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Literature; the Essays of Mason on able additions have been likewise made the Power of Numbers and Principles of to English criticism, by the excellent Harmony; of Lord Woodhouselee on notes accompanying the translations the Principles of Translation, and on and editions of Homer by Ogilby, the Life and Character of Petrarch ; Chapman, Pope, and Cowper; of Deof Burke on the Sublime and Beautiful; mosthenes, by Leland ; of Æschylus Campbell's Philosophy of Rhetoric; the and Euripides by Potter; of Sophocles, Biographia Britannica ; Hayley's Epis by Potter and Francklin; of Aristotle's tles, and Essay on Epic Poetry; Davies's Poetics, by Twining and Pye; of PinDramatic Miscellanies; the Baviad and dar, by West; of Epictetus, by Mrs. Mæviad of Gifford, Horne Tooke's Di Carter; of Theocritus, by Creech; of tersions of Purley i Sir William Drum Pliny, by Holland and Melmoth; of mond's excellent Preface to his Trans Virgil, by Ogilby, Dryden, Pitt, Sothelation of Persius ; Lempriere's Bio- by, and Symmons; of Horace's Art of graphical and Classical Dictionaries; Poetry, by Hurd and Colman ; of Ovid, the Lives of Tasso and Tassoni, by by Dryden and Sandys; of Juvenal, by Black and Walker; the Essay on Taste, Dryden, Gifford, and Hodgson ; of Luby Alison, Mackenzie, Gerard, Knight, cretius, by Creech and Good; of Cæsar's Cooper, Mc'Dermot, and Richardson; Commeniaries by Duncan; of Lucan's Aikin's Letters on English Poetry; and Pharsalia, by Pitt and Rowe; of Perlastly, the critical productions of Dr. sius by Dryden and Drummond; of Johnson, the two Wartons, Cumberland,

Cicero, by Middleton and Melworth ; Scott, Colman, and Drake. We may of Maximus Tyrius, Minutius, Felix, likewise enumerate the critical essays and Lactantius, by Davis; of Vida's and observations on Shakspeare, by Poetics, by Pitt and Hampson ; of the Rymer, Thirlby, Dennis, Farmer, Lady Thebais of Statius, the Dryope and Mary Wortley Montague, Davies, Mor- Vertumnus and Pomona of Ovid by gann, Tyrwhitt, White, and Richard Pope; and many others which we canson; and the various editions of his not here enumerate. works with annotations by Pope, Rowe,

Whilst the art of Criticism thus flouWarburton, Theobald, Hanmer, Stee- rished in this country, its progress was vens, Dr. Johnson, Malone, Upton, Ca- not less successfully promoted in France. pell, Reid, and Manley Wood; the com

Indeed it was there that it was most asments on Milton and editions of his siduously cultivated,and brought to perpoems by Hume, Newton, Bently, Rich- fection, after the revival of learning in ardson, Addison, Thyer, Pearce, War. Europe. Several valuable works, conton, Todd, Symmons and Gillies;-and nected with this branch of literature, the editions of Chaucer's Canterbury were published during the seventeenth Tales by Tyrwhitt; of Spencer's Faery and eighteenth centuries. In 1630, Queen with notes by Hughes, Upton, Vaugelas wrote his Remarques sur la and Church; of Dryden, by Johnson Langue Françoise ; a work which is and Scott; of Addison, by Tickell, considered by M. de la Monnoye a masJohnson, and Beattie; and of Pope, by ter-piece of elegance and solidity; in Warburton, Warton, and Johnson. - 1660, Patru a treatise on the same subAlso the numerous editions of the Clas- ject; in 1670, Menage Observations on sics with learned commentaries by some the Origin of the French and Italian of our best sholars; especially those of Lanquages ; Rapin a Discourse on PasHomer by Dr. Clarke, with copious toral Poetry; and Bossu a Treatise on notes and a Latin version; of Aristotle's Epic Poetry, which Boileau has declarPoeties and the Orations of Isæus by ed to be one of the best compositions on Tyrwhitt; of Homer, Euripides, and that subject in the French language. In Anacreon by Barnes; of Longinus and 1682 Valincour wrote Observations cri. Cicero, by Toup and Dr. Pearce; of tiques sur l' Edipe de Sophocle; and in Anacreon, Horace, and Plutarch, hy 1690 Boileaı an Essay on the Art of Baxster; of Phædrus, Horace, and Te Poetry; La Harpe the Cours de la Litrence, by Dr. Bentley; of Sycophroa terature ancienne et moderne; Perrault and Clemens Alexandrianus, hy Arch- Reflexions sur Longine ; D'Argonne bishop Potter; of Sallust, by "Wasse; Melanges d'Histoire et de Litterature, of Cæsar's Commentaries, by Dr. Pearce; published by him under the name of of Justin Martyr, by Thirlby; and of Vigneul Marville ; and Bayle an HisVida, by Tristram and Kennet. Valu. torical and Critical Dictionary, of which


