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would be devised. Grievances British Government, which had would spring up against the brought about such a state of controlling power when they things, tend to soften this discovered that they could not hostility. Every man in South do exactly as they wished in Africa would feel that England matters of taxation, of the main- was not the sort of comrade tenance of armed forces, and of to choose

bear - hunt. the treatment of native races. The union of interests might The necessity as a matter of take place, but it would be justice to the British nation union antagonistic to the and the loyal colonists of im- sovereign country. As to the posing on the Republics some character of the Government portion of the cost of the war which would be formed by would afford an immediate an electorate composed of Uitground of common complaint. landers and Boers, it is not The mining interest would have possible to speak with certainty. to bear the chief burden of the If it was given a broad popular indemnity, for the simple reason basis, without a pretty high that none other could support qualification in property and more than a very small pro- education, it is open to doubt portion of the charge. Although whether it would be conspicuous the new taxation might be much for honesty and enlightenment, lighter, and at the same time or would be in any appreciable more remunerative, to the State degree superior to that which than the taxes imposed by it had replaced. Kruger, in process of time the It will be suggested, perhaps, appropriation for the payment that many of these objections of English debt of a large sum may be removed by separating from the Transvaal

the mining districts from the would become intolerable, and Transvaal, and throwing them a union against England would into Natal. There would perbe the result. The payment of haps be no insuperable difficulty this money, and also in all pro- in carrying this out, although bability of a considerable sum the configuration of the country towards the maintenance of a does not favour it. The Republic large military force in South would then be almost purely Africa, would have to be made Dutch, and if left to itself it a condition, failing which the would still remain as a home independence of the State would for Afrikander intrigue and disnot be guaranteed by Great loyalty-less powerful for evil, Britain. It would soon become indeed, because less wealthy. a burning question, and an But the poverty imposed upon agitation in which both parties it would bring troubles of its would unite would follow. In own. The Republic could not a few years the reformed Re- pay for an efficient administrapublics would be as hostile to tion, and it would soon be in British supremacy as Kruger as great financial straits as and Steyn's oligarchies. Nor was the Transvaal prior to the would the weakness of the annexation of 1881. There



would, moreover, be serious dence. What is demanded by difficulty in providing for the the British nation and their present Transvaal debt, which brethren and fellow-subjects in could only be overcome by Eng- South Africa and all over the land making herself responsible world is a permanent settlefor it.

ment of the contest between Lastly, there is this very great Boer and Briton for supremacy. objection to the plan that is It is necessary to assert that being discussed, that it would this is no new question. It was be altogether repugnant to the not born of the grievances of the feelings of our loyal fellow-sub- Uitlanders, or created by the jects in Natal and the Cape. Jameson Raid, which has been To see their enemies reinstated made responsible for so many and placed in a position, however things, from the hatred of everymodified, which would enable thing English by the Dutch them again to become a trouble and the armament of the to the commonwealth of South Republics to the ineptitude of Africa; to know that their our own Ministers. blood and money had been Mr James Anthony Froude squandered to enable Great visited the Cape at the time of Britain to make this weak com- Sir Charles Warren's expedition promise, - would be a cruel blow turn the Boers out of to our friends and allies. We Bechuanaland. He did not shall be told that their feelings approve of the expedition. He have nothing to do with it; condemned it as not only unthat they have no right to necessary, but as likely to lead nourish hatred and envy and to a bitter war. It was true all the rest; that it is a mere that the Boers had entered sentimental objection, and the Bechuanaland in contravention like. That is altogether to of their engagements. It was mistake the position. They true that we had made prohave fought for British su- vision in the Convention for premacy and for a final settle- the protection of the native ment of the rivalry between chiefs who had been our allies, Dutch and British, without and were now threatened by which life in South Africa to the Boers. the British subject is a burden. If they have helped us to gain “or thought we could not, leave them

“ We could not,” wrote Mr Froude, the victory, surely they have a without taking security for them right to make their voice heard and their territories. I think it in the settlement of the terms of would have been better, though it

might have seemed unhandsome, to peace.

have fallen back on the principle So far we have been occupied which had worked so well while it in clearing the way by showing lasted of the Orange River Treaty, the impracticable and in- and had resolved to meddle no more sufficient character of any plan and these tribes."

in the disputes between the Boers which would leave the Republics either as they have been, or in Mr Froude went about Cape any modified form of indepen- Town proclaiming these opin

66 All

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ions, and was pleased to find the opinion of an eminent colonmany of the Cape politicians in ist allied to both races.

“If we agreement with his views. But meant to retain our position in not all.

South Africa we had no alter“I called on one man,” he

native.” “ South Africa cansays,

“ of great eminence, unconnected politi- not stand alone, and can never cally with party, yet intensely col. be so free under any other sovonial, and related personally both to ereignty as the English. Dutch and English, whom I found to

was now changed.

The Cape my surprise not only approving of Sir Charles Warren's expedition, but English know that they are professing to believe that if we meant not to be deserted. The Dutch to retain our position in South Africa —the sensible part of themwe had no alternative. This gentle will acquiesce when they see man said, that after our surrender that we are in earnest." There to the Transvaal, it had been taken for granted that we were weary of is the whole question in a few South Africa, and had intended to lines as it was nearly twenty retire altogether. The future had years ago, and as it is now. been a blank, on which no one had We have no alternative: we dared to calculate. They were to be a Republic. They were to be under must dispose once for all of the protection of Germany; anything this question of Dutch suprewas possible.

