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330 CONG....20 Sess.
Grants of Land for Railroads--Mr. Perkins, of Louisiana.
Ho. OF REPs.
instinctively resists arbitrary authority. No reasonable mind the income equally between the library and museum on the ment, is a trust power, and, as such, is strictly limited by objects to conformity to established regulations, and obe- one part, and active operations on the other.
the nature and object of the trust. In this case the rule dience to defined, permanent, and uniform rules. Beyond “ The only other suggestion the committee have to make requires that the lands and other public property of the those rules the rights of a subordinate officer are as perfect is, the expediency, in order to avoid all embarrassment in United States should be disposed of to the best advantage ; as those of any other man. Within them he feels that it is future, to have each division of the lostitution placed under and where that can be done by contributing a portion to no degradation to obey. It is not at all improbable that many its proper and distinctive head. Let the secretary have works which would make the residue equally or more of the difficulties that have been encountered in the British charge of the active operations, preside over the scientific valuable than the wbole would be without it, as is supposed, Museum, and in the Smithsonian Instiluuion, have arisen researches, and direct the publications. Let the librarian they hold it would be strictly within the rule. Your comnot so much from lodging too much power in the secretary, have charge of the library and museum. If the two de- mittee go further: They are of the opinion, not only that as from the absence of by-laws fully defining the powers, partments are thug separated, and placed under the control Congress has the right to contribute to the extent stated, in duties, and relations of all the officers employed in them. of well devised and clearly defined regulations, never inter- such cases, but that it is in duty bound to do so, as the repThe committee is particularly desirous to have it understood fering with each other, but working freely and liarmo- resentative of a part of the proprietors of the land to be that they feel justified in expressing a very decided opinion niously in their respective spheres, each principal respon- benefited. It would be neither jast nor fair for it to stand that the difficulties that have arisen, and which the evi- sible only for bis own province, and subject alike to a com- by and realjze the advantage they would derive from this dence sufficiently discloses in the bosom of the Institution, mon head, whether the Secretary of the Interior or a Board work without contributing a due proportion towards its and the dissatisfaction that may exist in some portions of of Regents, the Institution would, we tbink, be found to construction. It would be still less justifiable to refuse to the community, may safely be attributed to the causes just work more auspiciously, and produce the best and greatest contribute, it its effect would be to defeat a work, the conmentioned, and not in the least to any want of fidelity or results. For the committee,
struction of which, while it would enhance the value of zeal on the part of its managers.
“CHARLES 'W. UPHAM, Chairman.” the land belonging to the public, and that of individual “ As it respects the general policy, advocated by the
proprietors, would promote the prosperity of the country friends of a library, to make it the prominent feature of the
generally. Smithsonian Institution, the committee are of opinion that
GRANTS OF LAND FOR RAILROADS.
President Pierce, in his first annual message to the funds of the Institution are sufficient to accomplish that object at a more rapid rate of gradual accumulation than
Congress, 1853, said: heretofore, without essentially impairing the usefulness and SPEECH OF HON. JOHN PERKINS, “ Numerous applications have been, and no doubt will efficacy of the policy pursued at present by the managers. Active operations, original researches, and the publication
continue to be, made for grants of land in aid of the con
struction of railways. It is not believed to be within the of scientific treatises, if the wirole income were consumed IN THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES, intent and meaning of the Constitution that the power to in them, would have to be confined far within the limits of
dispose of the public domain should be used otherwise than what would be desirable. A limitation must be suffered at
February 28, 1855,
might be expected from a prudent proprietor, and therefore, some point within the income; and the satisfaction of the country is of greater importance than a few thousand dol
On the bill granting alternate sections of Land to that grants of land to aid in the construction of roads should lars, more or less, expended in either direction.
aid in the construction of the Vicksburg and
be restricted to cases where it would be for the interest of
a proprietor, under like circumstances, thus to contribute to "But a few words are needed to do justice to the value Shreveport Railroad.
ibe construction of these works. For the practical operation of a great universal library at the metropolis of the Union. Every person who undertakes to prepare and publish a
Mr. PERKINS, of Louisiana, said:
of such grants, thus far, in advancing the interests of the
States in which the works are located, and, at the same book, on any subject, will be found io bear testimony to the Mr. SPEAKER: In offering the bill granting al
time, the substantial interests of all the other States, by need of such a library. The great historians and classical ternate sections of land to aid in the construction enhancing the value and promoting the rapid sale of the writers of the country have to send abroad, often to go of the Vicksburg and Shreveport railroad, pre- public domain, I refer you to the report of the Secretary of abroad in person, in order to obtain inaterials for their works. All literary men are eager to inspect catalogues, and explore pared by the Committee on Public Lands, as an
the Interior. A careful examination, however, will show
that this experience is the result of a just discrimination, alcoves, in the prosecution of iheir favorite departments; amendment to the railroad bill now before the
and will be far from affording encouragement to & reckless and there is no direction in which they are more tempted House, my object is to avoid anything like sec- or indiscriminate extension of the principle.” to drain their frequently quite moderate resources, than in
tionalism in the passage of either of these bills.
The Secretary of the Interior said:
“There can be as little doubt of the constitutionality of
"The right to donate a part for the enhancement of the not acquainted with their wants will be likely to suppose. In half a century it would give to America a library
Substantially, the same bill that I now offer as
value of the residue can no longer be justly questioned. unequalled in value, and probably in size, in the world. an amendment has passed twice the Senate. It
The principle has been adopted and acted upon for nearly
thirty years; and since experience has shown it to be pro“There is a special reason why such a library should be was introduced into this House last session, be- ductive of so much good, no sound reason is perceived provided at the seat of the Federal Government. The an
fore any of the other bills now with the Commit- why it should now be abandoned.
