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such a return for his own labours, and all the essential services which his whole species render to mankind. Upon my soul I felt the reproach. We could not bear his looks, but sneaked away without feeling much pride on account of our near connection with those lords of the creation, whom we had just beheld exerting their prerogative.
We walked along a considerable time without speaking. Nbroke silence at last.- Well,' said he, • those amiable creatures whom we have quitted, are what they call human beings ;--they are more, they are Neapolitans, men who are moved with the concord of sweet sounds; from which I conclude (Shakespeare may say what he pleases) that such men are as fit for treasons, stratagems, and spoils, as those who never heard softer melody than that of marrow-bones and cleavers.'
This fondness for barbarous amusements,' said I, cannot be stated exclusively to the account of Neapolitans, of English, or of any other particular people. I am afraid the charge lies against mankind in general; from whatever motive it arises, a large proportion of the individuals in all countries have displayed a decided taste for diversions which may be ranged in this class.'
• It ought to be remembered, however,' says T • that those fellows, with their dogs, who have been tormenting the bull, are butchers, and the lowest of the vulgar of this country; whereas, among those who order fish to be crimped, and pigs to be whipped to death, as well as among those who formerly attended Broughton's amphitheatre, and still attend cockpits, will be found people of the first rank in England.'
Pray,' said N-, addressing himself to me, did you ever see a cocagna ?'
I acknowledged I never had.
• Then,' continued he, ' I beg leave to give you an idea of it. It is a Neapolitan entertainment, relished by people of the first rank in this polished country; where the very vagrants in the street are instructed in history, and
the human mind is refined by poetry, softened by music, and elevated by religion. The cocagna-Pray mark methe cocagna is an entertainment given to the people four succeeding Sundays during the carnival. Opposite to the palace, a kind of wooden amphitheatre is erected. This being covered with branches of trees, bushes, and various plants, real and artificial, has the appearance of a green hill. On this hill are little buildings, ornamented with pillars of loaves of bread, with joints of meat, and dried fish, varnished, and curiously arranged by way of capitals. Among the trees and bushes are some oxen, a considerable number of calves, sheep, hogs, and lambs, all alive, and tied to posts. There are, besides, a great number of liv. ing turkeys, geese, hens, pigeons, and other fowls, nailed by the wings to the scaffolding. Certain heathen deities appear also occasionally upon this hill, but not with a design to protect it, as you shall see immediately. The guards are drawn up in three ranks, to keep off the populace. The royal family, with all the nobility of the court, crowd the windows and balconies of the palace, to enjoy this magnificent sight. When his majesty waves his handkerchief, the guards open to the right and left; the rabble pour in from all quarters, and the entertainment commences. You may easily conceive what a delightful sight it must be, to see several thousand hungry, half-naked lazzaroni rush in like a torrent, destroy the whole fabric of loaves, fishes, and joints of meat; overturn the heathen deities, for the honour of Christianity; pluck the fowls, at the expense
of their wings, from the posts to which they were nailed ; and, in the fury of their struggling and fighting for their prey, often tearing the miserable animals to pieces, and sometimes stabbing each other.'
• You ought, in candour, to add, interrupted Mr. T-, that, though formerly they weré fixed to the posts alive, yet of late the larger cattle have been previ. ously killed.' And pray, my good sir,' said N-, • will you be so obliging as to inform me, what crime the poor lambs and fowls have committed, that they should be torn in pieces alive ?" * This piece of humanity,' continued he, recalls to my memory a similar instance, in a certain ingenious gentleman, who proposed, as the best and most effectual method of sweeping chimneys, to place a large goose at the top; and then, by a string tied around her feet, to pull the animal gently down to the hearth. The sagacious projector asserted, that the goose, being extremely averse to this method of entering a house, would struggle against it with all her might; and, during this resistance, would move her wings with such force and rapidity, as could not fail to sweep the chimney completely.' ! Good God, sir, cried a lady who was present when this new method was proposed, • How cruel would that be to the poor goose !' Why, madam,' replied the •
gentleman, if you think my method cruel to the goose, a couple of ducks will do.'