Voltaire has said, that it is the first work We may add to those the editions of of the kind, in which a man may learn Petronius, Lucan, and Heliodorus, by to think. To these may be added, Du Bourdillon; of Aristotle, by Duval; of pin's Bibliotheque universelle des Au Justin and Valerius Maximus, by Canteurs Ecclesiastiques, and Simon's Dis tet; of Tertullian and Florus, by Salsertation on the same in 1700; Le Clerc's masius; of Demosthenes, by Massieu ; Art Critique, in 1710; Massieu's His of Ammianus Marcellinus, by Henri de tory of French Poetry, in 1712; La Valois; of Pliny, by Hardouin; of Motte's Discours sur omere, and Res Aristotle and Polybius, by Casaubon ; Rexions sur la Critique; Sanadon's of Quintilian, by Rollin; of Livy, by Dissertation on the Iliad; Masson's Crevier; of Tacitus, Pliny, and PhoeHistoire Critique de la Republique des drus, by Brotier; of Horace, by Andrew Lettres, and Lives of Horace, Ovid, and Dacier; and the commentaries on the the younger Pliny; and the Abbé Du edition of Polyanus and Dionysius HaBos' R«flexions Critiques sur la Poësie licarnassus, by Casaubon. et la Peinture, in 1720; Brumoy's Thê In Italy also, besides the celebrated atre des Grecs; Fontenelle's Discourse Vida, there were many excellent writers, on Pastoral Poetry, and Reflexions by whom the art of Criticism was most Critiques sur l'Art Poetique d' Aristotile diligently and successfully cultivated. annexed to his Life of Corneille; Crou In the sixteenth century especially sesaz' Essay on Logic, Essay on Beauty, veral works appeared, which far surand Comments on Pope's Essay on any produced by the French at Man; Marmontel's Essai sur les Ro the same period. Of these the princimans, and Epitre aux Poetes ; and Des pal are the following:—the Poetics of Fontaines' Observations sur les Ecrits Vida, written in 1520; the Della Poemodernes in 1730; Banier's Historical tica of Trissino, in 1529; the Variæ Explanation of Pables and Supplement Lectiones of Vettori in 1540; the Ercoto D'Argonne's treatise; and Voltaire's lano of Varchi, or Dialogues on LanEssai sur la Poësie Epique, Essai sur guage, in 1541 ; the Naugerius of Fral'Histoire Generale, Mclanges des Lit- castorius, or Dialogues on Poetry, in terature, and Connoissances des beautés 1555; the De Poetå of Minturnus, in et des defaults de Poësie et de l'Elo six books, printed at Venice in 1559; quence in 1740; Andrew Dacier's Re Ricoboni's Historical Comments, and marques sur Longine in 1750; the Ob Treatise on Rhetoric, in 1570; and the servations of the French Academy on Raggionamento della Poesia of Bernarthe Cid of Corneille, Diderot's Diction do Tasso, and the Discorsi del Poema naire Encyclopedique; and D'Alembert's Eroico, by his son the illustrious TorMélanges Litteraires in 1760.

