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Thus the system went on spreading by degrees, family to have a party at the house. The nurseuntil there were seventy savings banks in England maid, in order to have enjoyment without being by the year 1817. The government then took up disturbed by a little girl who was entrusted to her the matter, in order that depositors should have care, and who would not remain in bed by herself, due security for their deposits; and under this determined upon frightening her into being quiet. protection the amount of money deposited in For this purpose she dressed up a figure, and placed savings banks has become so enormous, that it at the foot of the bed, and told the child that if were there not official vouchers for the fact, it she moved or cried the figure would take her away. would be almost incredible. On the 19th of No- When the lady returned, and went to the child's vember, 1839, there were in the savings banks of bed-room, she found the figure at the foot of the England alone, deposits to the amount of 19,246,221. bed, where it had been placed by the servant, and Now the reason why we mention this fact here is, her child with its eyes intently fixed upon it, but, that domestic servants are known to form a very to her inexpressible horror, quite dead ! large proportion of the depositors in these banks ; The influence of attachment and regard between and we have thus the best evidence of the growth mistress and servant has been so beautifully deof provident habits among this important class. It scribed by Mrs. Ellis, in her “Women of England," was stated in the "Household Year Book” for 1835, that we cannot do better than quote her words :that at that time there were, in the savings banks “ The situation of living unloved by their domestics of Devonshire, deposits from female servants alone is one which I should hope there are few women exceeding one hundred thousand pounds! Such capable of enduring with indifference. The cold statements as these are most cheering; for they attentions,rendered without affection, and curtailed show that while one class of philanthropists has by every allowable means—the short unqualified been aiding the religious and moral culture of ser- reply to every question, the averted look, the privants, another has been aiding to instil provident vilege stolen rather than solicited, the secret murhabits, without which success in life is impossible. mur that is able to make itself understood without
Moral Influence.- Is it necessary to prove that the use of words-all these are parts of a system of domestic servants exert great influence on society? behaviour that chills the very soul, and forces Is there a doubt that the well-being of society upon the mind the unwelcome conviction, that a would be advanced by the improvement of this stranger who partakes not in our common lot is important class. Let the head of every family within our domestic circle ; or that an alien who examine the mode in which this influence is exerted, enters not within the sphere of our home-assoand it will be found that religion, moral conduct, ciations, attends upon our social board. How difgeneral intelligence, and practical good sense, all ferent is the impression produced by a manner produce the most positive benefits, not only to the calculated both to win their confidence and inspire servants who possess them, but to the families of their respect! The kind welcome after absence, the employers. The faithful discharge of daily the watchful eye, the anticipation of every wish, duties—the honest care of property, whether of the thousand little attentions and acts of service large or small amount—the existence of faithful beyond what are noted in the bond,—who can attachment and confidence, superadded to the mere resist the influence of these upon the heart, and sale of personal service on the one part, and pur- not desire to pay them back-not certainly in their chase on the other,—all affect greatly the machinery own kind and measure, but in the only way they of social life. Besides this, the superintendance can be returned consistently with the relative duties of children, which often forms part of servants' of both parties in kindness and consideration ?" duties, makes them powerful instruments of good Instruction in their Duties.— With respect to reor evil. Whatever be the state of feeling in the ligious culture, less attention has been paid to serservant, it is liable to be mirrored in the child; if vants than to children, or cottagers. The exer moral probity be lax, the laxity becomes a con- tions of our Bible Societies, our Home Missions, tagion ; if coarse tastes and habits exist in the one, and of pious individuals, have as yet been directed they are likely to be communicated to the other. in a limited degree to the first-named class, and It is now well known how powerful an influence an have consequently produced but little fruit. We ignorant or superstitious servant may have on the are disposed to attribute this in a great degree to welfare of a child. The custom of repeating ghost- the peculiar position of servants. Inhabiting for stories, or of threatening the arrival of some mys- the most part respectable mansions, which cannot terious being if the child be not good, produces be visited without the consent of the principals, incalculable mischief. An affecting circumstanee servants are in a great measure cut off from interhas been related by Sir W. C. Ellis, medical super- course with the active agents of civilization; while intendant of Hanwell Lunatic Asylum, on this attendance at any institutions, or establishments subject. A lady had gone out to pay evening founded for their moral welfare, is equally devisit, at which she was expected to stay late. The pendent on the will of those whom they serve. If servants took advantage of the absence of the this be so, the truth forces itself on the mind, that
329 on the employers themselves rests the main respon- of religious, moral, and social duties of servants, sibility of their servants' moral culture. We do forms part of the legitimate care of the employers. not here allude to the mere permission to visit a No institutions, however admirable they may be, place of worship on Sundays; for the whole range will spread the effects of Christian civilization
M. CLERY, the faithful Servant of Louis XVI. From the popular French Picture by DANTOUX.
ainong servants, unless those who are served aid
in the attempt.