* It has been of incalculable importance to the great West, during their whole duration, are within the range of un- I see no reason why its report should be delayed.
and either directly or indirectly to all the States."
out reflecting upon the members of the committee in his report, 1853, said:
for the order in which they are disposed to bring “The great and extraordinary increase in the amount of solid basis of ascertained facts. In each State and Territory forward their bills, that I offer it at this time.
lands disposed of in sections of the country remote from there are, and from the first have been, many persons who If it is voted down now, it will again come up,
each other, can only be accounted for by the improvements, are preparing, and have published, works illustrative of the
aided by grants of alternate sections of land." If nocher when reported by the committee, should the com- reason existed this one, on the score of sound economy, entire progress of those respective communities. In local histories, commemorative addresses, and the vast variety mittee be again called.
would be sufficient. Many of these lands, however, have of productions of this sort, our literature is rich and ample.- My time will not permit me, Mr. Speaker, to
beep in market long enough for the interest to amount to beyond that of any other people. There is no way in which do more than suggest the points I would wish to
much more than the principle, and during all this period the patriotism and virtue of a people can be so effectually
the States were deprived of the right and benefit of taxafostered and strengthened as by cherishing in their breasis discuss fully before the House.
tion.” “ To grants of this character for railroads,” he con"an interest in their ancestry, in the incidents that have
The action of past Congresses on the subject of tinues, "not one tangible or substantial objection can be marked the fortunes of their states, their towns, and the railroads, the indorsement of the policy and consti
presented. The increased value given to the lands enables scenes of their residence-the transmitted reminiscences of || tutionality of the grants of alternate sections of
the Government to get double price and a ready sale for their homes and firesides. It would be a great and a good
those retained, and hence the grant costs them nothing." land to aid in their construction by Mr. Calhoun, thing, could there be collected in a national library, in distinct alcoves, all valuable publications illustrating the his. the reasoning of the President's first message on
The power to “dispose of " the public lands tory of the several States of the Union. Different processes the subject, and the full approval of the same policy
exists. The exercise of this power is in the Gov. of legislation, and various social and political influences, in the annual report of the Secretary of the Inte
ernment as proprietor, and although limited prophave operated upon them severally, and the records of the results ought to be here for tbe inspection and instruction rior, makes entirely unnecessary any constitutional
erly by the nature and restraints of the Constituof the Representatives of the people, of the people them- argument.
tion, the power, if employed at ail, should be to selves, and of the whole world.
The third section of the fourth article of the
insure the greatest advantage to the country. “But if every other description of books is avoided or Constitution says:
Those who interpret the Constitution most crowded out, there is one which surely ought not to be. If the resources of the Institution are to be exclusively or Congress shall have power to dispose of, and make all largely, and contend for the right, under it, to mainly devoted to science rather than to general literature
needful rules and regulations respecting, the territory or carry on a general system of internal improveand knowledge, it ought, at any rate, to have within its
other property belonging to the United States; and nothing menis, find no difficulty in these grants. Those walls a perfect and universal library of science and art; not
in this Constitution shall be so construed as to prejudice who, like Mr. Calhoun, interpret strictly the merely modern science and recent researches, but all the any claims of the United States, or of any particular State.”
terms of that instrument, deduce the power from publications of all ages, and all countries, ihat illustrate the Mr. Calhoun, in a report to the Senate on the progress of science, as such. If we cannot have a univer
the proprietary character of the Government. Eal library, give us, at least, a scientific library, such as no
memorial of the Memphis convention, at the ses- The difficulty is in the limitation of the power. other nation can boast. sion of 1845–46, said:
But there are guards upon its exercise that do not "One advantage of a liberal expenditure for a library, not “ Your committee will next proceed to consider that por- exist in appropriations for internal improvement, to be thought lightly of in a Government resting entirely on tion of the memorial which relates to the communication
both of time and locality. Time ceases when all popular opinion, is that it results in something that shows by railroad between the valley of the Mississippi and the for itself. The people can see in it what has become of the southern Atlantic States. They regard works of the kind
the lands in a State are appropriated. The localmoney. It would forever grow before their eyes, and in as belonging to internal improvements, (that is, improve ily is determined in the designation by a State of the all coming generations, from its unapproached and ever ments within the body of the States,) and as such are, in road chartered, and the confining of the grant by expanding magnitude, would be an object of perpetually their opinion, not embraced in the power to regulate comincreasing national pride. Under the present policy, the merce. But they are, nevertheless, or opinion, that where
the Government to the vicinity of such roads. funds disappear as ihey are expended, however salutary such roads, or other works of internal improvement, may Illinois has received for railroad purposes, 2,595,053 acres. their application may have been, and the only monumenis pass through public lands, the United States may contribute Missouri
2,442,240 are a few volumes, admirable, no doubt, in their form and io their constructionrin their character of proprietors, 10 the Alabama
419,528 substance, highly appreciated by scientific societies at extent that they may be enhanced in price thereby. This has Mississippi
737,130 home and abroad, but never seen by the people. usually been done by ceding alternate sections on the pro. Arkansas
2,189,200 " The short time allowed them, the necessary consequent jected line of such works, and it is believed that no mode inadequaieness of their investigations and deliberations, of contribution more fair, or better calculated to guard In all.....
..8,383,151 acres and the impossibility of any legislative action by this Con- against abuses, can be devised. gress, restrain the committee from reporting any bill to the " That Congress has a right to make such contributions,
of land have been thus granted. House ; but, in view of all the circumstances, as a measure where there is reasonable ground to believe that the public It is proposed, by the amendment I have offered, of peace, as a inutualconcession, which, in such a matter, is lands will be enhanced in proportion, under its right io dis- to grant to the State of Louisiana, for the Vickothe on.y way of settling a difficulty, they would express pose of the territory and other public property of the burg and Shreveport railroad, alternate sections of their conviction that ihe compromise adopted at, an early United States,' your committee cannot doubt. In makiog day by the Board of Regents, ought to be restored, and that this assertion, they hold to the rule of strict construction ;
land on the same terms of the grants to these all desirable ends may be ultimately secured by dividing and that this power, like all the other powers of the Govern:
EXPENDITURES BY THE UNITED STATES TREASURY IN
363 537 93
aud Arkansas rivers..
If this bill passes, it will secure to that railroad the State of Louisiana from 1821 to 1853,
sessions, and west to and over the Rocky mountabout 729,600 acres.
$4,976,262 54 A letter from the Commissioner of the Land Surveys, &c., igcluding sala
ains, you gave but $15,000,000. Years since ries and commissioner 10
you have been more than paid back this sum from Office, which I have just received, says:
settle land claims..
the sale of lands, within but a small portion of “In regard to the lands along the Vicksburg and Shreve- Received from miscellaneous sources....
this territory. port railroad, I have to state, as follows:
532,044 31 T'he estimated quantity of land proposed to be granted
Amount of Moneys received for Lands sold in the under. Net amount received from all sources..$47,112,134 16
mentioned States up to Junuary 1st, 1849, as per Stateis.
729,600 acres. Tbe estimated vacant within six miles, on
ment of R. M. Young, Commissioner of the General each side of the road is... . 422,400"
Land Office, and as per Appendix to the Report of the “The average length of time these lands have been in
THE STATE OF LOUISIANA FROM 1812 to 1853.
Commissioner for the year 1848, page 255. market is twenty one years. About three quarters of the Expenses of the judiciary, including salaries of judges, lands were offered between the years 1822 and 1843. The attorneys, marshals, &c ...