quato Tasso, in 1587. In 1610 appear. Many excellent translations of the ed Dandini's Commentary on Aristotle's Classics were also undertaken, and suc Ethics ; in 1630, Mascardi's Treatise cessfully completed, by learned French Dell'Arte Istorica ; in 1698, Crescemscholars; the best of which are those bini's Istoria della Volgar Poesia, with of Horace by Sanadon; of Diodorus commentaries on the same; Gravina's Siculus with notes by Terrasson; of Treatise Della Ragion Poetica, in two Quintus Curtius, by Vaugelas; of Vir- books, and Epistle Di Poesi, published gil, by Des Fontaines; of Herodian and at Naples in 1716; Muratori's Essay Cicero's Epistles to Atticus, by Mon Della' Perfetta Poesiana Italiana, in gault; of Vitruvius, by Claude Perrault; 1730; the learned Scipio Maffei's Teatro of Thucydides, Tacitus, Lucan, Cæsar, Italiano, and Osservationi Letterarie, Arrian, and Minutius Felix, by Perrot; about the year 1732; Metastasio's Esof Ovid's Metamorphoses, by Banier; trato dell'Arte Poetica d'Aristotiłe, in of Virgil, Horace, Juvenal, Persius, Lu: 1740; Baretti's Dissertation on Italian cretius, Terence, Plautus, Lucan, Sta- Poetry, and other critical works of con tius, Martial, Aurelius Victor, Ammia- siderable value, in 1750; and Tirabosnus Marcellinus, and Athenæus, by chi's Istoria della Letteratura Italiana, Marolles; of Homer, Anacreon, Sap- and Origin of Rhyme, in 1770. We may pho, Terence, and Plautus, by Madame also enumerate the Commientaries on Dacier; and of Aristotle's Poetics, two Aristotle's Poetics, by Castelvetro, and of the tragedies of Sophocles, and the on his Rhetoric, by Vettori ; Vettori's works of Plato, Epictetus, Plutarch, Critical Notes on Euripides, Xenoand Hippocrates, by Andrew Dacier. phon, Plato, Porphyry, Sallust, Varro,

Terence, Cicero, and Columella ; the will be sufficient, however, merely to annotations on Terence, Juvenal, Per- observe, that literature is indebted to sius, Ovid, and Statius, by Britannicus; them for a vast accession of sound and and on Horace's Art of Poetry, Cicero, useful learning; and for soine of the Juvenal, and Pliny, by Valla. Also best editions of the classics that have the translations of Homer, by Metasta ever issued from the press. The indesio, and in part by Scipio Maffei; of fatigable care and diligence of the GerPlutarch, by Aretin; of Herodian, by man critics is so well known, that it Politiano; of Aristotle's Poetics, by will not be requisite to introduce any Castelvetro, and of his Rhetoric, by further remarks on that subject, or even Annibal Caro; of Thucydides and He to mention the names of the most emirodotus, by Valla, and of Diodorus nent; but only just to observe, that they Siculas and Xenophon's Cyropædia, by have distinguished themselves more as Poggio.

editors and commentators than as origiOf the German and Dutch schools of nal writers. criticism we might also say much. It

(To be continued.)



-An Article on the Romaic Language, THE German language continues to or modern Greek-A Political Essay on make considerable progress in Italy, and the People of New Spain, &c. This particularly in Lombardy. Gratuitous journal and many others prove, that the instruction is established throughout Italians make every exertion to proceed the country. Upwards of two hundred with the most civilized nations in the pupils are instructed in the German march of intellect, and in the progress language at the lyceum of Milan; and of science and art. From some perioupwards of three hundred learn it in dical works and pamphlets, which have other schools, or by private lessons. appeared for some time past at Naples, The number of persons at Milan, capa- especially Lo Spirito di vertigine, it ble of reading the best German works, would seem that this part of Italy is amounts to upwards of five thousand. retrograding, and merits the stigma The most active and zealous of them is which Lord Byron affixes to it; but it M. Argenti, whose works co-operate is well known, that the Neapolitan with his personal exertions in the dis- dominions contain a great number of semination of the German language in philosophic minds, which are obliged Italy. The conspiracy of Fiesque has to conceal their sentiments. It seems, been translated into German. The dra- however, that the species of study which matic works of Kotzebue have been also chiefly prevails in Italy is that of litetranslated at Modena ; and at Florence, rature and erudition; at least the greater the collection of the German theatre part of the works, which are published continues to assimilate the literature of on the peninsula, are of this character. both countries. Gessner, whom his It is also known, that many men of meungrateful countrymen have almost rit cultivate the moral and political sciforgotten, is the chief delight of the ences, but unhappily they are obliged youth of Italy as well as of other coun to mingle with the herd of antiquaries tries.

