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warmth of the under soil is therefore relatively

For the New England Farmer. increased. The farmer often objects to this

ARABIAN HORSE "IMAUM.” waste of water, and would retain it for a dry time! The trenched and porous soil holds water

The Arabian horse "Imaum,” or, as is somelike a sponge, notwithstanding the drainage. It times called, “the Pingree Arabian," was shipped retains or can command enough for the wants of to this country in the year 1842, by Hon. Richvegetation. But let us see the operation on the ard P. Waters, then United States consul at the undrained land.

The farmer often speaks of his “cold wet land.” island of Zanzibar, a portion of the dominions of No variety of soil, in any location, is, of itself, the sultan of Muscat. About three years since, colder than another. The very water which the writer of this communication called on Mr. trenching, draining, &c., allow to pass off after Waters, at Salem, Mass., to learn about this imparting its virtues to the soil, if retained on or horse, and certain of his progeny bred in that near the surface by hard impervious sub-soil, becomes itself, by its changes, the source of the vicinity. Mr. Waters informed him that it was coldness complained of. Instead of running off, an annual custom with the sultan to spend a few it evaporates, and by this process abstracts a months at the above-named island, having with great quantity of heat from the soil and surround him a numerous stud of the best bred Arabian ing atmosphere.

The evaporation of a pound horses ; that the sultan, desirous of showing his of water requires about 1000 degrees of heat ; some authors stating it less and others more.

Or regard for David Pingree, Esq., of Salem, reit reduces 100 pounds of air 45°. This is revers- quested Mr. Waters to select a horse from said ing the experiment of Prof. Johnson, in Espy's stud, numbering over one hundred horses, and Book of Storms,” where he says, “a pound of ship him to Mr. Pingree, which request was acvapor” condensed to water "would heat 100 pounds of air about 45°." The ground to a con

cordingly complied with, the horse arriving siderable depth is warmer, by many degrees, safely at Salem, though subjected to a boisterous where the rain is drained off, instead of being al- and severe passage. Through the politeness of lowed to accumulate and evaporate. Hence this Mr. Waters, the writer was also enabled to see enormous loss of an invaluable stimulus to vege- several promising colts in the vicinity of Salem, tation. This chilling and deadly process of evaporation

begotten by “Imaum," and, among others, the is going on to excess from the time frost comes

fine young horse “Tartar,” an engraving and out of the ground in the spring, till freezing agiin notice of which horse may be found in the New occurs. At this period, the undrained land, hav- England Farmer, Vol. 4, page 467. ing the most water to freeze, becomes the warm- "Imaum” has recently been purchased by est, say in December, when of no value to vege- Messrs. S. M. & A. F. Wait, of Brattleboro', for tation, but rather an injury. For once, forsooth. the undrained land is warmer than the drained the improvement of the breed of horses in this But for this excess of heat in winter, this kind of quarter. This horse possesses, in much perfecland must pay dearly in early spring: Ilow is tion, the symmetrical proportions and desirable all this? inquires the farmer. Simply because qualities so peculiar to the Arabian blood of water, in congealing to either ice or snow, has

horses. its capacity for hent lessened about one-ninth,

Height about fifteen hands; head as and this excess is given off to surrounding bodies; perfect as could be desired, closely resembling the or, in other words, its latent heat is set free. On engraved head of the Arabian, on the title-page the other hand, ice, or frost as it is called in the of Youatt's Treatise on the Horse ; neck arching, ground, in melting, demands back this same heat, and handsomely joined to the chest; withers at the rate of from one-eighth to one-ninth of

10009 for every pound melted ; and under the bigh; shoulders well inclined backwards ; legs surface it does not obtain all this directly from sinewy and firmly knit, the tendons standing out the sun, but through the soil ; therefore the more prominently from the bone, and the knee and water the colder and longer cold will be the land hock joints dropped quite low. He has an elastic in spring. Now let the agriculturist go to work step, and a pleasing air and style in every moveand make this “cold, wet, heavy land” of his,

ment. the very best he has for any product, trees vegetables, grains, or grasses.

