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such interferences, I trust that my rea- It is reasonable to think, that ftri&t fonings will be made welcome, and laws against Duelling would only intreated with candour. I have, there- crease the evil, and would be no fuoner fore, in the firit place, carefully exa. made than repealed, from their seve. mined the nature and properties of rity. The Noble Judge who endea. honour, and have found it to be, in voured to make a levere example of fact, no more than polished honesty, the adulterer, only increased the crime that is, honesty, ornamented by the of adultery; a fact well known. He polith of education. Thence it will was not aware that a moral contem. not be very difficult to settle and plation of the crime would be super. determine the proper powers and ceded by an estimate of the probable authorities of that sovereign ruler damages in Westminster-hall. Thus over human conduct in the upper these sentences became merely a new ranks of the people; and the happy species of papal indulgencies, which result will be, that Duelling will allowed the offender to do any thing he become solely the outrageous resource pleased, if he paid well for it. of brainless coxcombs and ignorant How, then, are these things to be set brutes, who cannot better advantage to rignts, better than by taking a larger society than by killing each other portion of peace and good-will into off in thele encounters, and " whose fociety; let us be more like brothers, space may be always better supplied and the arrogancies of high birth or when they have made it enipty.". fortune will be softened by juft and

Much has been ineffectually faid on natural reflections on our true conthe subject of Duelling, and many new dition. There is nothing wanting but

. and ingenious tribunals created in the established principles of love and cha. imaginations of the well-meaning to rity to make us carefully avoid giving prevent its practice ; such as, making pain to others, or too lialtily judging it felony without benefit of clergy, the ourselves offended. establishment of courts of honour, &c. The reason why duels are not near lo &c.:, but these are theories against frequent in the Navy as in the Army which the strong character of a people is, that in the former men live, as it revolts; and the fame punishment that were, in the same house, are together would destroy the crime would destroy day and night, partners in the fame the noble nature of the F.ngliinman in perils and dangers, and bred up, as it the services in which he is wanted, and were, in a school together. Thus the perhaps leave bim without those cner- word fipmate acts as a charm that gies so highly neceffary to the protec. foftens the ruggedness of their natures tion of his country. Every one feels to each other; and the rough manners indignant at the taming of a lion. of the seamen are admirably governed

There is an high senle of honour in by a warm and honeft brotherly love, the Army and Navy that will not sub- that leidom permits great outrages, mit an infult offered to the discussion of and is always ready to forgive. punning Barristers and ignorant Juries, In the army the same high sense of who are too apt to treat as light and honour exists, unchecked by like cir. contemptible the feelings of the poor , cumitances: men are not to well acGentleman, who, if it were not for this ' quainted with each other; they go freappeal, would become the make-game quently from one regiment into anof every rich and powerful coxcomb. other: enligns are not bred up toge

The reader will begin to think that I ther like Midthipmen; and the man. am the advocate of the Duellilt. It is ners of modern foldiers are not so; but I am aware, that in Duelling tainted with the fashionable vices of men act right upon wrong principles; the times. and tlierefore something is to be re.' The manners appear to have under. itored, fome portion of love and cha- gone an entire change within half a rity, some just and proper estimate of. century; and the character that then the mutual bleslings of benevolence constituted a Gentleman is nearly es. necessary to the reciprocal happiness tinet: he used, in those days, to wear a of society that has been lost or neg. sword; but it was merely to diftinguish

lected; and whiclı may induce more his class in fociety, and was seldom or · courteous deportments and milder, never used offensively: he was known manners among men.

by being mild, affable, and courteous,

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in his manners, well informed in his The precepts of neglected religion understanding, and charitable in his are, after all, the most effective to proopinions. There were, it is true, nu. duce peace and good will among men : merous butterflies, who fluttered about the humane and courteous farewell of the balls and allemblies; but they served Joseph to his brethren, “ Sie ye till well enough to amuse the Ladies, and not out by the way," is a lellun for our were perfectly harmless.

journey through life. Let us endeavour to give a faithful It is remarkable that men of sense portrait of the prelent manners of should have ever ridiculed the beautiGentlemen, and the odious likeness ful admonition of our Saviour, conwill disguit even themíelves. Lofty tained in the Sermon upon the Mount, demeanour and language, arrogant en

“ But I lay unto you relitt not evil: quiries and replies, haughty and fuper- but whosoever ihail invite thee on thy cilious looks; the fuaviter in modo is right cheek, turn to him the other . totally neglected. Pride, the grand allo." Perhaps, when justly confidered, disturber of the human breast, accom we hall be obliged to acknowledge, panies the modern man of falhion to that the precepts of the Sermon upon every place, and his frit busine's is to the Mount prove the mind of Jelus

measure the importance of the man he to have been all that we can imagine ' meets with his own ; at the most trilling of a Deity, and the above uncommonly

word he erects his creit, anu humanity beautiful paliage to be derived from is forgot in the act of maintaining his the most true and correćt judgment of consequence. When two such men buman nature. The reasoning of the meet, they are like the servants in the precept, was like that of a mother play of Romeo and Juliet: “ Did you whose maternal care occations her bite your thumb at me?" It is altonin- to prescribe limits to her child's ing that men of sense and education excursions infinitely within the cir. Mould yield to absurdities of pride cle where danger may be met. The like these, and that nonlense thould words were never meant to be taken become imperious.