and translators. The taste of the ItaThe literary journals, which continue lians for tragedy seems to develope itto preserve a high character in Italy, self more and more ; for, though they are the Opusculi of Bologne ; il Gior were the first to distinguish themselves nale arcadico of Rome; Antologia of in this career, their productions were Florence; Giornale enciclopedico of but exaggerated imitations of the Greek Naples ; Giornale chimico of Pisa, and models. If, therefore, in consequence the Biblioteca Italiana of Milan. The of this common defect, they could intwelfth number of the Antologia (De- spire in their contemporaries but little cember 1821) contains very interesting interest; they gave, however, sufficient articles, such as a Retrospect of the evidence, that they possessed the same best French Works on different Sub- talent for the drama, that they did jects of Crim 1 Law-Reflections on for every other species of literature, the Synonime. f the Italian Language Unfortunately, circumstances deprived


them of a national theatre, and a na his poems are written in Danish, and he tional school. Notwithstanding these published a collection of them during obstacles, however, the productions of his residence at Copenhagen. Ling is Ricoboni and Goldoni were successively not the only poet, who dispenses the received in Paris with great applause; pleasures of poetry to his countrymen. as were also the efforts of Martelli

, Or. Madame Asping, a lady of distinsi, Maffei, and many others. Since Al- guished talents, shares with him in fieri, however, the most distinguished public applause. The Young Maid of of the Italian poets have devoted them- Lapland a poem which appeared in selves to that useful and national spe the Poetic Calendar, published at Upsal, cies of the drama adopted by that author. and edited by the Poet Atterbom, is reIt must be confessed, indeed, that the plete with freshness, naiveté and grace. greater part of their works possess very Afzelius and Professor Geijer have also unequal merit; but they all exhibit a published some Swedish ballads, and the tendency and actual progress to a noble former has rendered an important serand patriotic end, notwithstanding the vice to his countrymen by giving, in almost insurmountable obstacles, with conjunction with other writers, a new which they have to contend. We find edition of the Edda. The collection a proof of this in the essays left by intitled Snorra-Edda, or the Edda of Francesco Benedetti. This young Snorra, as well as Choice Fragments of writer published, from 1815 to 1818, a Islandic Literature, has been recently discourse on the Italian Theatre, and published at Stockholm by M. Rask, a two tragedies, the Telegono and the Danish traveller profoundly versed in Druso ; but unhappily he died in the the languages and literature of northern flower of his age. Sketches of eleven Europe. Tragedies have been found among his papers,and the Lives of eminent Italians. A universal zeal manifests itself for The very titles of his works manifest enriching this national museum with the spirit, that predominates in Italian the most rare and valuable books and literature. Among his lives are found manuscripts, Other objects of art are those of Cola Rienzi, Filippo, Strozzi, equally sought after, and deposited in Pietro and Niccolo Capponi, Giovanni

the Museum. They possess already a de Proeida, &c. The principal of the painting, which represents the son of Tragedies are, Congiura de Milano, Lewis, Landgrave of Hesse, maintainGismonda, Eleusini, Cola di Rienzo. ing before the Emperor, Charles IV., a It is expected that the brothers of Be- thesis on the philosophy of Aristotle ; nedetti, who possess his MS. will take also, a bronze vase, found in the suburbs an early opportunity of presenting them of Konig Gratz, an immense depth below to the literary world.

the surface. Its form shews it to be of SWEDISH LITERATURE.

great antiquity, and its origin has alreaThe poet Ling, whose compositions dy excited a great controversy among are conspicuous for splendid imagina- the antiquaries of Germany; with whom tion, originality of character, and an may be classed, perhaps, all the writers ardent love of country, has excited, for in the empire, for the antiquarian mania a considerable time past, the admira seems to have got hold of them all. tion of his countrymen. The subjects Such is the ridiculous curiosity excited of his poems are generally selected from by this vase, that M. de Hammer is at the bistory of Sweden and other Nor- present engaged in writing a dissertathern countries. His best works are tion, in which he promises to prove Ayne, a Tragedy replete with fine con that it is a Baphomet. Some maintain ceptions; an idyl, entitled Love; Eylif, that it has been brought from the East the Goth, and I'he Diet of 1527. "Be by the Sclavonians, who made use of it sides the Tragedy already mentioned, in their sacrifices; while others dispute he has composed several pieces for the the opinion tooth and nail, and are theatre, but all inferior to Ayne. He as zealous in maintaining a different is at present employed upon an epic theory, as if they were engaged in the poem entitled Die asen. A part of it discovery of some useful art, or acappeared in 1816, and was received counting for some property in the with enthusiasm, His allegory of works of nature. Gylf, though the subject is patriotic, has not yet become popular. Many of

