Page images

lized the country. Their influence, at first commingled, formed a cento of Italian and of Belgian art. It need scarcely be said that this was tasteless; but it pleased the Spaniards of the period. Whilst in Germany, the Flemings impressed the pupils of the native schools with the desire to imitate and rival them; here they came in person and painted for the Spaniards, who, in themselves, remained almost incapable of receiving an impression. The struggles of the Moors, and the constant state of war in which the country had remained for years, are grounds sufficient for this backwardness of Spain, since the selfsame causes are the sole excuse for the cruelties of Alva and the horrors of the Inquisition. We see the pictures of a Van Eyck, a Cristus, Jan de Flandes, Juan Flamenco, and Juan de Borgogna, sought for and admired; but the Spaniards only followed art themselves a little later with effect; and, even when they did, their efforts were but feeble. Lodovico Dalmäu is the first who has left his name. It figures on a picture in St. Michael of Barcelona. The Virgin was by him depicted sitting on a throne, holding in her arms the Infant Christ, and adored by civic magistrates in their robes of state. “Sub. anno IICCCCXLV. per Ludovicum Dalmäu fui depictum,” is the signature on this panel. Who was Dalmäu ? Where did he start from ? The records of Barcelona may conceal some facts respecting him; but at present we have nothing but this picture to inform us of the life and the existence of a painter who appears to have studied in the workshop of Van Eyck. The “Madonna” and the “Infant” prove it by their Flemish type; and the portraits of the magistrates by their likeness to the same class of persons in the Flemish panels of the period. The paintings, further, are in oil.

Gallegos was a Spaniard, who followed Van der Weyden and Memling's manner rather than Wan Eyck's. His Madonna in the chapel of St. Clement, of Salamanca, is completely in the Flemish manner; and so are other pictures. Jacopo da Valencia follows next in order, and appears to us as an example of the mixture of Flemish and Italian styles. Jacopo first went to Venice, where he was impressed and formed his manner by that of the Bellini; but his landscapes were completely Flemish, as may easily be seen by his pictures at Venice and Berlin. These are painted in distemper; but, no doubt, he was acquainted with the later method; for the crowded little groups that fill his distances are imitated from the style of Memling. He painted between 1450 and 1500.

Dalmäu, Gallegos, and Jacopo da Valencia are the best painters of this time in the country; but there are others of less note, on whom the Flemings left their mark. There are fourteen panels in St. Iago of Toledo, painted in 1498, by Juan de Segovia, Pedro Gumiel, and Sancho de Zamora, in which the faces are inanimate, the eyes black, and the colour dead, as in the worst specimens of the Belgian painters."

* “Hizose este retablo, por mandato de Doña Maria di Luna, hija de Don Alvaro y Doña Juana; y trabajaron en él los artistas Juan de Segovia, Pedro Gumiel y Sancho de Zamora, segun consta de la escritura otorgada en Manganares en 1498; recibiendo por

Pedro da Cordova was the author of an altar-piece in the cathedral of Cordova, which bears the date of 1475. The donor was the canon Diego Sanchez de Castro, as appears from the picture's signature. The subject is the “ Annunciation and various Saints ;” the style, an inspiration from that of Petrus Cristus. Pedro Nuñez was the painter of a Deposition from the Cross, in the chapel of Santa Anna, of the cathedral of Seville, in which we note a similar exaggeration of the Flemish manner.

There are numerous pictures besides those produced by the above-named artists, in which the mingling of Italian and Flemish characteristics is discovered ; as, for instance, Scenes from the New Testament, in the chapel of St. Eugenio at Toledo. These paintings are attributed to Juan de Borgogna—but in error. Juan de Borgogna, who is not to be confounded with Juan Flamenco, painted in the Sala Capitularia of Toledo, the stalls of which are by Cupin d'Olanda. His pictures are in fresco, and represent the history of the Virgin Mary. He is known to have received for them, in 1511, 165,000 maravedis. In him we merely see the effort to produce an imitation of the style of the great Italian masters. Sometimes his memory is with Ghirlandaio, sometimes with Perugino ; but he does not much recall to mind the manner of the Flemings.