$685,779 30 remaining one quarter-chiefly in the De Bastrop claim
Acres sold. Money received Expenses of marine hospital establishments.. "541,412 98 is not yet offered. The graduated price of lands in market Support and maintenance of light-houses.... twenty one years would be fifty cents per acre. Building light-houses, buoys, & c...... 259,755 33
9,726,360.86 $12,721,141 64 “I am, very respectfully, your obedient servant,
3,224,025.80 4,086,394 26 “JOHN WILSON, Commissioner," Building branch Mint, including the machin
2,995,237.15 3,769,694 90 ery, &c..........
2,361,022.24 This, sir, is not a large demand. Reduced to
2,954,052 29 Salaries of officers, wages of workmen, and dollars, it would be about $350,000. This is in contingent expenses of branch Mint....... 947,334 63
18,306,646.05) $23,531,283 09 the supposition that there remain sufficient vacant Building marine hospital...
123,081 00 land within twelve miles of the line of the road to Improving the navigation of the Ohio and
*Averaged per acre, $1 31. tAveraged per acre, 41 27.
Mississippi rivers... supply alternate sections for the grant. Within
Averaged per acre, $1 20. ŞAveraged per acre, $1 25 1.9. the last three months, however, a very large porImproving the pavigation of the Ohio and
Every dollar you now realize from the sale of the Mississippi rivers from Pittsburg to New tion of these lands have been entered in anticipa- Orleans...
remaining land in the State of Louisiana is in the tion of the construction of the road, and the fairer Improving the navigation of the Ohio and
nature of profits from a Government speculation. estimate would be that the lands to be conveyed
Mississippi rivers, irom Louisville to New
I have once before, since I have been in this Orleans..
191,300 00 by this bill do not value at more than $250,000.
House, alluded to this subject, as a cause of just Improving the navigation of the Ohio, MisLouisiana has never yet had a grant of land for rail- souri, and Mississippi rivers..
complaint. Mr. Benton said, in 1829, that the
258,523 84 road purposes. All that she has ever asked for, Improving the Missouri, Mississippi, Obio,
Federal Government had treated Louisiana worse is less than you have granted to the State of Illi- | Increasing the depth of the inouths of the
with reference to her lands than she had been nois.
treated by the kings of France and Spain. His Nőississippi
words were: “ For all that the Federal GovernRoad from New Orleans to Canton.
Improving the navigation of the Red river... 433,070 36
ment has done, that State would now be a desert,"
Snag and dredge boats for the use of Ohio, to 31sto latitude... 90 grant would be 540 345,600
Mr. Livingston, in 1830, said that in the Missouri, and Mississippi rivers.. Road fron N, 0. to
140,596 00 Improving the Mississippi river below the
twenty-five years she had been in the Union the Mobile,
rapids. Distance from N. 0.
Feileral Government had retarded her just one Forts, fortifications, and other works of de
half in her population;" and the Commissioner at to Pearl river.... 32
fense.... Road from N. O., via
2,387,089 23 the head of your General Land Office has said, Opclousas, to 'L'exRefunding money for land sold in the Greens
" that it would have been cheaper for the original ian line..........
citizens of Louisiana to have purchased over again Road from Vicksb's,
Expenditures of all kinds................... $9,208,857 37 their lands from the General Government, than to via Shreveport, 10 Texia! line...... 190 729,600
have incurred the expense of the litigation to BALANCE-SHEET-LOUISIANA.
which they have been exposed in defending their Total......... 622 3,732 2,338,480 | To receipts, net.........
.$47,112,134 16 To expenditures...
titles.” 9,208,857 37
I refer to these facts, Mr. Speaker, as showing, The States all around her have had such grants.
$37,903,276 79 that aside from the peculiar merit of the present They have been made to Alabama and Missis
grant, Louisiana has claims of a general character sippi on the east; Arkansas and Missouri on the This statement exhibits the net proceeds, say upon the consideration of Congress. north. Texas on the west, has entire possession: $37,903,276 79 of the receipts of Louisiana from Gentlemen may remind me of the swamp grant of all her lands. Why this distinction? Louis- her admission into the Union in 1812 until 30th of of near ten millions of acres, made to Louisiana iana purchased after the adoption of the Constitu- June, 1853, after deducting every expenditure by at the time of similar grants to the other States, tion--from her history—the treaty stipulations of the Federal Government within the State, as well South and West. her cession; and her peculiar position, with the as the appropriations to the Mississippi and its This was, Mrs Speaker, to some of the States, . mouths of the Mississippi river within her borders, tributaries.
in many respects a munificent grant. It was, as has certainly as great a claim upon the considera- Mr. Speaker, the interest of Louisiana, particu- regards Louisiana, certainly a most just and proper tion of Congress. She brought with her to the larly the portion of it that I represent, is agricul- || grant. The Representative, (Mr. Harmanson, Union, the tree navigation of the Mississippi. tural.
who, by his active zeal, honorably attached his She gave to the United States the commerce of the The Mississippi river, flowing along the borders name to the legislation which secured it was from Gulíof Mexico; and opened the way to the Pacific of the seven land States of Wisocnsin, Iowa, Illi- the congressional district of Louisiana I now repcoast. She has “contributed more,” it has been nois, Indiana, Missouri, Arkansas, and Missis
resent. His untiring exertions in this behalf were well said, “than any other cause,” to the growth sippi, passes through Louisiana with a western gratefully appreciated at home. and prosperity of the valley States east of the Mis- bank of more than six hundred miles, and an eastsissippi, whose commerce has built up the cities, ern one of more than four hundred, together, about by the grant to the same extent as the other States
But, sir, Louisiana has not yet been benefited the commercial marine, the manufactures, the one thousand miles.
who were its recipients. It was a grant not only canals, and railroads of the States bordering on The alluvial bottom along its course, that is but to reclaim land, but to secure from miasma and the Atlantic.
a narrow strip above Missouri, widens out with | disease, a large region of country. Disease, which In return for all this, Louisiana, Mr. Speaker, | the waters of its lower tributaries into an immense higher up the Mississippi river, strikes here and has received but little from the Government. She basin of low land, that gives to Louisiana a gulf there an individual, has, in some instances in has not, to be sure, been importunate in her de- shore of several hundred miles all along the line | Louisiana, swept whole communities. mands, and I hope she never will be; but when of, and over and through which the waters of the The object of the grant was to enable the State she has a just claim upon the Government it great West reach the Gulf level.