A young lady of Switzerland, born



A com


blind, but rich in intellectual powers, conceived the possibility of communi M. de Clinchamp, teacher of the cating her thoughts to her family and youth intended for the marine service, her friends, through the medium of im. at Toulon, in France, has invented an pressions, if some ingenious mechanic instrument called Hyalograph, which invented for her a press with its neces takes off with extreme correctness the sary accompaniments. She applied to appearances of natural objects. A parMr. Francis Huber, the celebrated his ticular sort of ink serves to impress, on torian of bees, to whom she had the paper, designs taken on the glass of the happiness of being related.

instrument; and, as the first impression munity of misfortune, for the historian cannot be erased, many proofs may be laboured under the same inisfortune taken off by inking it over again. The with herself, rendered the subject of Hyalograph serves also for many mastill greater interest to him. He con thematical applications. The works sulted his servant, Claude Léchet, a executed with hyalographic ink have man endowed with a singular instinct the appearance of lithographic designs. for mechanism, and they both set their wits to work and happily succeeded. The Council of the Canton of Zurich, The press was soon executed by Claude, in Switzerland, induced by the favourand sent with a proper assortment of able report of a committee of artists, characters to the interesting female, have granted Jean Jacques Goll, of who first suggested the idea of it; Zurich, the exclusive right of making after a short apprenticeship to her and selling a piano of his own invenself, she soon enjoyed the luxury of tion. This piano is said to possess communicating her thoughts to her great compass, clearness, and melody, friends, through this happy medium. and far exceeds the best pianos in the She has written a letter to M. Huber, of second rate shops of Paris or Vienna, thirty-three lines, free from faults, and The inventor has solved a problem typographical irregularity.

which was deemed nearly impossible. THE PARIS MONTHLY REVIEW. He has succeeded in giving the higher A society of literary Englishmen, re notes the same proportional force, and siding at Paris, has formed the project duration of sound as the lower. of publishing a journal, which is to contain the best articles in the principal In calculating the population of the periodical works published in England, different people, who inhabit Hungary, and critical remarks on the best French few travellers or geographers have productions of the age. This journal taken the Scotacks into the account; has the same object in view as that of They are, however, entitled to attenGallignani. The selection of matter, tion, as well for their numbers, as for it is expected, will be made with great their manners and habits. They indiscernment; and the extensive con habit sixty-five towns, or large villages nexions of its proprietors in England, in the district of Zemplein, and are of France, Spain, &c., will enable them Sclavonic origin. They forin an interto procure original pieces and intel mediate people between the Sclavoligence interesting to the literary world, nians, the Vasmiaks, and the Poles ; the sciences, and the arts.

but totally differ from those nations in STEAM BOATS,

dialect, int character, and in habits of Have completely succeeded at Bor- life. It is said that both men and deaux, in France. Four of these boats women have white hair, and dark coproceed daily from that city to Laugon, loured hair is among them a species going up the river as far as the tide of phenomenon. They live in the pareaches. Two of them cross over to triarchal manner, and assist each other Pauillac, and even in the bathing as if they were members of the same Season bring passengers to Royan. family. The father confides the care of Another steam-boat, built at Bordeaux, his house to one of his sons, but alhas coasted the entire shore from that ways selects the one whom he thinks city to Havre, where it is employed best qualitied for the charge; and the in the passage of Honfleur. An eighth rest pay him an implicit obedience, vessel, built upon the same stocks, has whatever be his age, for age and merit been sent to Martinico for the use of are carefully distinguished between that island.

them. The people are shepherds, and Eur. Mag. Vol. 81. April 1822.



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