That the appreciation of this important truth is spreading, we sincerely and gladly believe, and
hail it as one of the instruments of social improvement. Several benevolent clergymen, also, have devoted a portion of their labours expressly to the class of society under consideration, by writing for, and disseminating among them, little works suited lofty style for the purpose of bringing her remarks to their station in life. Among these we may home to the feelings and understandings of her mention the name of the Rev. H. G. Watkins, the humble readers. The little books, under such Rector of St. Swithin's, London Stone. For a long titles as the “ IIouse-Maid," the “ Maid of Allseries of years this gentleman has supported and Work,” the “ Lady’s-Maid,” the “ Nursery-Maid,” advocated every plan which seems to lead to the &c., contain familiar directions on all subjects perimprovement of domestic servants. He has thought taining to these several occupations, interspersed it no loss of dignity (nor can it be so) to descend with maxims for general conduct. As an example from his standard as a scholar, and adapt his lan- of the mode in which the subjects are treated, we guage to the class whom he addressed. He has may make a short extract from the book addressed written, from time to time, nearly a hundred and to the “Maid of All-Work ;" in which, while speakfifty tracts, all addressed to domestic servants, and ing of the household operation of sweeping, the writer adapted to form three or four volumes of a
says, “ This sweeping-time is that which idle girls “ Kitchen Library.” These tracts consist not only choose for wasting in looking out of the window. of exhortations of a religious character, but of sound I rather think that ladies formerly indulged themand simple advice on almost every subject which selves in this practice much more than they do can tend to the welfare of servants. All the de- now. If they did, they could not reasonably comnominations of the Christian world contain minis- plain of their maids for doing the same thing. But ters who have laboured, and are labouring, in the the truth is, it is a bad practice for everybody; and same good path ; and if we pass them over un- no one whose heart is in her business (as every named it is only from want of space.
woman's ought to be, whether her business is of As the general welfare of servants is much in- one sort or another) will ever be seen staring into jured by frequent change from place to place, it the street. No girl of good manners will choose has been thought that any mode by which perma- to be seen at an up-stairs window, flapping her nency of situation could be induced, would be a duster for a pretence, while her eyes are wandering source of benefit. To work out such a plan is one up and down the street, seeing at what doors the of the objects of the society mentioned a page or postman is leaving his letters, and how long people two back, viz., the “ London Society, for the im- are in answering the baker's knock, and what sorts provement and encouragement of female servants." of joints and chops are going on the butcher's tray The subscribers, who are mostly heads of families, to the houses in the neighbourhood. I have obare allowed, as a return for the sum subscribed served that servants who look out of upper windows by them, to register one or more of their servants when they ought to be sweeping, rarely seem to be in the books of the society; and these servants of the most respectable class. They usually have receive from the society an annual gratuity accord- a staring or dirty cap, or a gown patched with ing to the length of time that they have remained pieces of a different pattern, or torn and not mended with unimpeached characters in one situation. For at all ; and their faces are not brisk and cheerful, instance, after having been two years in service, but listless and dull.” since the nomination on the society's books, they We cannot, while alluding to books written for receive one guinea each ; at the end of the third the benefit of servants, avoid mention of the importyear, a guinea and a half, and every year after that ant fact, that women generally, in their social potwo guineas, as long as they remain in the same sition and social duties, are becoming more and situation, together with an additional guinea every more the objects of careful study. Several works, seventh year. In the year ending at April last, similar in their broad outlines to that of Mrs. Ellis, the society had distributed more than five hundred referred to in a former page, have been written by pounds in this way; and it is pleasing to see, among ladies, within the last few years, on these importthe objects of their liberality, the names of females ant subjects ; and in all of these many valuable who have lived in the same situation 20, 24, 28, 36, reflections and observations will be found on the and even as many as 40 years ; every one of whom influence, the duties, and the improvement of has also received a Bible from the society.
servants. The plan just spoken of is to give a kind of pre- There are unhappily some persons who, as if mium for good behaviour. There are other places influenced by the circumstance that "servat," from which have for their object the instruction of ser- which “servant” is derived, was, among the Rovants in their domestic duties. This can hardly mans, a "slave"—think that servants are an infebe done by institutions or societies, but may be rior order of beings, and never dream of showing effected in a considerable degree by familiarly. respect toward them. But this is a sad mistake, written books. Among such we may mention the and must be eradicated before the fruits of civili“ Guides to Service,” now in course of publication. zation can be fully enjoyed. In France, notwithMany of these, although the circumstance is not standing the volatility of the people, there is a
nentioned on the title-pages, are written by a lady strong tendency to treat faithful servants with of distinguished reputation, who has laid aside all respect and esteem. M. Cléry, who was valet-de
COMMERCE OF INDIA.