to do what the General Government could not so should be acknowledged. The money paid into This physical peculiarity has given to Louisiana well do, remove, by a system of draining and the Treasury for her lands, and collected on cus. an exceptional character of interest, connected leveeing, the causes of a miasma which, generated toms from her commerce, has been to her a dead | with the land policy of the Federal Government,
in swamps more than half the year covered with loss of so much extracted from her wealth and difficult to be appreciated by one who has not lived water, and protected by deep and thick forests disbursed in remote portions of the Union. She within her borders. has been, in fact, like a mine, out of which treas- The fact that she has been under three different the more elevated and healthy regions on each
from the sun, was borne by currents of wind, over ure has been dug for the General Government rules-Spanish, French and American-has com- side. I have in my hand the report of the Board
I have a remarkable table of receipts and expen- plicated her land titles, and dotted her over with of Swamp Land Commissioners of Louisiana, ditures by the Federal Government in Louisiana, disputed grants and unadjusted claims, that in addressed to the Governor of the State, January to which I invite the attention of the House. 1849 numbered 4,721,180 acres. Although organ- 2, 1854, with reference to these lands. From it! RECEIPTS INTO THE UNITED STATES TREASURY FROM ized as a Territory in 1804, and as a State in find,
that in that year, two out of the three engis 1812, the first land office opened within her limits Customs.
was in 1818, and such was the delay on the part | land fell victims to disease. From the report for The gross amount received from customs in the State or
of the General Government in surveying her Louisiana from 1812 to 1853, inciusive, was $59,663,663 77
the present year it appears that the survey has Debentures, drawbacks, rúa
lands, that of her (in round numbers) 29,000,000 | been again delayed by reason of the ill health of funded duties, &c. ... .$12,897,393 98
acres of land, only 2,700,000 had, up to 1850, been those exposed in this duty. Expenses of collecting rev
surveyed. enues from customs....... 3,855,503 01 In fact, sir, since her introduction into the l of the State for the year 1854, says that the pro
The united report of the three commissioners 16,752,896 99
Union, she has been like a captive fettered by the tection levees on the Mississippi river, with other Net proceeds from customs...........
$42,910 766 78
operation of your land system. For the whole rivers and bayous of the State, require such great
of the original territory of Louisiana, beyond the expenditures ihat the lands available to that State The gross amount received from lands in
Mississippi, extending north to the British pos- may not produce more than sufficient to guard
TIE STATE OF LOUISIANA.
330 Cong....20 Sess.
Ho. OF REPs.
Grants of Land for Railroads-Mr. Perkins, of Louisiana.
19 00 16 00 13 00 10 00
against overfcw. And that the draining of the lands would not cost, for main drains, machinery and building, more than eight dollars per acre, or $72,000 for nine thousand acres.
This is the outlay calculated to be made by the State for “ main drains" only. The smaller drains and clearings are pot included in this estimate, and are to be performed when preparing for cultivation. One of these commissioners, an old and respected citizen of the State, (Colonel Van Winkle,) says, in his report to the Governor:
“It is now, with fear and trembling, that the citizens of our State witness the annual rise of the Mississippi, not knowing at what moment the labor of years may be swept away, and all their plans for the future dissipated.”
The effect has been this: The water of the Mississippi river leveed out from the banks above, has been forced down upon Louisiana, in an increased volume, making it necessary to strengthen and build higher her levees, cut outlets, and make drains, resulting in the organization under scientific men, of a system of State internal drainage, attended with great expense, and entirely unknown in any other State of the Union. So great has been the expense entailed upon her by this means, that the Commissioner of the General Land Office, (Mr. Wilson,) than whom no one is better acquainted with the peculiarities of Louisiana swamp lands, recommended in 1852, as but an act of justice and propriety, the granting to her the remaining ten millions of acres of public land within her borders.
Under these circumstances, Mr. Speaker, I trust there will be no more allusion in this. House to the grant of swamp lands to Louisiana as a gratuity.. In no light can it be regarded as a gratuity. A great portion of the land comprehended in the grant has never yet been surveyed, by reason of their low and marshy character. Had the General Government received no other considera. tion, the enhanced value in the reclamation of large tracts of public land heretofore produced by private levees would be a full equivalent.
But, Mr. Speaker, I leave this general view of the subject, and ask the attention of the House, while 1 state, as briefly as possible, a few of the particular reasons in favor of the grant of lands under the bill now before the House.
1. The local peculiarities of the country to be traversed by the proposed railroad, are such as to make it greatly to the interest of the Government to grant alternate sections of land in order to give value to the remaining sections.
2. The national character of the road for which the grant is asked, and the terms of the bill under which it is to be conveyed, strongly recommend it to the favorable consideration of Congress.
3. The amount of land asked is so small, and, in its present inaccessible state, its value so little, that, even should this bill pase, nominally making a grant to the State, the Government in reality will have made a most profitable contract.
I believe that the land to be conveyed under this bill will be more than reimbursed in value to the Government, threefold.
1. By the increased value of the remaining sections of land along the route.
2. By the saving in the carrying of the United States mail.
3. By the saving in the transportation of its troops and military stores.
The Vicksburg and Shreveport railroad company's charter bears date the 5th July, 1852. The company was organized the 25th January, 1853.
The route from Vicksburg across to the Texas line has been surveyed. The distance is two hundred and ten miles. The State of Louisiana has subscribed for $800,000 of stock. Individuals living along the line, the parishes through which it passes, and persons living at the proposed termini, have liberally subscribed. Portions of the road are now under construction, and such is the deep interest felt that many of the planters along the route have contracted for portions of the work, to receive pay in stock.
In the entire distance across the State the road will vary only nine miles from a direct line. From Vicksburg, on the Mississippi river, it will pass directly west to Monroe, in Louisiana, a distance of seventy-five miles, and from Monroe to Shreveport, a distance of about one hundred miles, and from there to the Texas line west about thirty
miles. The entire distance, in all, is about two of 46,099 slaves. Their white population in 1850 hundred miles. The elevation in this distance will was 33,392. I cannot be much in error in relying be only about fifty feet.
upon a calculation made by my colleague, (Judge When completed, the immediate advantages of Jones,] when I estimate the product of these the road will be felt in the development of the parishes for 1853 to have been nearly 300,000 bales interior regions of Arkansas, Texas, and Mis- of cotton. Complete this railroad, and the insissippi; while its connection with a system of roads creased facility to market will draw a dense popu. to extend through Texas to the Pacific, will open a lation, and cause greatly increased production. I large avenue of rich trade. There is not, perhaps, a have here, sir, a remarkable table, to which I richer agricultural region in the world than portions invite attention, as showing the difference in the of that through which the road will pass. It is expense of getting produce to market at the South intersected by marshy lakes, bayous, and small by ordinary roads of the country and by railroad: rivers seldom navigable. What Napoleon once
STATEMENTcalled, on his return from his Russian campaign, Showing the value of a ton of Cotton, say five bales of four a fifih element of nature in addition to earth, water, hundred pounds each, al seven cents per pound, equal to air, and fire, mud makes it impassable to ordinary
$140 the ton, and one of sugar, say, two hogsheads, of roads. There are in it tracts of the finest cotton
one thousand pounds cach, at threc and a half per cent.