It is well known that the Arabian blood is the foundation of the great improvement made in the

breed of horses in Great Britain and several TO DESTROY CATERPILLARS.

others of the States of Europe. Particularly Mr. EDITOR :-To kill caterpillars, take a small have the English breeders cffected an astonishing sponge, tie it to the end of a pole, dip it in spirits improvement in their horses by crossing them of turpentine, thrust it into the middle of the with the Arabian; and now, the pedigree of an nest, turning it well in the hand, so that the English horse must trace back to a cross with spirits may touch each individual. I have al- the pure Eastern blood, to entitle him to the ways found this a safe, speedy and effectual mode of disposing of this troublesome pest. I send it name of a thorough-bred : and it is universally to you not because it is new, but because I deem conceded that the endurance and speed of their it worthy of always being kept before the peo- horses has been very much increased by the ple. Respectfully,


For the New England Farmer.


crossing Newtonville.

C. C. S.

An opportunity is now presented to the far- be ready to contribute their part to support good mers and breeders in this section, to mingle the government and to carry forward every

laudable pure Arabian blood with that of our Morgan

enterprise. There are often measures demanded horses ; and it need not perhaps be doubted that dollars in your purse, and yet they are important

by the public good that do not immediately put desirable results will be realized from such a and necessary measures. They conduce to your cross; that the height of the Morgan may be comfort. They contribute to the despatch of somewhat increased thereby, something may be business. They facilitate intercourse, they tend added in symmetry and elegance of figure, in to ornament the village in which you reside, and elastic, easy movement ; that a certain air and the preservation of good order and good morals

render it more respectable, they regard perhaps style possessed by the Arabian may be blended in the community. You cannot afford to diswith the solid, practical qualities of the Morgan, pense with such measures and you should ever be as a roadster and horse for farm work. The ready to encourage and aid them, within reasonbeneficial effects of such a cross will probably be

able limits. The proper way to accomplish such

works is to take hold of them with your own particularly apparent in the second and third hands and assist in planning and executing them. generation from the original Arabian sire. Farmers are apt to leave such matters to gentleThe Messrs. Wait have also a promising young

men of leisure, who are apt to be liberal and stallion, now five years old, bred by M. S. Hayes, then complain, after the work is done, of the

sometimes extravagant in their expenditures, and of Farmington, N. H., and got by the Pingree burden of taxation. The proper way is to give Arabian. The dam of this young horse was got so much time as is necessary to all such matteis, by the Flint or Steele Morgan, and he by the old and let your voice be heard while the arrangeSherman, out of a mare by the original Morgan. ments are being made. The colt well illustrates the theory above ad

This will generally remove all cause of comranced as to the desirable results to be expected to be too modest in the transaction of public af

plaint after they are finished. Farmers are apt from mingling the Arabian and Morgan blood. fairs, and to allow others, whose judgment is no He has all that ease, air and style of step and better, and who have no more at stake than them action spoken of, along with the qualities for the selves, to assume the control of municipal busiharness and for work, and is a remarkably pleas- have boldness enough to put themselves forward.

ness, merely because they can talk glibly and ant horse to ride after.


In this way farmers are often crowded out of Brattleboro', Vt., June 7, 1855.

those stations of respectability and honor, which they ought to occupy, and which they are better

qualified to occupy than many who succeed in For the New England Farmer. reaching them. Notwithstanding farmers constiDUTIES OF FARMERS AS CITIZENS.

tute by far the most numerous class of citizens,

yet most of the offices of honor and emolument Ax EXTRACT FRóm Dr. Reynolds' LECTURE BEFORE are occupied by men from other classes. How THE Concord LYCEUM.

