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The Roof depress’d; the Sides seem join'd in one;
The weary'd Sight lost in a darksome Cone.

The Sun to Sailors seems from Sea to rise, 445 And set; for they see only Seas and SKIES.

All N O T E S. Vestibula, Atria, Peristylia, Bi-, Eye: The Reason of which is; bliothecæ, Pinacothecæ, Bafilicæ, because the farther any Magniand fuch Structures, according tude is from us, the less it makes to the State of Publick Works. the Angle that falls under the But to return to Lucretius, who Sight : And on the contrary, the in these 4. v. brings Example nearer any Magnitude is to us, VIII. of such a Porticus, as is the bigger it makes that Angle. above describd ; and says, that Hence it comes to pass that the if we look into such a Building most remote and topmost Part at one end, especially ftanding at of the Portico may seem to end fome Distance from it, it will in a very little Cone, and even seem fo to contract it self by de-to touch the Ground or Surface grees from the Roof, the Pave-l of the Earth, and that the farment, and on either Side, that theft Parts of the two fide Walls the Prospect will end in a sharp seem to touch one another. Point or Cone. Of which the Mathematicians give this Rea

443. The weary'd Sight loft in fon : becaufe those Parts of Pa- Roof feems to descend, the Floor

a darksome Cone.] For when the rallel Lines, that are farthest remov'd from the Sight, feem al

to rise up, and the Sides to meet most to meet at the end : which cenarily end in a sharp Angle or

together, the Profpect must nethey demonftrate in this man.

Point. ner : In the firft Place, Parallel Lines must of neceffity take up 444: The Sun, &c.] In these the same Space and Éxtent of 4. v. he brings Example IX. and Ground. Let us suppose to says, That to Men at Sea the Sun Parallel Lines of a hundred Foot seems to rise out of the Water, long, to be ten Foot distant from and at his setting, to be plung: one another : Ler ten traverse again into the Waves. But this Lines be made from one Parallel is a Deception likewise of the to the other': These ten Lintes Mind, which, because the Eyes will be all alike, and each of fee nothing that intervenes bethem ten Foot long : Let the tween the Sun and the Sea, erroEye be plac'd exactly on a Le-neously supposes that nothing vel with that part of the Ground does intervené between them. or Plain, where the first tra- Virgil describes finely the Sun verse Line is drawn; the Second rising out of the Sea ; Line [I do not reckon that first which is next the Eye ), will Poftera vix summos spargebat feem longer than the third, the

lumine montes third than the fourth, the fourth Orta dies, cùm primùm alto fe than the fifth, the fifih than the gurgite tollunt fixth, the fixth than the seventh, Solis equi, lucemque elatis narithe feventh than the eighth, and

bus efflant. Æn. 12. V. 113. the eighth than the ninth : So that the tenth or last will seem Thus as finely render'd by our thorter than the others, because English, Maro, ir is the most remote from the

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All which does seem t'oppose, and to commence
Strong Proofs against, the CERTAINTY of SENSE.

Thus Ignorants, when plac'd on steady Shores,
Think feeble SHIPS are row'd with BROKEN OARS:

The NO TE S. The Morn, ensuing from the thro' two transparent Rodies ; Mountain's Height,

i, e. thro' Air and Water ; one Had scarcely spread the Skies of which is more, transparent with rosy Light;

than the other ; that is to say, Th’ etherial Coursers, bounding the Air than the Water ; but from the Sea,

Water is more dense than Air ; From out their faming Nostrils And this is the Reason that the breath'd the Day. Dryd. Rays, projected from the Eyes

upon the Oars, that are plung’d 448. Thus Ignorants, &c.] in Water, are broken ; for when These 8. v. contain Example x. we see that part of the Oar that of Oars, which in the Sea appear is dipt in the Water, we fee it bent and broken : for that part not directly, but obliquely: nor of the Oar, which in - rowing is do. we indeed see it in the Water, dipt in the Water seems crooked which is a denser Body than the or broken ; but the Part above Air, but only its Shadow or the Water is strait. Now this Image : because the Line from too is an Errour of the Mind, the thing feen is not reflected in who does not observe, that the a strait Line to the Eye, but is Part of the Oar, which is beneath broken on the Surface of the Wa' the Water, is seen by refracted ter. Hence it is, that the Eye Rays, and does not appear to the fees mor the Thing in the due Eyes in the Place and Site, in Place, but in another : Nay, which it indeed is, but beyond fees not the Thing it felf, which the Surface of the Water, from is ftrait ; but the Shadow of it, whence the Rays tend directly in- which is bent and crooked. to the Eyes. Of which the Ma 419. Feeble Ships, &c.] Clauda thematicians give us this Rea navigia, says Lucretius : where son : In seeing every thing, either the Epithet clauda seems so prothe visual Rays from the Eyes, perly apply'd, that I wish our ftrike upon the Object seen, or Interpreter had retain'd it in its are reflected back upon the Eyes, natural Signification. For let us or else they are broken : They suppose the Oars to be the Feet strike or fall upon the Object and Legs of the Vefsels, by the seen, when we fee, for Example, Help of which they walk thro' a Horse, or any other Body; or the Water ; and when these Oars when we see Colour in a Body are broken, the Vessels may well not dense, but smooth: They be said to be lame and crippled, are reflected, when we see, for The'two first Verses of this Paf Example, a Mirrour, or any o- lage in Lucretius run thus : ther Body both dense and smooth: But they are broken when we fee At maris ignaris in portu clauda any Thing thro' pellucid Bodies; videntur for Example, thro' Air and Wa-Navigia, apluftris fractis, obter ; or thro’ Air and Glass : nitier undis. Now the Oars in a Veffel seem broken, because they are seen in In which Creech, in his Laring this last manner, that is to say, Edition, has made an excellene