per pound, equal to seventy dollars the ton-at given and sugar land in the world, lying entirely unpro- points from market, as offected by cost of transportation ductive, islets, as it were, in a region of morass. by railroad, and over the ordinary roads, computing the The road will cross the triangle of land between
cost by railroad at three cents per ton,
ten miles, and by the
ordinary road, one dollar and a half per hundred for len the Mississippi and the Red river, bringing into
miles--ihe estimated average rates in the southern country market these lands, and connecting, as a link, the by theğe two modes of conveyance : railroad going west, terminating at Vicksburg, with that coming east from Texas at Shreveport.
Transportation Transportation I hold in my hand a table, drawn from the last
by railroad. by ordn'y road. census returns, showing the extent, population,
Cotton. Sugar Cotton. Sugar. agricultural product, and wealth of the twelve
$140 00 $70 00 9140 00 $70 00 parishes most nearly interested in the construction
10 miles from market... 139 70 69 70 137 00 67 00 of this road.
20 miles from market...! 139 40 69 40 134 00
64 00 30 miles from market... 139 10 69 10 131 00 40 miles from market... 138 80 68 80 123 00
58 00 50 miles from market... 138 50 68 50 125 00 60 miles from market... 138 20 68 20 12200 52 001 70 miles from market... 137 70 67 90 119 00 49 00 80 miles from market... 137 60 67 60 116 00 90 miles from market... 137 30
67 30 113 00
43 00 100 miles from market...
137 GO 67 CO 110 00 40 CO White popula110 miles from market... 136 70 66 70 107 00
37 00 tion. 120 miles from market... 136 40 66 40 104 00
34 00 130 miles from market... 135 10 66 10 101 00
31 00 140 miles from market... 135 80 65 0 93 00
28 00 Free colored
150 miles from market... 135 50 65 50) 95 00 population.
135 20 100 miles from market...
92 00 Rajans' '
22 00 170 miles from market... 134 90 64 90 89 00 180 miles from market... 134 60 64 60 86 00
64 30 190 miles from market... 134 30
8300 Total free pop
63 70 77 00 700 220 miles from market... 133 40 63 40 74 00 400
230 miles from market... 133 10 63 10 71 00 100 Slave popula
240 miles from market. 132 80 62 80 68 00
250 miles from market... 132 50 62 50 65 00
280 miles from market... 131 60 61 60 56 00
290 miles from market... 131 30 61 30 53 00
2010 410 miles from market... 127 70 57 70 17 00 Cash value of
420 miles from market... 127 40 57 40 14 00
430 miles froin market... 127 10 57 10 11 00
470 miles from market... 125 90 55 90
480 miles from market... 125 60 55 60
These facts and figures are not given except to show that this application for land is not made in
behalf of a small interest, or for the advantage of Value of live
a few speculators. stock.
If ever there was an application for a grant of lands for railroad purposes within State that could with propriety be termed national in its char
racter, this is certainly one. It is to connect the Bushels of In
great chain of railroads which already exists, with corn.
one or two broken links from Charleston to Vicks
burg, with that which is provided for in the mag. Ginned cotton
nificent grant by Texas to construct a road across -bales of 400
her entire borders. lbs.
A region of country five times the size of the great
State of New York, and much larger than the Average crops
whole of New England, lies to the southwest of of corn-bushels.
the Mississippi valley, all embraced within the single State of Texas. Its resources are yet un.
developed. In population and wealth it will exceed Average crops |
what New England now is. Without going beyond cotton-bales
its limits we may, without any stretch of imaginof 400 lbs.
ation, picture it to the other States of the South,
and in its influence upon the Union what New Their production in 1851 was 138 bales of cot- || England has been to the northern States and the ton and 2,000,000 bushels of corn, from the labor | Union. This region, once alien, now seeks to be
5,008 20,373 38,539
44,174 136,621 6,962 40,284 114,066 5,539 18,015 | 42,559
farms. Acres of land in
considered average crops. Statistics of the undermentioned Parishes in Louisiana as per United States Census returns of 1850, with the Marshal's returns of what are
330 CONG....20 Sess.
Grants of Land for Railroads—Mr. Perkins, of Louisiana.
Ho. OF REPS.
bound yet closer by increased means of inter- 3. By the bill, the road, when constructed, will seemed to me very much like an effort to shut her course and trade with the Union.
"remain a public highway for the use of the Gov- off from all the advantages of the Pacific trade. I Her gulf shores are shallow, and not always ernment of the United States, free from toll or do not charge it as such an effort. I have too accessible to our large merchant vessels.
other charge upon the transportation of any prop- much respect for the gentleman from Indiana (Mr. The Red river, her natural outlet to the Missis- erty or troops of the United States." Under this || Davis) to believe that was the design; but, sir, sippi valley, is obstructed in its navigation by section, in case of war with Mexico, the Govern- coming from almost any other source, I would rafts and other causes, that make it, for almost ment would be in one year more than repaid in the have believed it to have been such an effort. To six months in the year, entirely useless for trade. || transportation of its troops, the full value of the the proposition to construct a great central road The small town of Shreveport, of only a dozen lands proposed to be granted. That this may be to the Pacific, with one northern branch running houses a few years since, has grown into a flour- || perfectly plain, I call attention to House document towards the great lakes, and the other, not, sir, ishing city, second only to New Orleans in popu- No. 24, containing a letter from the Secretary of towards the Gulf of Mexico, but towards Memlation and wealth, of any in Louisiana. It has War, transmitting reports in reference to obstruc-phis, I did not move an amendment turning that become so by being the stopping point of the tions to the navigation of the Red river, dated southern branch towards New Orleans; for even wealth and trade of the West in its course East. | January 16, 1854, in which the Quartermaster then it would have been a virtual exclusion of both Often the merchants of Texas, deterred by the Department reports to Colonel Davis, that in 1851 Texas and Louisiana from the advantages of the sickness in the Gulf cities, from passing through it was estimated “that if the raft in Red river California trade. them, on their way East for northern purchases, were removed, so as to afford an unobstructed My colleague (Judge DUNBAR) offered the bill have been obliged to trust the uncertain and cir- | navigation to that river, it would result in a saving of the Senate, providing for a northern, a central, cuitous navigation of the Red river, or to force of about $4,500 for each company to be supplied | and a southern route. Could anything be more their way by land across north Louisiana, along or for a regiment about $45,000 annually." just? It was rejected. I then offered to the the very line of this projected road. The emigra- The report says that from 1851 to 1854 the cost House a proposition prepared by the member tion from the States east of the Mississippi, west of transportation remained about the same. from Arkansas, (Mr. Warren,] which I thought over this line, and through Shreveport to Texas, General Jesup, in 1851, gave the data of this national and entirely just towards all sections. It is very great. It has been estimated, in some calculation, as follows:
was, that the Government should grant alternate sece years, from sixty to one hundred thousand per- On one hundred and thirty-two thousand one hundred and tions of land for the construction of a railroad through Bons. When the water in Red river is low, the sixty pounds subsistence, at three cents per
its Territories, from any point west of the Mississippi
pound........ principal portion of it is through by land; and
$3,964 80 On five thousand pounds clothing and camp equi
river that individual enterprise and capital should when high, by the river. It is not unusual at cer
page, at three cents per pound.