rarely do you find the title of honorable prefixed To sustain the laws of the land and to preserve to the name of the farmer! But you say this is order and good government is obviously the duty because we are not office-seekers. Is it not rather of every citizen. But this is peculiarly the duty because other men are office-seekers and you do of the farmer. For the yeomanry of this coun- not choose to compete with them? try constitutes the main pillar upon which the Then do not complain that your position is not fabric of our government rests. Without the an honorable one and that your sons will not folsustaining hand of the sober, staid, enlightened low their father's business because it does not and strongminded, yeomanry of our land, our lead to honor and distinction. What is wanting government, left to the conflicting elements, that at the present time is that the farmer should culmeet and struggle and battle in our cities and po- tivate the soil in a more scientific manner; that litical arenas, would scarcely sustain itself a sin- bis intellect should be as assiduously employed as gle year. It is the mighty voice of the yeomanry his hands. And this intellectual activity will of the country that speaks with power and is prepare him to comprehend and master the duties heard above the raging billows of political strife. pertaining to any position in society in which he It is said that Paris is France and that the voice may be placed. Then when farmers are found of France is but the echo of the voice of Paris. Alling many of the important and influential ofBut, thank God, we have no Paris in America, fices in the community, their business will appear

and we have other voices than the voices of our more reputable in the eyes of their sons, and inį great cities.

stead of seeking gold in the sierras of California, Now I do not counsel farmers to be politicians. that they may enjoy the uncertain honor which They are better employed. But they should keep results irom wealth, they will be content to culthemselves informed, upon the topics of the day tivate their paternal acres that they may in their and upon the characters and opinions of the men turn fill the positions of trust and dignity which, who are in office and who are seeking it, that in the course of events, will devolve upon them. they may act understandingly and independently. In this way the farmer's calling will be rendered Farmers should be public spirited. They should honorable and he will occupy that position, as a not consider their own little farms as all the citizen, to which he is entitled, and his interests world, but remember that others have interests will receive that attention, from the governments at stake as well as themselves. They should ever of the state and nation, which they merit.

They will not be laid on the table because no thrown into an erect posture, by loosening the political capital can be made of them. But his earth at the root, and occasionally cutting off an voice, when it is heard in the public councils, obstinate large root, without injury to its growth, will be regarded. His influence will be felt and and thus be made sightly. An erect tree will will be felt for good, for he has no private inter- be longer lived and more fruitful than a leaning ests to advance. His interests are identified with one, and not half so subject to casualty as if left the public good and he is ever ready to bear his to its own guidance.Exchange. share of the public burdens. In the public prosperity he prospers, and in the public joy he rejoices.

For the New England Farmer.


DEAR SIR :- I am one of those who believe in
Of all the funny things that live,

the cultivation of a taste for the beautiful as In woodland, marsh or bog,

well as the useful. The value of an estate is That creeps the ground, or fly the air, The funniest is the frog.

always enhanced by some attention paid to the The frog-the scientificest

principles of taste. We have in our country few Of nature's handiwork

ivy-clad ruins or venerable antiquities, whose asThe frog, that neither walks nor rups,

sociations lend a charm, independent of their inBut goes it with a jerk.

herent beauty to the landscape ; but we have, With pants and coat of bottle-green,

nevertheless, the power of increasing greatly the And yellow fancy vest,

attractiveness of our country-seats by the cultiHe plunges into mud and mire

vation of our noble forest trees, and taking adAll in his Sunday best;

vantage of the natural swells and undulations When he sits down, he's standing up,

of the ground. It should be borne in mind that As Paddy O'Kina once said ;

it costs no more to erect a building in its approAnd for convenience sake he wears

priate place, than in an inappropriate one; yet His eyes on top of his head.

one-half or three-quarters of our farm buildings You see him sitting on a log,

are dumped down, with the most perverse indifferAbove the “yasty deep,"

ence apparently to every consideration of taste, You feel inclined to say, "old chap

in hollows, close to the road, exposed to its dust, Just look before you leap !"

and allowing no room for shade trees or shrubYou raise your cane to hit him on

bery. Hig ugly looking mug;

Perhaps nowhere are instances of this kind But ere you get it half way up,

more nuinerous than in Bristol county, and parAdown he goes, kerchug!