X X 3

Emen:

to

450 The Rudder's shatter'd, and the Planks appear :

And they are loth to trust their Safety there:
Because that Part, which lies above the Flood,
Seems firm, and strait, and regular, and good :

But that below seems broke ; and, turning up, 455 Ascends again, and reaches near the Top.

And when by Night the Clouds are whirl'd above, The Moon and glitt'ring STARS do seem to move, As driven forward by a secret Force,

A différent Way from their own nat'ral Course. 460 If any preffes underneath his Eyes, Strait all the OBJECTS DOUBLED seem to rise:

Two NO TE S. Emendation. For in portu, he by reason of the Pupil of the Eyes reads in ponto : And indeed how being ever so little distorted ; so can a Ship in Harbour said to that, for instance, we seer ftruggle with the Waves ? Had see two Candles for one, two he been aware of this when he Faces of one Man, for one Face, translated this Passage, he would &c. In which the Mind it felf not have plac'd his Ignorants is deceiv'd, not considering that upon the Shores, because they the Eyes, in that distorted Site, could hardly discern, from such do not regard the Objects seen a Distance, whether the Oars of with their usual and conjoin'd, a Vefsel at Sea seem broken or but with unwonted and separanot: and he might have spar'd ted Rays : and for that reason we the next Verse save one, And perceive the Object seen to be they are loth, &c. for which he double. As if, for Example, in has no Authority from his Au- like manner, we touch one round thour; who, by maris ignaris, Ball with the middle and foremeans Men unaccustom’d to the finger transpos’d, we shall seem Sea, raw Seamen.

to feel two Balls. Aristotle, Pro456. And when, &c.] In these blem, Sect.3. giving the reason of 4. V. is contain'd Example XI. this Example, says, that the same of the Stars, which by Night thing happens, as does to Men seem to fly by the Clouds, and drunk, who fee two for one : For to be hurry'd in a contrary Mo- the Principle of Sight is mov'd tion : In which not the Eye, in such a manner, that both Eyes but the Mind it self is deceiv'd : see not alike : There is this only For while the Eye beholds the difference, that the Motion in Clouds, and perceives them in Men who are drunk, is made indifferent Places, the Mind it self wardly: But another Reason may believes them unmoy'd from be given of it: When one of the their Place; and while the Sight Eyes is press’d by the Hand, the remains fixt upon them, the Sight is bent and crooked, and Mind supposes, that it is not the Nerves are moy'd up and they that move along the Sky, down, and distorted this way but the Stars that fly over, and and that; and hence it is, that pass by them.

the Objects are doubled. But 460. If any, &c.] These 6. v. Cicero in Lucullus says: Timacontain Example XII. concern-goras Epicureus negat fibi uning Things that appear double, I quam, cum oculos torfiffet, duas

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Two Lamps appear, when only one is brought,
His Wealth seems doubled,' and he's rich in Thought:

Each Man appears increas'd in Form and Grace,
465 Almoft GERTON, with a double Face.

And lastly, when the Eyes with SLEEP oppress'd,
And all the Body lies diffolv'd in Reft;
The MEMBERS seem awake, and vig'rous still

Now oʻer a Plain, now Flood, or shady Hill,
470 They seem to move; and, ev’n in darkeft Night;

They think they see the Sun diffuse his Light;
They see him chace the frighted Shades away,
And clear a Passage for approaching Day:

They seem to hear a Voice, tho' all around
475 Deep SILENCE stands, nor bears the weakest SOUND.

Ten thousand such appear ; ten thousand Foes
To CERTAINTY of Sense, and all oppose ;

In
NOTES
ex lucernå Aammulas effe visas : fall is in the deepest Silence.
Opinionis enim eft mendacium, This happens because the Mind
non Oculorum. Timagoras, thé rashly, and erroneously interposes
Epicurean, denies, that when he her. Judgment concerning these
diftorted his Eyes, he ever saw Things, and supposes, they are
two Flames from one Candle ; indeed, as they really appear to
for it is a lie of the Opinion, not be. The like happens also in
of the Eyes.

