-sum- other time in the season will answer equally as
pounds to one hundred sheep: I presume that any mer, and the evil is sometimes increased by su- well, although I have never tried it except in perficial watering. A deep mulching will gener- March, while the sheep were about the barn. ally prove a complete remedy if seasonably ap- Ludlow, vi.
R. C. HAVEN. plied.
TO KILL TICKS ON SHEEP.
THE WIRE WORM.
THE ONION GRUB.
TO PREVENT FOWLS FROM SCRATCHING.
CURE FOR WARTS.
TO DSETROY TICKS.
WHITE THIMBLEBERRY. MR. Editor:-I saw an inquiry in your paper As this little insect is often very troublesome of the 15th ult. in relation to the white thimble-to many farmers, injuring their potato crop, I berry. They have been in several of the gardens thought I might be doing a favor by stating how of this town for the past ten or fifteen years. I they can prevent their perforating their potatoes. have some that fruited finely last season, but I The remedy is simply this :—when planting the find that they will fruit better to be protected in potatoes, drop a piece or the whole of a cob in winter, and partially shaded in summer. They each hill, and the worms will gather around the may be bent down to the ground and covered cob and penetrate it instead of the potato. like the raspberry. The wood is of a pea green North Berwick, May, 1855. color, and exposure to the sun turns it to a dark brown. The growth is very luxuriant; some of mine grew last year twelve feet.
A correspondent of the Gardener's Chronicle West Danvers, 1855. J. S. NEEDIAM.
states that he has applied nitrate of soda to the
plants with good effect in preventing the ravages Among the latest inventions of the age is one
of this grub. He used half a pound of the salt for the prevention of that pestiferous scratching to a gallon of water, and applied eight gallons to of fowls. Loop a strip of thin leather on the a bed of ten yards in length. He states that it legs about five inches long, and you have accom- checked the progress of the worms, and the crop plished the object. Try it, and be sure and not turned out well laugh the first time you see them waddle. It is a perfect preventive.
Joun PATIENT. Vt., May 23.
J. M. Jessup, in the Country Gentleman, states that paring warts down with a sharp knife or
razor until they bleed a very little, and then rubI have grafted the Dix pear on a medium-sized bing them with fine salt, will obliterate them ; tree which bore the fourth year, and has borne and thinks the same process will have the same well annually since.
effect on catule. I should like to inquire which is the best for milch cows ; to give them salt at stated times, or to keep it by them. If at stated times, how much, and how often.
A Subscriber, at Nantucket, says that one pound
of tobacco, steeped in six quarts of water, and REYARKS.-Cattle will not take more salt than is useful to them, so that if it is where they can
applied to sheep and lambs, will destroy ticks. have constant access to it without waste, it is as well as any way. If at stated times, twice a week
VALUE OF STATISTICS. is often enough—as much as they will take. We published last week some strictures on the
returns of the last census :-four or five cattle UNFRUITFUL APPLE TREES.
and the same number of horse dealers in KenMR. EDITOR :- I have a fine lot of apple trees,
tucky. Our attention was called, by a Rev. have taken much pains with them, scraped, dug gentleman, several months since, to the return of and manured them, but they do not bear-many
apprentices in Massachusetts, which was as wild of them as I could wish, and indeed, I think so much in reference to the inaccuracy of the returns
as that spoken of in Kentucky. But it is not so much as they would, were there not some drawback, not well perceived and understood. I find to which we wish to ask attention, as to the cauthe well-scraped trunks and limbs covered with tion required in drawing conclusions from such
For innumerable little gnat-like or rather louse-like returns, even if they were strictly accurate. little things, whether animal or vegetable, I can
example, certain employments are deemed very not certainly say, but apparently the former. gion is drawn from the average age of those en
healthy, others very unhealthy, and this concluNow what I wish, and for what I write, is an explanation and an antidote from you or your cor- gaged in those employments, or from the average
Now respondents. Please answer, and oblige
age at which persons thus employed die. Northfield, N. H., 1855. A SUBSCRIBER.
this at first view seems a just comparison, but a little thought will show that it is extremely fallacious. Professional men, as ministers, lawyers,
and doctors, enter comparatively late into their J. H. Monroe, Esq., of Boston, informs us that business, and once entered remain through life. If common hard soap applied to the end of a re- they engage in some other employment, they still cently pruned grape vine, will effectually stop retain their profession, or so much of it that they the bleeding. Mr. Nourse, the proprietor of the are counted in the number. There are exceptions,
but they are comparatively few. Hence the average Farmer, has recently made trials of this remedy, is high. and fully confirms the statement of Mr. Monroe, Again, on the other hand, shoemaking, printand thinks sawing better than cutting, as it leaves ing, making clothes, and all the varied mechania rougher surface, to which the soap will adhere cal operations, are called hazardous because a more readily than to a smooth one. In case of
large proportion of those who die are young; but
it should be remembered that a large proportion accident, this remedy may enable us to save a of those thus engaged are young. Comparatively valuable plant.