The English in the macy. If we cannot settle it, colony had lost heart; some were pre- we must go. paring to leave the country ; others, who could not leave, were making

We maintain, therefore, that terms with the winning party. He the only course open to the for one, whose home was at the Cape, Government of Great Britain had been depressed and disheartened. is the third course. The Dutch South Africa, he was convinced, could not stand alone, and could never be republics in any form or shape so free under any other sovereignty must cease to exist, and the as it had been under the English whole of South Africa must Crown. Till the last few months, be welded together into one and until the resolution of the Eng; empire, subdivided into separlish Government was known, he had looked at the prospect with dismay. ate provinces, under the supreme All was now changed. The Cape government of the Queen. An English knew they were not to be impartial examination of all deserted. The Dutch-the sensible

our mistakes and misfortunes part of them-would acquiesce when

in South Africa will show they saw that we were in earnest."

that they are

due to the This quotation from Mr absence of such a government. Froude is given because it ex- There has been government of presses, as we think, the views a sort in the Cape Colony, of

, held by the English colonists in another kind in Natal, and of South Africa then and at the still other and more abnormal present time. It was written varieties in the protectorates long before

before the Uitlanders' and in the territories of the grievances or the capitalists were Chartered Company. But there heard of, when the Transvaal has been no local embodiment

a purely pastoral State of her Majesty's rule, with It was recorded, by a man who power to control the different strongly favoured the Boers, as parts, to regulate their relations,


to maintain peace within the than any other in modern borders, and to afford protec- times, has been content to tion against enemies from with- allow everything in South out.

Africa to be left to chance. If there had been any such The consequence is confusion power in South Africa at all and entanglement past underapproaching in efficiency to the standing. The Cape is a selfGovernment of India, for ex- governing colony and so is ample, it would have been im- Natal, both having Governors possible for a number of foolish appointed by the Crown, Legisand ill-controlled officers to or- lative Councils, in the . Cape ganise on British territory an elected, in Natal nominated by attack against a friendly State. the Governor in Council, and If there had been such a Gov- Legislative Houses or Assemernment, we should not have blies, in both cases elected. been caught in October last in a There is what is called “restate not only of unpreparedness sponsible Government” in both but of positive blindness. We colonies—that is to say, the should not have been ignorant Ministers are responsible to the not only of the armament and Colonial Legislature. The Govnumbers of the enemy, but even ernor of the Cape Colony is of the configuration of those also “ High Commissioner for parts of our own territory which, South Africa and protector of it was well known, would be, in native tribes.” What are his the first period at least, the nominal powers as High Comfield of

We should missioner, it is not easy to find not have collected large quan- out. They do not appear to tities of warlike stores in a be clearly defined. But, whatplace like Ladysmith. We ever they may be, he has no should not have permitted the authority or force at his comBoers to be furnished with mand to make them effectual. arms and ammunition through He may be able to advise the British ports and by British Colonial Governments, and to railways. We should not have make reports to the Secretary permitted the Minister of for the Colonies and seek British colony to sympathise his orders. openly with our enemies, and mander-in-chief dispose of any to obstruct, or at any rate to of her Majesty's troops that omit, all precautions for the may be within his jurisdiction protection of British territory. as Governor of the Cape. He We should not have allowed does not seem

to have any him to make a piteous appeal power of the kind in Natal, to the Queen's enemies to where the Governor of that refrain from invading her colony is also commander-interritory.

chief. Basutoland and BechuHitherto this nation, which analand are practically reserves boasts of having more experi- for the native tribes, and are ence and success in administer- under the direct control of the ing colonies and dependencies High Commissioner, who can



He can



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legislate for them by proclam- act in unison. The High Comation, and is represented by missioner,

missioner, who may know what local officials who govern un- ought to be done, is hampered der his authority. Lastly at every turn by the selfcomes the enormous territory of governing power of the Cape Rhodesia, the administration Colony, from which and through of which left to the which he must act.

The Cape British South African Com- Colony is a a self - governing pany, who were empowered to colony, and has a responsible administer it and to legislate Government. If he wishes to for it. It is true that after move the colonial forces, he the Jameson Raid the control must persuade the Ministers of the police and the adminis- and get their consent. If he tration of justice were taken requires the use of the State over by the Crown; but other railways for Imperial purposes, parts of the administration he may be baulked by the were left in the hands of the official who has control of company. From a jumble of them, and is not under his this kind, what but trouble and orders. He


foresee eonfusion can be expected ? You hostile invasion of the colony, cannot toss together a number which is supposed to be part of of differently constituted States her Majesty's dominions, and inhabited by various races with he may be unable to provide discordant interests, and hope against it because the Ministers, that, like the bits of glass in a forsooth, think it inexpedient kaleidoscope, they will group to use colonial forces for such a themselves into a harmonious purpose. If his policy, dictated and well - proportioned whole. by Imperial reasons, is adverse The extraordinary nature of to the sentiments of the mathe situation becomes more jority of the colonial Legislative apparent when the geographi- Assembly, he may be thwarted cal position of the Cape Colony at every point. He may know and the existence of two prac- that the enemy is being supplied tically foreign and hostile with arms through the colonial States in the midst of British ports, and he cannot issue an territory are added to the order to stop the importation picture. The whole country, without the Ministers' consent. British colonies and Dutch While a Dutch Republic is States, are closely con- threatening England with war, nected by position, that what the first Minister of the selfaffects the must affect governing colony may be loudly the others. It is not possible proclaiming the intention of the to treat them as distinct coun- Colonial Government to maintries with nothing but diplo- tain an attitude of neutrality, matic relations with each other, and whining to the enemy for Yet we have hitherto endeav- consideration. oured so to treat them. There Similar difficulties and obis no power on the spot to hold structions must confront the them together or make them High Commissioner when in

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