Deliriums, in Folly, and in Mad463: He's rich in Thought] ness. Thus Pentheus seem'd to I'm sorry 'tis necessary to ac- see two Suns, two Thebes, and quaint the Reader, that Creech the Furies too, as well as Orestes. has put this poor Thought in Virgil. Æn. 4. v. 469. the Mouth of his Authour.

465. Almost Geryon, &c.] Et Eumenidum veluti demens videt duplices hominum facies, says agmina Pentheus, Lucretius. Geryon was a King of Et folem geminum, & duplices Spain, and said to have three se ostendere Thebas : Bodies : therefore the word al- Aut Agamemnonius Scenis agimost was requisite. See the Note tatus Orestes, Book V. V. 30.

Armatam facibus matrem, & 466. And lastly, &c.] In these serpentibus atris 10. v. the Poet brings his XIII. Cum fugit, ultricesque sedent in and last Example, concerning limine Diræ, those things that we seem to see in our Dreams, as if we were a- But we shall have occafion to wake. For sometimes, when we speak more at large of Dreams are found asleep, we seem to see towards the End of this Book. the Sun, the Light, the Sky, the 476. Ten thousand, &c.]. It Sea, Rivers, Mountains,Fields,&c. is certain we are deceiv'd in And all these things appear Things, in which the Senses are sometimes to move and change employ'd, but how does that artheir Places. Nay, we seem to gue the Senses themselves to be hear Sounds, and to speak, when I fallible? The Poet in these 4.

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Book IV. V. Shews the unreafonableness of the Mind was deceiv'd, in bethis Pretence; The Senses receive lieving them to be real Furies. the Images of Things, just as Thus Tertullian lib. de Anima, they are presented to them : they cap. 17. says, Epicurei constantiknow not the Nature of them, us parem omnibus atque perpes nor do they judge or determine tuam defendunt veritatem, fed in the least concerning them : aliâ viâ: non enim fenfum menTherefore there is no Errour on tiri, sed opinatum;

sensum enim their Part; but all Mistakes pro- pati, non opinari. Thus Greger, ceed from the Judgment of the Nyffenus, lib. 4. de Phil. c. 3. Mind ; The Senses represent and speaking of the Sight, after he make their Report: according has mention'd those Examples of to which the Reason judges, but the Oars that seem broken in the often rafhly, and inconfiderately. Water, and of a square Tower Epicurus himself writes to the that appears round, adds : Neque same purpose to Herodotus:eft hic error vifùs fed mentis : Kai adore this part doia Ate Alf nam ille videt & renunciat quivosą, člte dat nou xatanan avo- dem: verum mens ad ea quæ cilin, refer Tou Als Aaj baropfing this an Error of the sight, but

exhibentur non attendit : Nor is Szivá aubnis • 'po 450, ng of the Mind : for the Šight in54 surpastupévor en TIS DEOS.05deed fees, and makes its report, a souli'w aici zive yet to xirnos en but the Mind does not give due ημίν αυτοίς συνμμών» μέν τινι attention to the Things that are Cartasıxmåtiboa, 16 for represented to her.

You may ezogen xboy To HCIG rivelous confult farther Empir. adv. Lo &c. Besides, we may gather gic. but above all Macrob. Sathe Opinion of Epicurus con

turn. lib. 7. C, 14. where he arcerning the Certainty of the Sen-gues-admirably well of all these fes, from several of the Antients: Matters, Our Translatour has Cicero in Lucullus says : Eo omitted the two lak Verses of rem dimitrit Epicurus, fi unus

this Paffage, which run thus in é fenfibus femel in vità mentitus in the Original : fit nulli unquam effe credendum : Nam nihil egregius, quam res Epicurus went so far as to say, That if any one of the Senses had A dubiis, animus quas ab se probut once mistaken, no Credit

tinus abdit. ought ever to be given to any of them. And in the first Book The Meaning of which seems to de Finibus: Judicia rerum in be this: For nothing is more fenfibus ponit,[Epicurus] quibus excellent, than to distinguish fi semel aliquid falsi pro vero things that are clear and plain probatum est; sublatum effe from such as are doubtful, which omne Judicium veri & falfi pu- the Mind immediately hides tat. Empiricus explains this Opi- from herself, that is, from her nion of Epicurus to this purpose.own Knowledge. However, feThey are mistaken, who say, that veral of the Interpreters, fome of the Images are true, Tome Lambinus, Faber, and fome ofalse; inasmuch as they cannot thers, absolutely reject them, as diftinguish that Opinion from foolish and unworthy of LucreCertainty : For, as to what re- tius. But Creech, in his Latine lates to Orestes, when he feemid Edition, blames their Severity, to himself to see the Furies; the and says, that some Copies, and Sense it felf, that was mov'd by that truly too, read, Nam nihil the Images was true; for the ægrius eft, &c. and that, if inImages were really present : But Itead of abdit, we read addit,

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