ticularly in the vicinity of New Bedford, a city He keeps about his native pond,

distinguished by its beautiful residences and And ne'er goes on a spree,

abundant shade, its streets Over-arched with luxNor gets "how-come-ye-so,” for a

uriant foliage, and its dwellings, many of them, Cold water chap is he;

embosomed in trees. The instant we get into For earthly cares he ne'er gets drunk,

the country, the genius of good taste seems to He's not the silly fool,

have fled. The roads are lined with small farmBut when they come he gives a jump,

houses, either unpainted and dirty, or painted And drowns 'em in the pool.

painfully white, with the most vivid of green for

blinds, with a front yard of from twenty to KEEP FRUIT TREES STRAIGHT.

thirty feet deep, so near to the road that the Trees in an open exposure often acquire a lean- passing travellers can see clear into the parlors, ing position from the prevailing winds. This (if not sealed up by the everlasting palo-green should not be suffered beyond a certain stage of window curtains,) with no shade trees to lessen the tree. When as large as one's wrist, they the glare of the sun, and no lattice, with clim!. should be set up erect, and, indeed, thrown into ing rose or delicate wood-bine, to diminish the the wind at an angle of ten or fifteen degrees ; bare poverty of their appearance. The barng in order to bring them ultimately into a straight and out-houses are often placed nearer the road position. This is best done by obtaining crotched still than the house, so that, on approaching the fimbs from the woods, eight to twelve feet long, place, these unsightly buildings greet the eye first. and placing the butt end, which should be sharp

Now if, instead of thrusting his farm-house so ened, on the ground, and the crotch end either closely upon the road, the owner had carried it against the trunk, immediately beneath the back some one hundred yards or more, placed it branching point, or against a large outer limb, upon a gentle swell, planted some forest trees if more convenient, securing it from chafing in around it on either side, so as to form, in time, & the crotch, by a padding of straw, or litter, and sort of natural arch, and painted it a warm setting the tree at once up to the desired angle of stone color, which would have 'harmonized the elevation. . Loosen, also, the ground on the unapproachable tints of nature instead of half windward side of the root so that it will not bind, neutralizing them, disposing shrubbery gracefully and the work is accomplished. Let this be done around, adapted to the lay of the land, how when the tree begins to make its summer growth, much more comfortable to his family would he or soon after leafing out. One season, if the have made it-how much more attractive to the tree is thrifty, will be all that is required. If, eye, and more valuable in case he should wish to however, it be obstinate, repeat the trial another sell it, and how small would be the additional year. The remedy is sure. Even large trees, expense.

AGRICOLA. which have acquired a permanent lean, may be) Dartmouth, Bristol County.


tone and character, their price prevents an ex

tensive circulation ; and, indeed, comparatitely We give below two articles on the subject of few farmers take any agricultural paper whatguano-one from Prof. Nasu, and the other from ever. Under such circumstances, therefore, it is the Country Gentleman. If the charges intimated no wonder that fraudulent manure dealers reap in the articles are well founded, the name or

a rich harvest.

We have long been convinced that there were names of the persons implicated ought to be

parties in this country engaged in manufacturing made public instantly. We shall not hesitate to various artificial fertilizers, which are of little give them publicity whenever they come to our value, and we have done our part towards exknowledge, accompanied by evidence that they posing their fraudulent practices. We were also are correct. Prof. Nasu

aware that inferior gyanos are often sold under says :