331 chambre to the unfortunate Louis XVI., earned, bounded prosperity fail to excite general envy, by his fidelity and attachment to his master too? Naturally and necessarily were other comthroughout his troubles, the respect of all classes.munities incited to sue for some share in her allDuring the indignities which were shown to Louis enriching trade. But how could this be secured ! and his family just before their execution, Cléry Hitherto, the great routes for the transference of never swerved from the path of an attached and Indian produce lay along the Red Sea, the Euphradevoted servant; and long afterwards he suffered tes, or the Caspian. The principal intermediate greatly on their account. The consequence is, that marts were Alexandria, St. Jean d'Acre, or Conhis name has become a symbol for all that is honour- stantinople. Over these emporia Venice had able and faithful in a servant,--not because the acquired an almost unlimited command. What, master whom he served was a king,—but because then, was to be done? Why, there seemed no that master, throughout a scene of miseries almost alternative but to attempt to establish some new unequalled in modern times, never lost the un- line of communication with India. To compass bounded and untiring attentions of his servant. this end a hundred schemes were now propounded, Such conduct is remembered long after the circum: entertained, and forsaken in swift and bewildering stances which gave rise to it have passed away; and succession. Traveller after traveller issued forth the name of Cléry receives in France a share of to reconnoitre and survey the avenues to the that honour and respect which is awarded to the eastern world. And the marvellous reports cargood and great.
ried back and circulated by some of them on their return, tended still more to inflame the rage for discovery by sea and land.
This new spirit of discovery-affecting alike COMMERCE OF INDIA.
prince and peasant, merchant and mariner-found, The steady advancement of general society in about the beginning of the fifteenth century, its the West created an extending demand for the most chivalrous head and champion in Henry of varied products of the East ; but such increasing Portugal. Deeply imbued with the characteristio demand could no longer be supplied by the pre- zealotism of his age, and eminently distinguished carious importations of disabled warriors, or wan
for those attainments in general science which dering pilgrims from the Holy Land. There must enabled him at once to project and superintend the now be some regular European channel of com- most daring enterprizes, he summoned around him munication with the East. And where could all the most skilful and adventurous spirits in such channel, with a view to the best local and Christendom. The grand object of his ambition maritime advantages, be more appropriately was, to find out some new passage to India, that opened than in the central peninsula of Italy? might supersede all the old routes already preHence the rise of Genoa, Venice, and other cities occupied. To the prosecution of this object he which strove for the trident, that might command unweariedly devoted the labour of his life, and on an exclusive monopoly of eastern trade. At length it prodigally lavished the resources of his kingVenice out-peered all her rivals. And was not dom ; and, though he lived not to witness its the historic law, expressive of the aggrandising his commanders along the coast of Africa encou
accomplishment, the valuable discoveries made by influence of Indian commerce, true to itself ! How was it that Venice, poor and mean, feeble raged his successors to follow with unabated ardour and obscure, came to sit in state, throned on her in his romantic career. hundred isles, a ruler of the waters and their
It was to the furtherance of the same design powers? How came she, with her proud tiara of that the celebrated Columbus dedicated his life. proud battlements, to have so many a subject-land The desire of discovering a new passage to India looking to her winged lion's marble piles? How supplied the ruling motive : an implicit belief in came she to be robed in purple, and so luxuriously
a geographical error chalked out his course. By magnificent that of
studying, as we are credibly informed, Aristotle's Her feast
description of the world, and the tables of Ptolemy Monarchs partook, and deem'd their dignity increased ? who extends the eastern parts of the continent of It was, to draw still from the same poetic but Asia so enormously as to bring it almost round to unhappy genius,—it was, because the exhaustless the western parts of Europe and Africa, he very East had
properly concluded (supposing their descriptions Pour'd into her lap all gems in sparkling showers.
to be correct, and they were then universally re
ceived as such) that instead of a long and tedious When the monopoly of Indian and other eastern voyage round the extremity of Africa, a much commerce had made Venice thus to start, as by shorter passage to India might be made by sailing the wand of enchantment, in beauty and bright directly west from Europe. In undoubting conness, from the bosom of the Adriatic, challenging fidence as to the practicability of this scheme, he the admiration of Eurospez-how could her un eventually did set sail to the West, and stumbled unexpectedly on those islands which he fondly spectator. The spirit of industry and improvement, concluded to be the long-wished for land of pro- already partially awakened, received from the mise, and which, from that erroneous impression, long and peaceful reign of Elizabeth an accelewere designated, and still bear the name of the rated impetus, which opened for itself outlets from West Indies.