TO PREVENT GRAPE VINES FROM BLEEDING.
very few learn a trade after they are 20 or 21 oxen, or mules, would be quite as economical on years old, and in this country very few continue a farm as elephants. But of this, I will leave to work at their trade after middle age. Look at the public to judge for itself, when I inform them the young shoemaker. From 21 to 30 he sticks that he eats three pecks of oats per day, and to the last and the awl, making an occasional about 200 lbs. of hay. The one I use is as docall among the farmer's daughters, and perchance cile as a cow, yet this is not always the case. getting a life lease of one of them. The heaven
Three pecks of oats and 200 lbs. of hay per born desire of a home which he can call his own day, would be sufficient for six borses. Will is gratified. A little land, a cow, a pig, a garden, Mr. Barnum be kind enough to give us the live claim his attention. Still the shop is not de- weight of the elephant, and the exact amount of serted. Soon a larger piece of land, lying very food consumed on an average ? near him, is for sale. It is added to his little homestead. He has now some plowing, haying and harvesting to do, and when Mr. A. is in a great haste for his boots, the weeds in his corn
HISTORY OF MEDFORD. have a holiday. Soon a little more land is bought,
We have examined some of the proof sheets a journeyman takes the shop, and at 40 the cen- of the “History of Medford,” the Rev. sus taker finds him in the field gathering, his Charles Brooks, now in press, and find that crops, and writes him farmer. If our young shoe- the volume is likely to prove to be both inmaker had lived in a village instead of on a structive and entertaining. The author seems farm, there would have been a front shop, which to have been most thorough in his researches and would by degrees receive articles from the market his work will be one of great value and interest. as well as from the back shop, and our shoemaker We intend from time to time to make a few short would become a shoe-dealer—a shoe-merchant extracts from the volume. The following account -a merchant. Thus, with slight variations, we of the Baldwin Apple” will be perused with inmight trace the history of thousands, who com- terest.–Transcript. menced business as mechanics or artizans, laboring with their hands, and at middle age become far- To Medford belongs the introduction of the mers, manufacturers, merchants, &c. But, on celebrated “Baldwin Apple.” The first tree, the other hand, who has known the farmer at 45 producing this delicious fruit, grew on the side become a shoemaker? A merchant at 40 become hill, within two rods of the former Woburn line, an artizan? Who has known a minister at 50, and about ten rods east of the present road which leave his desk and enter the work-shop of any leads from West Medford to the ancient boundary mechanic? No, it is not the way Providence has of Woburn. It was on the farm occupied by shaped our destinies.
Mr. Thompson, forty or fifty rods south of what The farmer is the long-lived man ; therefore used to be called the “black horse tavern." At every man desires to be a farmer, and to this end the request of Governor Brooks, the writer made shapes his plans and regulates his conduct. To a visit to that tree in 1813 and climbed it. It own a piece of land and cultivate that land, to was very old and partly decayed but bore fruit see the fruit grow and mature under his direc- abundantly. Around its trunk the woodpeckers tion, is a wish almost co-extensive with the race, bad drilled as many as five or six circles of holes, where man is free and the end within the limits not larger than a pea ; and, from this most visof human exertion. We would not say that all ible peculiarity, the apples were called “Woodemployments are alike conducive to long life. pecker Apples. By degrees their name was We do not believe they are. But we do say that shortened to Peckers; and, during my youth, the scale based on the average age of those living they were seldom called by any other name. or dying in any employment, is a most fallacious How they came by their present appellative is one, and leads us to most erroneous conclusions. this : Young Baldwin, of Woburn, afterwards a -Culturist & Gazette.
colonel, and father of Loami, was an intimate friend of young Thompson (afterwards Count
Rumford ;) and, as lovers of science, they asked PLOWING WITH AN ELEPHANT.
permission of Professor Winthrop to attend his P. T. Barnum informs the American Agricul- course of lectures in natural philosophy, at Harturist that he has been plowing with an elephant vard College. Twice each week, these two thirsty for about a week. He says :
and ambitious students walked from their homes He takes the subsoil plow and drives it down in Woburn to bring back with them from Cam16 to 21 inches, in a tight, hard sward, and bridge the teachings of the learned professor. moves sv fast and easily, that it is hard to realize One day, as they were passing by the Woodthat he has anything attached to him. He walks pecker Tree,” they stopped to contemplate the nearly twice as fast as n horse, and plows as cor- tempting red cheeks on those loaded boughs, and rectly as the best broken team in the world. His the result of such contemplations was the usual attendant sometimes rides him, and sometimes one-they took and tasted. Sudden and great walks (fast) by his side, while another man holds surprise was the consequence. They instantly the plow. He also draws carts, stone-boats,
exclaimed to each other that it was the finest (Urags) loads wood, piles timber, picks up stones, apple they ever tasted. Some years after this, and makes himselt“ generally useful about the Col. Baldwin took several scions to a public nurfarm.
sery, and from this circumstance they named the As for the profit of farming with elephants, I apple after him, which name it has since retained. have not takin that part into consideration, and In the gale of September, 1815, this parent tree probably shall not, though at a “rough guess,'
» fell; but very few parents have left behind so I should think, all things considered, horses, many flourishing and beloved children.