an assurance that they are equal or superior to We do not condemn the use of guano indis- the best Peruvian, but we had no idea that there criminately, We have always, in measured tones, was any one in this country engaged in the mancommended its use on poorish, out-of-the-way ufacture of guano. We are sorry to say we have lands, beyond the reach of heavy manures. For been deceived. Numerous as are our agricultural specific purposes, we have advised all farmers to papers, great as are their circulation and influhave it on their premises. This year, in view of ence, they are found insufficient to prevent unprospective high prices for produce, it may be scrupulous men from attempting to palm off on wise to apply it on all lands and for all purposes. the credulous farmers of our broad domain a If any one fails to do it, and then should be comparatively worthless article, at a high price, sorry, let him not lay the sin at our door. Neither under a fulse name, and, what is more to be redo we wage indiscriminate war with all dealers gretted, it is one of the professed friends and in guano. What we have said is, that in the teachers of scientific agriculture that is engaged trade, somewhere between the birds' dung-hills in this deception. and our farins, there is prodigious rascality to How we discovered this fraud, we are not at be looked out for, and that if we escape this and liberty to state. Suffice it to say, that sume șix get the best article, still it will not pay, in the weeks ago, we were informed that an article, ordinary course of inland cultivation, except in known as Mexican guano, was taken to an estabthose years when produce is uncommonly high. lishment near —, and there mixed with plasTaking all that is sold under the name of guano, ter, salt, sugar-house scum, Peruvian guano and and applying it to the general purposes of farm-quick-lime, the whole ground up together and ing, it will return to the farmers, in the aggre- put in bags, marked “Chilian Guano.” gate and in the long run, but about half the pur- Following the directions of our informant, we chase money. We say in the aggregate, because proceeded to and there found a large heap it will be admitted that those who purchase a of about 250 tons of Mexican guano, and some spurious article are losers ; and we say in the 200 tons of the manufactured article in bags, long run, because it is as clear as sunbeams, that marked "Chilian guano,' as we had been inwhen you take great crops from the land, with formed. We also learned that a considerable out putting on more than 300 lbs. to the acre, quantity had already been shipped to New York which is 2 ounces (what you might well carry and Boston, and one gentleman said he believed in a vest pocket,) to a ton of soil, you exhaust a good portion of it had been sent to England, the land. If, then, you purchase a bad article, In New York we were offered the Chilian you lose outright; if you purchase a good one, guano, if we would take it in quantity, at $35 there are heavy drawbacks upon

the apparent profit. There are plenty of dung-making birds

We took samples of both the Mexican and Chiin Peru, and we believe there are more in this lian guano, and made careful duplicate analyses country; not birds exactly, we should not dare of them in the laboratory of Prof. Carr, of this call them so, lest the real birds should pick our city, chemist to the New York State Agricultural eyes out; but something, without wings, not Society. The following are the mean percentage having one upward tendency, which concocts and results of the analyses : sells to farmers more so-called guano than all that is brought around Cape Horn. As proof in part, we publish the following from the Country Gen- Organic matter. tleman, omitting names of persons, as that paper

Phosphate of lime... has done, and also of places, which it has not.The Farmer, by J.

CHILIAN GCANO. GREAT FRAUD IN GUANO.-Every one acquainted with the guano trade of Great Britain, is aware that adulteration is carried on to an enor

Organic matter..

Phosphate of lime.. mous extent. The laws are stringent, and the Sulphate of lima, (plaster)... penalties in case of detection severe, yet the profits

Chloride of sodium, (common salt).

Carbonate of lime, (chalk)... are so large, and the difficulty of proving the fraud so great, that numbers of dishonest men are willing to brave the chances of detection. The agricultural press, when in the hands of Having obtained these results, we proceeded honest, independent men, untrammelled by busi- once more to and there received the followness connections, is the great safeguard against ing account of the modus operandi, adopted at these and other impositions ; but, though the the factory. British agricultural journals are mostly of a high The bags are first marked Chilian Grano ; they

per ton.



..0.5 .5.0 26.0 .68.0

Carbonate of line..



.4.0 ..2.4 15.3 .21.5 ..9.5 ..6.2 .37.6





are then moistened with water, and laid in a ing season, and have produced me good crops heap, in layers, with a quantity of Peruvian ever since.” guano between each layer.

Since writing the above, we have seen salt reThe sugar-house scum is pounded fine. Three barrowfuls, of “five half-hushels” each, then are

commended in a Pennsylvania paper as one of the mixed with six barrowfuls of Mexican guano. best stimulants that can be applied to the quince To this are added 14 bushels common salt, 1 tree. The writer, however, recommends its apbushel of plaster, 3 bushels Peruvian guano, and plication in compost rather than directly to the one-half bushel of quick lime. When the Peruvian guano and lime are added, "they make it

trees in its raw state, and with about an equal tremendous strong.” In other words, the lime quantity of caustic lime or unleached house ashes. sets free the ammonia of the Peruvian guano, and gives the manufactured Chilian guano a

For the New England Farmer. strong smell of hartshorn, which, to the unreflecting, is a sure indication of a valuable guano.