Spitzbergen to the Canary Isles, in the old world, At length the perseverance of the Portuguese -and from Newfoundland to Brazil, in the new. monarchs overcame all difficulties. In 1486, Diaz In the case of a nation thus predisposed for marireached the most southern extremity of Africa, time discovery and bold enterprize, the early brilgiving it the significant appellation of “The Cape liant successes of the Portuguese were enough to of Storms ;” a name which his sovereign, over- set all into ferment and combustion, inflaming at joyed at the good hope which it held out of once the cupidity and the fancy of a mercantile ultimate success, changed it into the more auspi. and imaginative people. Over the trade of India cious one of “ The Cape of Good Hope.”
all history and tradition had united in throwing * In 1498 Vasco de Gama doubled the Cape, and the glare of a strange and undefined magnificence. made good his landing at Calicut, the principal And all, from the monarch on the throne down to city on the Malabar or western shore of the Indian the humblest citizen, were now suddenly seized peninsula.
with a new and unwonted ardour,-a restless, Next to the voyage which terminated in the boundless, insatiable ambition to share in the discovery of the American continent—if second gorgeous commerce of diamonds and pearls, emeven to that in its influence over the destinies of broideries and perfume. man-this was, beyond all debate, the most import- But how could this be obtained ? From priority ant one that had ever been accomplished since the of discovery and settlement, the Portuguese world began. Of its successful issue, it has, with claimed an exclusive right to the passage of the out the slightest exaggeration, been remarked, Cape, and were determined, by an appeal to arms, that it effected a complete revolution in the com- to vindicate and enforce their pretended claim. merce and policy of all civilized nations. The What, then, was to be done ? Proclaim war doom of Venice and other flourishing cities was at against Portugal? No. England was not then once sealed : the trade of India, being now diverted prepared to provoke and defy so formidable a foe. into a new channel, all their power and glory evan- What then? Abandon the pursuit of the golden ished along with it ; and as these fell the new prize? No. The spirit that had been raised was monopolist cities and nations must rise.
not partial, local, or isolated : it was not the movGama's safe return to Lisbon was hailed as ing pulse of an individual or of a company; it was the harbinger of a new and glorious era. The city not the animating breath of one particular rank rung with transports of joy. The inhabitants con- or class. It pervaded all classes, all ranks, and cluded that the rich commerce of India and the all districts of the land. It had been so cherished East was now secured to them, and proposed nothing and fed, that no obstructions could arrest its flow, less than to become immediately the first commercial and no blighting disappointments extinguish its and maritime power in the world. And to crown all vitality. Pent up for a season, it only gathered with the inviolable sanction and ratification of fresh materials for ignition and explosion. ImpaHeaven itself, a bull from “God's vicegerent” con- tient of control, it at last broke forth. Is it asked ferred on the Portuguese monarch the proud title in what direction? Let the narration of the wonof “ Lord of the Navigation, Conquests, and Trade drous series of voyages that figure so conspicuously of Ethiopia, Arabia, Persia, and India.”
in the annals of the sixteenth century furnish the So long as Lisbon enjoyed the exclusive mono- reply-voyages which all must have read with poly of Indian commerce, she sat as queen among the thrilling interest of romance-voyages which the cities of the nations; but her days of glory added more to our knowledge of the surface of the were numbered too. One century had scarcely globe than all that have since been undertakenrun its course, when the emporium of eastern voyages which threw fresh lustre round the name trade was transferred from Lisbon to Amsterdam. of Britain, and helped to train and discipline her Forthwith the law of co-existent prosperity came sons for afterwards wielding the sceptre of the into full operation. The former sank in propor- ocean! For what was the leading and the most protion as the latter rose. When Portugal might minent object of them all ? Is it not memorablealmost be blotted out from the map of independ is it not worthy of everlasting remembrance, that ent sovereignties, Holland was enabled to assume they all had for their grand and almost exclusive object the rank of a first-rate power in the balance of the discovery of some new passage to India — some Europe.
new channel through which the stream of wealth Meanwhile, that nation which was destined one from that never failing fountain might, without day to reap the largest harvest of fruit from India, let or hindrance from the crown of Portugal, flow and destined also, we trust, to confer the largest in direct upon the British Isles ? amount of benefit in return, was no unconcerned. Why, in the time of Henry VIII., (1527) were