NAPOLEON AND URBANISTE PEAR. over this half a grain of strychnine ; it kills the NAPOLEON. — Rather large ; obtuse-pyriform;
rat before he can get to his nest. greenish pale-yellow, deeper in the sun, some
It would be wrong to let this statement pass, times a red tinge; stem rather short, rather stout,
in a journal like this, without cautioning the in a slight depression ; basin of moderate depth; much like flour, made from the seeds. of* a fruit
reader that strychnine is fine white powder, flesh whitish, coarse, melting, extremely juicy, of a sprightly, slight acid, delicious flavor. October which looks like an orange, growing on a modand November. Sometimes excellent, but rather erate-sized tree in the East Indies, in the island late and uncertain in this region, excepting in of. Ceylon and neighboring islands. A sixth of a
warm soil and loca- grain of pure strychnine will kill a dog in half a tions. Better furth- minute. One grain, which would easily lie on a er south. Does well three cent piece, or even less, may prove fatal to
Hence the reason for not mixing more on quince or pear. than half a grain at a time, and by putting it on -Ripen in a warm room. Foreign.
a chip or dirty board, it would not be likely that children would taste it, although the mixture with flour looks very much like white pulverized loaf sugar. As it is such a deadly and instantaneous poison no more than half a grain should be purchased at a time; it should not be allowed to pass out of the hands of the head of the family for a single moment. The mixture should be
placed in a room the last thing at night, the door URBANISTE.—(Dotted Outline.)
locked, the key put in the pocket, and removed Rather large; obovate, inclining
the first thing in the morning, by throwing chips to pyramidal; smooth, pale yel
and all into the fire, washing the hands well after low, gray dots, and a little russet;
doing so, as also after first mixing it, for a great stalk short, stout, a broad basin;
deal less than a grain would kill a man, if it calyx small, in a narrow cavity;
happened to fall on a sore or cut finger.—Hall's flesh white, melting, buttery, very
Journal of Health.
In the last volume of the Essex County Agrithe best. It resembles the White cultural Transactions, there is a capital article Doyenne, which has failed in
on this subject, by Dr. E. G. KELLEY, of Newburyport, which we read with a good deal of in
terest last fall, and intended long before this Wir
time to have placed portions of it before the reader. The portion which we now give below,
no doubt will prompt many farmers to plow a some sections. Cabot, after long experience, re- little deeper than they ever have before :' commends this as one of the surest and best for general culture. Long in coming into bearing on renders mulching and irrigation comparatively
It turns the drought itself to good account, and the pear stock. Flourishes double worked on the useless, or, if used, more efficacious. During & quince. Foreign.—Cole's Fruit Book.
dry spell and in trenched ground roots strike
deeper in search of food and moisture, become COCKROACH RIDDANCE.
more extensively ramified, and sooner find the
rich loam and manure intermingled deeply with The Scientific American says" Common red the soil. The leaching process, as it is called, wafers, scattered about the haunts of cockroaches, is reversed, and takes place upwards more than will often drive away if not destroy them." at any other time, or, in more scientific phrase,
These wafers, like candies, are colored red by capillary attraction is increased. As each partioxide of lead ; a most deadly poison, and so is cle of moisture is evaporated from the surface, it the acetate of lead, or sugar of lead, as it is some- is succeeded by another, and the whole soil is times called, on visiting cards, which being a lit- filled with the ascended moisture and gases, tle sweetish, has been known to destroy young which are appropriated by the numerous rootlets children to whom they were handed, to be amused as they have need. with. Fashion for once acts sensibly in discarding The wet season is also a blessing to the deep glazed cards, using instead Bristol board, more cultivator. The more rain, the more heat, ampliant, less cumbersome, and really more delicate. monia, carbonic acid, and other organic elements And while we are speaking of one of the pests of are left in the soil as it descends. As each drop housekeepers it may be well to know
filters through, it is succeeded by another, or by How to GET RID OF Rats, old, young, and mid-air, both essential to vegetation, and to dissolve, dle aged, with the shortest possible suffering to act on, or combine with, the inorganic elements them, and with small probability of their dying of the soil. As the water drains off, air is sure in their holes or other uncomeatable places. to follow, and this is the proper mode of its cir
Spread a level teaspoon of flour or cornmeal on culation. Each is also generally at a higher a chip or small piece of dirty board, sprinkle temperature than the undrained land, and the