The art in Spain in the fifteenth century thus appears to have had no character of its own, but to have followed the bent of whatever school was nearest to it. Spain could boast, in the sixteenth century, of only two men, both exaggerated in their way–Bosco, who made the

su trabajo la cantidad de ciento cinco mil maravedis.”—Don José Amador de Los Rios, Toledo pintoresca, 4o. Madrid, 1845, p. 58.

Flemish manner ridiculous; and Berruguete, who is an artist of mannerism. The glory of Spain is its modern school.

The Flemish art-invasion seems to have spread, not only into Spain, but into Portugal. We find the following Flemish artists there in the fifteenth century :Master Huet, in 1430; Guillaume Belles, in 1448; Jean Anne, in 1454 ; Gil Eannes, in 1465; Jean, in 1485 ; Christopher of Utrecht, in 1492 ; Antony of Holland, in 1496 ; and Oliver of Ghent, in 1496.

A petition, addressed to the king of Portugal, by Garcia Henriquez, a painter, states, that in 1518, his father-inlaw, Francis Henriquez, was commissioned by King Emmanuel to decorate the court of justice; but that he died of the plague, as well as seven or eight whom he sent for from Flanders.?

Jean Eemaire, a bad French poet of the sixteenth century, was chosen laureate, by Margaret of Austria; he took for his theme one day the painters of the Netherlands, and broke forth in the following halting rhymes (Margaret's crown is being carved) :

“L'ofêvre allant vers son ouvroir très riche,

Plusieurs amis le vindrent assiéger,
Qui tous ont bruit oultre Espagne et Austriche,
Si vont priant Mérite n'estre chiche
De leur conter, dont il vient si leger.
Alors Mérite estant en leur danger
Ne peut fuyr, que tout ne leur desploye,
Car l'un d'iceux estoit maitre Rogier,
L'aultre Fouquet, en ce qui tout loz s'employe.

See Raczinsky, Les Arts en Portugal, 8°. Paris, 1846.

Hugues de Gand, qui tant eut les tretz netz,
Y fut aussi, et Dieric de Louvain
Avec le roi des peintres Johannes,
Duquel les faits parfaits et mignonnetz
Ne tomberont jamais en oubli vain,
Ni si je fusse un peu bon escripvain,
De Marmion, prince d'enluminure,
Dont le nom croist comme paste en levain,
Par les effects de sa noble tournure.
Il y survint de Bruges Maistre Hans,
Et de Francfort, Maistre Hugues Martin,
Tous deux ouvriers tres chers et triomphans
Puis de peintre autres nobles enfans,
D'Amyens Nicole, ayant bruit argentin,
Et de Tournay, plein d'engin celestin
Maistre Loys dont tout discret fut l'oeil ;
Et cil, qu'on prise ou soir, et ou matin,
Faisans patrons, Baudouyn de Bailleul.
Encore y fut Jaques Lombard de Mons,
Accompagné de bon Lievin d'Anvers,
Trestons lesquels, autant nous estimons,
Que les anciens, jadis par longs sermons,
Firent Parrhase et maints autres divers,
Honneur les loge en ses palais couvere."

All these painters the poet supposes to be present whilst the goldsmith, in whose place they congregate, is forging the Margaritic crown. He proceeds :

....... “Lors un Vallencenois,
Gilles Steclin, ouvrier fort autentique,
Luy dit aussi, Maistre, tu me cognois.”

Merit here passes an eulogium on Steclin, and gives him the crown to work. The poem then proceeds :

“ Mais s'il convient, pour entente plus meure,

Prier ton père aussi qu'il y besongne,
Car chacun sait la main fort prompte et seure
De Hans Stéclin, qui fut né à Coulogne."

« ՆախորդըՇարունակել »