150 00 select, with proper guarantees for its completion to the tain seasons (my colleague, Judge Jones, tells On ien thousand pounds quartermaster's ord
Pacific. To such a grant few entertain constitume) to see forty or fifty large traveling wagons nance, and medical stores, at three cents per
tional objections. President Pierce, in his first pound......
300 00 together, on the eastern bank of the Red river,
annual message, said: On twenty-eight enlisted men, at four dollars each, waiting their turn to cross the ferry toward Shreve
“ Congress, representing the proprietors of the territorial port.
Amount saved to a company......
$4,526 80 domain,
and charged especially with power to dispose of
territory belonging to the United States, has, for a long I will not enlarge upon the commercial advant
course of years, beginning with the Administration of Mr. ages to result from the completion of this road. There is at present one regiment (6 h infantry) which is
Jefferson, exercised the power to construet roads wilkin li will open a direct, valuable, and increasing deto be supplied from Fort Smith, or by Red river; conse
the Territories, and there are so many and obvious distintomand for the manufactured articles of the middle quently, the saving to the Government, which would be
tions between this exercise of power and that of making made by the removal of the raft, may be estimated at and southern, as well as for those of the northern
roads within the States, that the former has never been $45,000 annually, provided a regiment of troops is to be
considered subject to such objections as applied to the States. It will go far towards completing, almost maintained on that line of the frontier, and in proportion as
Jalfer, and such inay now be considered the setiled conon the same parallel of latitude, of thirty-two the number may be decreased or increased.
struction of the power of the Federal Government on the
The foregoing calculation is based upon the supposition degrees, the longest line of railroad in the world,
subject." that only the new posts ordered to be established by the fifth and passing through the richest agricultural region | infantry are to be supplied by way of Red river; but, if that Asking no monopoly, Mr. Speaker, by the that exists. It will make comparatively easy the
river should be effectually cleared out so as to render its Federal Government of this trade to herself, I accomplishment by capitalists, even without the
pavigation certain during the high stages of water, it is
know I speak the sentiment of Louisiana when aid of Government, of railroad communication with occupied by other troops, could be more economically sup
I say she will not acquiesce without a sense of the Pacific, and through a region embarrassed plied than at present, by way of Indianola, on the coast ; wrong done her in any legislation on the part of neither by the snows of winter,
nor the excessive added to which, it is but fair to presume that, as the posts Congress which secures it to some other State heats of summer. The fields where are grown
on the new line be pushed forward towards the Rio Grande,
further north. Natural advantages, capital, and the cotton and sugar of the world will be along its certain for supplying the posts in the vicinity of El Paso, in
individual enterprise should determine the route. line. The gold mines of California and the trade New Mexico, than the present routes via Indianola or Fort Left to such a decision, I have no doubt where of the Pacific will be at one end, and Cuba and that Leavenworth.
the railroad will run. I have material which, on of the Atlantic near the other. The same trade that It will be observed that this saving, of near this point, it seems to me, should satisfy every made the shores of the Mediterranean sea to bloom | $50,000, is the difference between what the Govern- unprejudiced mind. To place it on record, and, with civilization and built up large cities along its ment now pays, and what it would have to pay for at the same time, give it circulation, I will conline, will pass directly through our borders. There the transportation of troops and military stores, clude my remarks by reading it: can be no calculation of the effect upon the future were the raft in the Red. river removed. By the Captain Marcy, in his report dated November of the South. New life and energy will be given | railroad, if constructed, with the aid of a grant 20, 1849, concludes by saying: to every interest. I forbear, however, to more than of lands from the Government, its saving would “ From all I can learn of the other routes to California, suggest a few of these national considerations. be of nearly the entire amount now expended. It
I am induced to believe, that should our Government at any I have said, Mr. Speaker, that the grant of al- is not extravagant to estimate, therefore, that the
future time determine upon making a national road of any
description across the continent, the southern route we ternate sections to this road would be, I believe, Government would thus be more than paid back
have traveled is eminently worthy of consideration. We more than threefold repaid to the Government. to the fullest in a few years the value of the lands find upon none of the northern routes as much water, tim1. The value of the land granted is to be repaid donated.
ber, or rich fertile soil, as upon this. There are many more by the sale of the remaining sections along the Mr. Speaker, I will not refer to the injustice of
mountains to pass over, and during a part of the year they
are buried in deep snows. line, at double their present price. Experience | individuals-small landed proprietors-paying taxes shows that the Government has been (says the || for the construction of railroads by which the Gen
Major H. H. Merrill, United States Army, Commissioner of the General Land Office) fully | eral Government, the largest landed proprietor along
writing from Austn, Texas, May 6, 1854, to Hon. reimbursed in this way for railroad grants hereto- the line, is to reap the greatest advantage in the en
Anson Jones, of that State, says: fore made. hanced value of iis land, without itself paying even a
“ An active service of over five years in your State, most
of which has been confined to her remote borders, has If there is any doubt, however, on this point cent in taxes. I have heretofore.called to the attention
brought under my personal observation much of her country in the mind of any one, I ask his attention to of the House a calculation made in 1849, that from and,
I may say, quite all you refer to, and as lying east of another aspect of this question. The amount of a forbearance to tax the land of the General Gov
the Rio Grande." "For grazing purposes there is, perhaps, duty on iron which this company will pay into | ernment, within their limits, the States have lost
not a finer country in the world." «The climate of ibis lau
tude is mild and beautiful all seasons of the year." “ For the public Treasury in constructing two hundred | $72,000,000. I have now said, sir, all that I intend general health it will compare with an equal extent of any miles, will of itself pay more than the value of the io say on this subject. My remarks apply, except country throughout the United States." “Nearly all the lands. It is estimated that the present duty on where the Vicksburg and Shreveport railroad is
country along this route is susceptible of a dense population, every mile of railroad iron laid down, is over mentioned, to all the other railroads in Louisiana
composed generally of rich lands easily cultivated, well
watered, and has an abundance of stone, with a due propor$1,200. This form two hundred miles would be for which land grants are asked.
tion of timber." " That the line of 32® is by far tbe cheapest $240,000 paid into the Treasury.