PLOWS AND PLOWING. The floor, where the bags were filled, was cov

I have looked with some interest for the reered with Peruvian guano, in order to make the article look as much like genuine guano as pos- myself some two years since made a similar in.

plies to a “Tiller of hard and stony land,” having sible. What is Chilian guano, and why is this name time and can perhaps lend the Tiller” a helping

quiry. I have had some experience since that given to it instead of the better known guano ? hand. Of the plows made fifty years since I am The only genuine Peruvian guano in this country no judge, but a cast iron plow made thirty years comes through the hands of BARREDA BROTHERS, and has their mark upon it, so that it would not ago I held many a day, for at least a dozen sucbe easy to sell a spurious Peruvian guano. Chilian cessive years, and am of the opinion it was far guano is subject to no such regulations, and the superior on a stiff stony soil

, such as I cultivate,

to the fashionable plows of later years. books describe it, when “fine”-and the manufactured article is made fine by grinding--as a with abundance of stones, doubtless for good and

This stiff heavy foam is generally accompanied "very valuable variety, equal to that of the very wise reasons, and I never pick off those sinall best Peruvian.” The naine, therefore, has been enough to be crushed under the surface by the chosen with consummate cunning.

roller. Now the pattern of a plough to keep

steady among these stones, and well pulverize SALT FOR QUINCE TREES. this soil, my limited experience leads me to think The fact is well known, perhaps, to most of beam. It seems to be the general opinion of the

is a short mould board, wide behind, and high our readers, that plum trees, generally, are much “ Farmer: writers, that a good plow is a good benefited by copious applications of salt; and plow anywhere and everywhere, on the sandy that one species, called the “beach plum,” grows plain or rocky hillside, the stiff and tenacious,

The on the margin of salt water, where its roots are

or the light, friable, easily worked soil.

farmer at Brookline advises to settle the matter by washed by the tides. Frequent experiments have

experiment; this is costly business for the country also demonstrated of late that very decided ad- farmer, and he has a right to expect the matter is vantages attend the application of salt to most already settled. In these times of great improveplum trees. It seems, likewise, from the follow-ments he has a right to expect that when he deing extract from a communication in the Horti- scribes the soil the dealer will show him the plow

best fitted to work it. culturist, that the quince tree is equally benefited

After a fruitless inquiry, through the columns by it. The writer says :

of the “Farmer," I visited the plow stores in “When I first came to this section of the State, Boston, and was soon attracted to a family of twelve years since, I found on the premises I pur- plows,, in the Quincy Hall store, marked deep


Mr. Nourse informed me that these chased half-a-dozen fair looking quince trees, but which I understood had never borne any fruit. they were in fact a return, in a great degree, to

were the latest improvement, but I saw instantly On inquiry I understood the quince tree did not the improvement of thirty years ago. I bought bear well in my neighborhood, and that my neigh- one marked "Deep Tiller-stubble-No. 33,' and bors thought it useless to plant this fruit tree. In plowed my old ground with it with a satisfaction making a drain from my kitchen, it so chanced

I had not telt in plowing for years. I rigged it

with cutter and roller for breaking up grass, and that it emptied its contents near the foot of one have used no other plow but a horse plow since. of the quince trees. This tree, the season after, To conclude I would say to brother "l'iller" that came into bearing, and as a good deal of pickle if the soil he wishes to plow is like mine, i. e. & had been emptied into this drain, I supposed the stiff, heavy loam, with stones to match, this is salt might have produced its fruitful state. Act

the plow that will do the job for it.

Andover, June, 1855. ing on this supposition, I cominenced applying salt to the other trees, early in the spring, at the rate of three quarts per annum to each tree, on

HOW THEY USED TO Plow.-In some parts of the surface of the ground under each tree, the drawn by four horses abreast and required the

Scotland, in former times, the plows used to be trunks of which were then about as large as a assistance of three men. The business of one man man's wrist. They came into bearing the follow- was to drive. For that purpose, he placed him

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