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L.C.375!. guished had not often appeared. The resolution
Heg.1143
& 1144. which the grand vizier had taken to difsemble

with the janissaries, lest that corps should sud-
Spiracy. denly declare against the emperor, cherished at
Deposition Conftantinople a great many malecontents, 'who
grand vi. caballed continually and attempted to stir
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up

the people, whom the dearnels of bread and other necessaries of life soured. It became necessary to punilh some new attempt every day. The blood, which was thus shed drop by drop, cherished the rebellion instead of stilling it. Six jebeggis were found one night armed in the streets; a patrol seized them after they had defended themselves. These wretches, being put to the torture, declared. their chiefs, at whose apartments were found colours and arms, a numerous list of accomplices, and a sort of order of battle which was to be executed at break of day. These chiefs being arrested immediately, were put to death in the outer court of the seraglio, as likewise the jebeggis who had been found armed in the night. The grand feignior saw their execution himself from a window, the blind of which was drawn up. One of the condemned men perceived him, and having caught his eyes, exclaimed: “Son of a Nave, « whilst thou receivest advice from a vizier equally odious to the people and soldiers, and

per“ mittest barley and bran bread to be sold to " these poor people dearer than that of the best “ wheat was formerly, thou wilt never be safe on thy throne. The shedding of the blood of one

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os rebel will give birth to fifty.” These words J.C. 1735.

Heg.11436 made such an impression on the emperor that the & 1144 vizier thought himself ruined. He said to Mahmout, that the rebellion had more powerful instigators than those that had been discovered ; thac several officers of the empire kept up the dearness of bread and at the same time excited the people to complain of it. He gave his master a list of thirty officers of different ranks, whom he accused of being ill affected. By the fide of each name was a particular imputation of different crimes. At the head of this list stood the names of the kisar agast and the captain bashaw. The first was intimately connected with the valid sultaness, and the second greatly protected by this fame kislar aga. A mute, of those who enter at all hours into the prince's chamber, and who are never mistrusted from their not being thought of any confequence, seized this list and carried it instantly to the captain bashaw. The latter loft not a moment to convey it to the kisar agasi, who agreed with the valid fultanels that the grand vizier should be accused that very day of engrossing the corn, the fault of which he wanted to throw on thirty officers, all of whom the sultaness-mother looked upon as her creatures and the most faithful fervants of her son. The deposition and exile of the grand vizier were refolved on without his being heard, solely on some proofs true or supposed which his enemies advanced of the crimes of which he was accused.

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1.C. 1731,He was put on board a saik, and transported to & 1144. the isle of Negropont. T'he seals were given tơ Topal Or. Topal Osman, bashaw of Silistria, whom the

kisar aga presented to the valid sultaness as a creature whom they could do with as they liked.

The new minister, convinced of the necesity of strengthening the state prior to extending it, persuaded his master to conclude a peace: seeing no other means to re-establish abundance and stifle the rebellion, he wrote to the two bashaws Ruftan and Ali, that it was necessary to conclude a treaty

with Shah Thamas, and that he left the conditions peace with to their prudence and zeal; that this prince, who

had just experienced the strength of the Ottoman arms, would not refuse to recover, without striking a blow, one part of the dominions wrested from his father, and that it would be sufficient for the glory of the Ottomans to preserve Georgia. The plenipotentiaries went to Casbin to treat with the Persian monarch. Thamas Koulikhan was not with his master; the king of Persia, pressed to lessen the number of his enemies, and thinking to make a better advantage of Russia, when he should have only that power to fight or conciliate, consented to give up Georgia to the Turks. The plenipotentiaries left him Tauris and all the country which, with regard to Perlia, is on this side of the Araxes.

Georgia all together was not a bad conquest for the Turks. There was reason to hope that the storm would be soon succeeded by a calm.

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Blood no longer ran in Constantinople, as it had .C. 1733. done for more than a year past. The attention & 1145. of Topal Osman restored plenteousness: this able

Topal Orminifter usefully employed the treasures heaped up by Achmet and augmented by the confif- fagacity. cations which the last troubles had occasioned. He bought up a great deal of corn, which was sold at an inferior price to the people. He protected the merchants, and particularly the French, to whom he granted permission to rebuild two churches with stone; which had been burnt at Galata, notwithstanding the clamours of the mufti, and even of the killar aga, "who saw with pain that this minister, who was wholly indebted to him for his power, presumed to do good by himself, without waiting for orders from the ha

The marquis of Villeneuve, the French ambassador, had great reason to be pleased with the ministry of Topal Osman, both for the protection which he gave to the Roman Catholic priests, continually oppressed by the Greek priests and the effendis, and the restitution of several merchant-men taken by the Algerines and Tripolines, though the viziers are not very fond of giving orders of this sort to the tributary republics, for fear of exposing their authority, ".Topal He acquits Osman loved the French, because he had a grate, himfelt of ful heart, and he had received a signal service in tion to a his youth from a merchant of Marseilles... Topal merchango Osman had been taken in a corsair of Tunis. Mr. Armiaud (that was the name of the merchant) VOL. IV,

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1.C. 1732. having seen this Turk in the galleys, was pre-
& 1145 judiced in his favor from his fine figure and gen-

glenefs of manners, which we believe rare among
the people of this nation. Topal, who had learn-
ed a little French, intrusted the merchant who
behaved so kindly to him, with what he had
been very careful how he let drop to any other
person, that he was capable of paying a ransom,
but that he did not know to whom he must address
himself to negotiate this affair, always delicate and
difficult in the execution. Mr. Armiaud, who
was not very rich, made this Turk promise that
he would faithfully repay him what he should ad-
vance for him; and he not only ransomed, but even
furnilhed him with every thing that was necessary
for his return into his own country. The first
care of Topal Osman, on his arrival at Constan-
tinople, was to discharge his obligations to this
generous man. He got preferment in the army
by the protection of the kisar aga, whose interest
he had purchased. He always kept up a cor-
respondence with his French benefactor. As soon
as he was made grand vizier, he pressed him to
come to Constantinople to be a witness of his
glory. Armiaud really paid him a visit. Topal
Osman forced him to accept thirty thousand
piastres, which make three thousand feven hun-
dred and fifty pounds sterling, and two thousand
load of fine wheat, which was not fo fcarce at
Constantinople as the preceding years, as much
by the attention of the vizier as the good crops.

Armiaud

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