I will not be tempted into anything that even by and most practicable route for the Atlantic and Pacific rail2. The present bill proposes that, first, the Post- || perversion can be construed into a sectional advo- road is, in my owo mind, settled beyond a doubt. Possessmaster General, and afterwards (if it sees proper) cacy of the bill before the House: Louisiana will
ing an easy grade, with ample stone, timber, and water,
passing through a rich and beautiful country, with a climate Congress, shall fix the amount at which the road, construct her roads, Mr. Speaker, whether you not surpassed, if equaled, by any in the world, it cannot when constructed, shall carry the United States grant or refuse her the lands along their line. She fail to attract the atiention of all, and become the favorite mail. The rates now paid railroads for single || has capital, energy, and intelligence united in the
route of the country. The very liberal donation of your daily service vary from $50 to $150 a mile. If, direction of these enterprises. She has never been,
State in granting twenty sections of her land, of six hon.
dred and forty acres each, for every mile ofroad constructed as is most likely, the road should be directed to and I trust she never will be, an importunate beg- on this route, I regard as ample for its entire construction carry the mail for the least sum now paid, it will || gar for grants of any kind from the Federal Gov. within your limits." cause an annual saving to the Government of $100 ernment. If you deny her justiče under the legis. For an interesting and concise statement with a mile. This for the two hundred miles of the road lation of this House, she will, at least, preserve | reference to the couthern route, made by A. B. will be $20,000. Thus by this means in a few her self-respect. When the recent bill for the Gray, (not yet published,) late United States suryears the Government will be reimbursed the value Pacific railroad was up for passage, under the rules veyor of the Mexican boundary, under the treaty, of its lands.
of your House I could not protest against what I of Guadalupe Hidalgo, I am indebted to General
330 CONG....20 Sess.
HO. OF REPs.
Rusk, of Texas. I am assured every reliance can From its perfect accessibility at all seasons of the year, tion. Since I have been a member of this House,
free from the drifting snows of the north, and the malignani be placed upon its correctness:
it has acted upon many important questions. diseases of the tropics, this main trunk railway inust coinEstimates, &c.
mand, to a great extent, the trade and commerce of the Being loth to trespass upon the time of the House, Assuming the distance from Lake Lodo, near Shreveworld.
I have contented myself by giving a silent vote po on Red river, Louisiana, to jhe eastern bank of the The route through Texas, by way of El Paso, or Presidio upon all of them. These were questions which Rio Grande, at El Paso, to be eight hundred miles by the del Norte, to the Gulf of California, would shorten the
had heretofore entered, more or less, into the politroute proposed in the vicinity of the parallelof 32° north present mode of travel from England to Australia, by the latitude, the following estinate will not, I think, be far Isthmus of Panama, at least seven days, by giving a con
ical discussions of our country, and upon them from the truth. It is, of course, only approximate, but,
nected line of railroad for two thousand five hundred miles, my opinions were not unknown to my constitubased upon a computation upon reliable data, and I believe at the rate of from twenty to thirty miles the hour, whereas
ents. Since the commencement of the present that, with proper judgment and economy, and a faithful at present, by the Isthmus, there would be but eighty miles management of affairs, will be fully sufficient to complete at that speed.
session of Congress we have heard discussions in the whole line from the eastern to the western limits of the
D. H. this Hall upon questions which were thought to State of Texas. Time from Liverpool to Isthmus, (steamship,)
have been settled long ago. I allude more parApproximate Estimate.
4,446} miles, at 240 miles per dien....... 18 12+ || ticularly to those great questions of religious tolerto Panama by railway.
4 Ist. 200 miles grading, $4,000......... .$800,000
from Panama 10 Australia, (steamship,)
ation and naturalization. 2d. 200 miles grading, $3,500.
7,637 miles, at 240 miles per diem...... 31 20 I had thought that the question of religious 3d. 200 miles grading, $4.500...
.... 900,000 4th. 200 iniles grading, $9,000..
toleration was setiled by the Constitution of the .1,800,000 Total days......
country, and that American citizens had always 800 miles, at a cost of.... • $4,200,000
proudly boasted that here every man had the right Ballasting, 800 miles, $500........... 8400,000
Time from Liverpool to Halifax
10 02 to worship Almighty God according to the dictates Ties, 800 miles, $2,000....
1 06 of his own conscience, and that this right was not Iron, 800 miles, $8,000..
only guarantied by the fundamental law of the Bridging, 800 miles, $1,500,000........ 1,500,000
sissippi and Pacific route, 2,100 miles, 3 12
land, but was regarded as inherent and inalien.
naturalization laws passed under the administraEquipment.
tion of Jefferson, amended and perfected by subEngines, passenger cars, freight and baggage cars $5,000,000
43 11 Engine houses, station houses, water-slations... 2,000,000
sequent legislation, had given general satisfaction Right of way, engineering, and contingencies... 6,000,000 Were Galway, in Ireland, a packet station, it is shown to the country, with the exception of a small
at a railway convention, that the time of travel between the faction. Throughout the country discussion on Total for live in Texas......
$27,100,000 two great cities of New York and London could be short-
these questions has been revived of late.
To keep pace with the spirit of the times, early I have shown that no impassable barriers exist between Texas and the Gulf of Caliiornia ; and should a railroad be
the $40,000,000 specie annually, and the expresses to and in the present session honorable gentlemen were
from Australia and the South Pacific, at least, would be built through Texas, nothing, in my opinion, can prevent
struggling to get the floor to bring them before its continuance to the Gulf and, likewise to the State of Cal
forced (by the saving of such vast interest) to follow this the House for its consideration. The honorable
Add to ibis the mails, passengers, express packifornia. A line west of El Paso for two hundred and fifty miles to
ages, specie, and manufactured articles that would neces. gentleman from Tennessee, (Mr. TAYLOR,] more
sarily be transported by a railway to and from California a point in the neighborhood of the town of Tubac, (now in
fortunate than his competitors, succeeded in his and the North Pacitic, and enormous returns upon the outthe United States, under the recent treaty with Mexico,)
efforts, and, having obtained the floor, introduced might be a common trunk to California, as well as to the
Jay of capital invested in its construction and maintenance
a bill proposing an alteration of the naturalization Guf. A railway to the latter I conceive would facilitate
The local trade, likewise, that this road would command laws. Sir, that gentleman is responsible for the thetconstruction of a road 10 the former.
is of no little consideration, but of itself, in my opinion, introduction of the subject here, or, if he prefers it, I is less than five hundred miles from the Rio Grande to
would very shortly pay well. The whole valley of the the Gull, and two hundred and fisty of it being in common,
he is entitled to the distinguished honor of having would leave two hundred and finy miles at most to build,
Rio Grande, from Santa Fé to Presidio del Norte, the ex
been the first to introduce this measure into the and when finished would be the means of easy transportaTexas, would be subscrvient to it.