Naples. On the first Sunday of May, we had an opportunity of seeing the famous Neapolitan miracle, of the liquefaction of Saint Januarius's blood, performed. This saint, you know, is the patron of Naples; which circumstance alone forms a strong presumption of his being a saint of very considerable power and efficacy; for it is not to be imagined that the care of a city, like Naples, which is threatened
every moment with destruction from Mount Vesuvius, would be intrusted to an understrapper. Indeed there has, on some occasions, been reason to fear, that, great and powerful as this saint is, the demon of the mountain would have got the better of him ; however, as Saint Januarius has been able to protect them hitherto, and is supposed to be improved in the science of defence by long practice, the Neapolitans think it more prudènt to abide by him than to choose another: who, though he may possibly be of higher rank, and older standing, cannot have equal experience in this particular kind of warfare.
Saint Januarius suffered martyrdom about the end of the third century. When he was beheaded, a pious lady of this city caught about an ounce of his blood, which has been carefully preserved in a bottle ever since, without having lost a single grain of its weight. This of itself, were it equally demonstrable, might be considered as a greater miracle than the circumstance on which the Neapolitans lay the whole stress, viz. that the blood which has congealed, and acquired a solid form by age, is no sooner brought near the head of the saint, than, as a mark of veneration, it immediately liquefies. This experiment is made three different times every year, and is considered by the Neapolitans as a miracle of the first magnitude.
As the divinity of no other religion whatever is any longer attempted to be proved by fresh miracles, but all are now trusted to their own internal evidence, and to those wrought at a former period, this miracle of Saint Januarius is probably the more admired on account of its being the only one, except transubstantiation, which remains still in use, out of the vast abundance said to have been performed at various periods in support of the Roman Catholic faith. The latter is unquestionably the greater miracle of the two; for to change a wafer into flesh and blood, is more extraordinary than to liquefy any substance whatever : yet I once imagined the liquefaction had rather the advantage in this particular ; that the change is more obvious to the senses. But I have lately been otherwise instructed, by an ingenious person, who was formerly a Jesuit. On somebody (not me, for I never do make objections in matters of faith) having observed, that it was unfortunate that the great change operated on the wafer in transubstantiation, was not visible, the person above alluded to pronounced the miracle to be much greater on that account. • For pray, sir,' said he, addressing himself to the objector, “suppose I should immediately turn that fowl, pointing to a turkey which was at that moment stalking past ; suppose I should immediately turn that fowl into a woman, would you not think it
very extraordinary ?! • Certainly,' replied the other.
Well, sir, but after the change is actually made, and the fowl has to all intents and purposes become a woman, if it still retained the appearance of a turkey, you must acknowledge that would be more extraordinary still. In the same manner,' continued he, in the celebration of mass, the conversion of the wafer into the real body and blood of Jesus Christ, is a great miracle, and highly to be venerated; but, after this wonderful change has actually taken place, that the real body of Christ should, even in the eyes of the sharpest sighted spectators, still retain its original form of a wafer, is a great deal more amazing and stupendous.'
But, however great a superiority the miracle of tran. substantiation may have over that of St. Januarius, in the opinion of Roman Catholics in general, the Neapolitans imagine the latter is sufficient to convert infidels, and put heretics out of countenance. A zealous believer of this country, having described the miracle, breaks out into the following exclamations:- O illustre memoria ! O verità irrefragabile ! Vengano gli Heretici, vengano, e Stupiscano, ed aprano gli occhi alla verità Cattolica, et Evangelica ; Bastarebbe questo sangue di S. Gennaro sola à fare testimonia della Fede. E possibile, che a tanto, et si famoso miraculo non si converta tutta la Gentilità, ed Infedeltà alla verita Catolica della Romana chiesa ?** Though I am not such an enthusiastic admirer of the performance of this author, yet, on the other hand, I do not think that Protestants, however much they may be convinced it is a trick, have any right to call it a clumsy trick, without explaining in what it consists. This is a liberty which some travellers of great eminence have taken. Others have asserted, that the substance in the bottle, which is exhibited
* O illustrious memorial! () irrefragable truth! Come hither, ye here. tics! Come hither, and be astonished, and open your eyes to Catholic and Evangelic truth. The blood of Saint Januarius alonc is a sufficient testimony of the truth. Is it possible, that such a great and famous miracle does not convert all heretics and infidels to the truths of the Roman Catholic church.