House at the present session of Congress. tion for the heavy materials, necessary to the construction
RECAPITULATION. of the road to California.
And again, sir, not long since a series of resoGuaymas has a large and safe harbor, and accessible at The length of this line from Eastern Texas to the Gulf of lutions embodying certain principles in relation all times. The geographical situation of the Gulf of Cali- California would be 1,275 miles.
to these questions was offered by the honorable fornia renders it certain that some place there must become
Heaviest grades 67 feet per mile for seventeen (17) miles. important, and it holds a conspicuous position in connec- Whole distance through Texas eight hundred miles, I gentleman from Pennsylvania, (Mr. WITTE.). I tion with the speedy construction of ihe line to the Rio (800.)
was called upon to vote for the suspension of the Grande.
Heaviest grade 66 feet, (around Guadalupe mountains,) rules to enable the House to consider those resoThe fine back country of Sonora, Chihuahua, and part which can be avoided by lengthening the line some ten
lutions; and it is not out of place here that I should of New Mexico, with its mineral and agricultural wealth,
miles. has its natural outlet upon that Gulf, and it only awaits a
Settlements extend for 450 miles westward in Texas. give the reasons which influenced me in giving the steady and liberal Government there to develop it as one of Three hundred and filly (350) miles to the Rio Grande at vote which I gave on that occasion. These are the most valuable districts upon the continent. present no settlements.
generally known as the anti-Know-Nothing resoAt the same rate of estimate as given for the line through
Froin Rio Grande 10 the Gulf of California, near Alta,
lutions. the State of Texas, a railroad from the Rio Grande to the
settlements within fifty (50) miles of the route, all the way
I can conceive of no evil, either real, or imagin-
which will justify American freemen in the formI st. 200 miles from El Paso, grading,
T'imber for the first four hundred and fifty (450) miles in &c., $9,000..
ation of secret oath-bound political societies. They 20. 200 iniles from El Paso, grading,
For the second four hundred (400) miles, cotton wood and
may do for the despotism of Russia; they may do &c., $4,500......
pine with some post oak, will have to be transported at for Austria; but there can certainly be no neces3d. 75 miles to the Gull, $3,000.... 225,000
Two hundred miles west Rio Grande, (200 miles,) no 475 miles, at a cost of... $2,925,000 point over (60) sixty miles without timber; and for three
No, sir; in our country, where every man has Ballasting 175 miles, $500..
hundred (300) miles, plenty at convenient distances. the right to speak, print, and publish whatever he Ties,
Climate.-Climate salubrious throughout, admitting of may see fit, only being liable for the abuse of that Iron,
labor on the road at all seasons.
privilege, and where, to use the language of an The greater proportion of country along this line, capable 4,832,500 of the highest state of cultivation, and the minerals and
old revolutionary writer, "The press glows with Equipment.
metals, that will bear transportation upon it, and found in freedom's sacred zeal,”—here, sir, there can be Engines, passenger cars, freight and baggage
its neighborhood, are coal, iron, copper, lead, silver, and wagons....
no necessity for resorting to institutions of this 3,000,000 gold. Engine-bouses, station houses, water-stations,
In concluding this hastily written statement to accom
kind with a view of controlling the legislation of &c... 1,500,000 pany the profile of the line of my reconnoissance, I would
the country. Those who framed our Government Right of way, engineering, and contingencies.. 4,000,000 remark that I am much indebted to my friend, W. J. McAl- wisely provided the means of altering such laws
pine, Esq., late State engineer of New York, for important as needed amendment. They are open to repeal Total............ $16,257,500 memoranda for estimates, &c., wbich much facilitated my
or alteration; but, sir, this can be done through computations. Total cost of line west of Rio Grande..... 16,257,500 I have the honor to be, sir, very respectfully yours,
the ballot-box, in the sunlight of broad day. Our Total cost of line through Texas as per estimate 27,100,000
A. B. GRAY. institutions depend, for their success, on the vir
tue, intelligence, and patriotism of the people; and Total whole line from Mississippi waters to Gulf of California........ 43,357,500
when the time comes in which they will desert the KNOW-NOTHINGISM.
usual mode, do away with the open action of day, The line through Texas, I believe, can be built in five SPEECH OF HON. THOS. RUFFIN,
and resort to these secret cabals to influence the years, and, upon its connection with the gulf, will at once
legislation of the country, then, in my opinion, be available to the China, Australian, and Pacific trade.
OF NORTH CAROLINA,
the days of the Republic are numbered. İle has To Califorvia, it will reduce the time from New York to ten In the HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES, read history with but little profit, who has not days, besides aiding in the continuauon of the road to that State.
February 27, 1855.
observed that in every country where the people The benefits to be derived from the construction of the
have lost their liberties they have brought such. railway along the parallel of 32° north latitude, in Texas, The House being in the Committee of the Whole
misfortune upon themselves. When they have are not alone confined to that State. Incalculable as the on the state of the Union
become demoralized and ready for a change, then advantages may be to her, still every State in this Union
Mr. RUFFIN said: must be deeply interested in it, from the frontiers of Mis
the turmoil of the times has given birth to some souri to the State of Maine, and from the capes of Florida
Mr. Chairman: I rise in my place for the first adventurer who boldly usurps their liberties, asto Corpus Christi. From the Atlantic to the Pacific, I time since I have had a seat upon this floor, with sumes the management of their affairs, and conbelieve, it will be the great trunk from which, at the east, the view of submitting a few remarks. I do not will branch lines to St. Louis, to New York, lo Charleston,
centrates all political power in himself. Learning and New Orleans, and at the west will likewise branch to
propose to discuss the question immediately before lessons of wisdom from the records of the past, let, California and to Guaymas, or some other convenient point the committee, and shall avail myself of the priv. / us strive to escape the calamities that have befalat the gulf,
ilege now accorded me, to consider another ques. len other Republican Governments.