literally. 'The benevolent Saviour There is, in fact, no radical cure for knew the pailions of men; and the ad. Duelling but in the morals and man- monition was widely intended to inners of men; and much indeed would Itruct them in a moderation that, if the evil be diminished if the morals only attended to in a degree, would and manners were better. There is a be sufficient to prelerve them from the great deal of refinement, but it is not mischiefs of anger and enmity. an honest refinement; it is not la poli- The farne precepts of moderation, so telje delæur; it is merely the pride of the valuable to the happiness of man, and understanding that makes men haughty, evidently meant to counteract his naand deltroys social intercourse. tural dispositions, are to be found in

It has been already suggested by almost every page of fcripture; and writers, that the best method of pre- another beautiful passage, froin which venting Duelling is to punish 'ihe the delay of the common law, called an aggressor; that is, the person who gave imparlance, owes' its origin, night be occasion to the duel. This would deter recollected co advantage by the Duellist men from making indiscreet fallies of and his seconds in an affuir of hopride or arrogance, and froin coarse nour, Agree with thine adversary un seemly manners; they would be quickly, whiles thou art in the way afraid wantonly to offend, because a with him.” duel would be inetrectual to allilt their It may be poffible that some may importance, or blazon with the atchieve- sinile at the ufe I have made of scripments of courage their degenerate ho. ture in this Ellay. But so it is, I could nour. Thus the law would a flitt mo. find nothing better ; and I own that I rality, and serve the true interests of have no share of that fashionable phisociety. Even as it is, it should be losophy which will not liiten to truth recollected, that whatever may be the becaule it comes from the Bible. verdiet of Juries in acquiescence to high Drunkennels is another cause of example, the acquittal will not fatisty Duelling; and, indeed, pride and the aggressor's own breast; and let drunkenness are both intoxications; them name it what they will, conscience and the famie man who boalts of drinka will call it murder.

ing four bottles of wine, would boait,

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also, of fighting a duel. Vices have a give a power to them to direct the near relationship, and are always ready proper satisfaction to be made, and to introduce one another.

which if not complied with should The successful interference of the subject the offender to fine and impri. Legislature would appear then to be, fonment. by a summary mode, by which, in all I shall, however, sum up the whole of cases of challenges or duels, whether my humble opinions upon Duelling, attended with serious consequences or with a hope that a more universal bene. pot, the parties might be brought be. volence, and better senfe, may one day fore the Court, and the evidence of the or other prevail against it; that it may facts fairly taken, before a Jery of be confined to the gladiators of society, Gentlemen, or Special Jury, and the whom none will imitate ; and that the aggressor punished according to the strongest law againit the custom may extent of the offence against society, be found in the HUMAN BREAST. and which should, in all trivial cases,

G. B.

INNOVATIONS IN THE ENGLISH LANGUAGE,

A DIALOGUE OF THE DEAD.

meet

SWIFT, A BOOKSELLER, AND MERCURY.
Bookseller.

Bookfeller. In place of negativing your To

enjoy in future the coinpany of a questions as inimical, though I own that

gentleman whose confequential cha- at this firji blub of the businejs they appear racter in the literary line I have long made 'so, I ihall be happy, on ihe injiant, to up my mind upon, is a pleisure which I your

ideas, and narrate what you set great fore by, though obtained by desiderate, not doubting of being well the loss of

my
existence.

beard. Swift, Pray, friend, where did you Swift. Sir, I am not deaf now, as I learn your English ?

was in the other world; I thall hear Bookseller. I was born and bred in

you well enough, if you fpeak ditinctly, London, and of such marked regularity

I ask, what trade you followed ? in my line of conduct, that no man could Bookfeller. You mean, I suppose, in claarge me with a fingle act of incivism, what professional line I was bred. or any thing that went to the disorgani. binted already that my employment zation of the society of which I was a was to bring forward to the view of the member. I served an apprenticellip public at large the ideas of the learned to a tip-top bookseller, and have often in other words, I was in the typogra. heard the most learned authors dilcuis phical and bookselling lines; and am free points of literature. I have seen them, to say, that in both lines my line of con. Sir, for hours, on their legs, and going duel was indicative of exactitude to a into a variety of maiter. The deuce is in degree. I netted, Sir, although my it if I do not speak English of the very expenditures were not small, lo conti, newest and best pattern:

derable a sum, that, on the demise of my Swift. In what part of the town did

wife, who resigned ber existence about your learned authors find kennels and a year ago, I sporied {ables in iny own dunghills to wade into the way you gig and pair. I bad in contemplation 4 mention? Fleet Ditch, I am told, is leat in the Commons; butnow very decent; and has not half that Swifi. So; you were a bookseller. variety of filthy matter, dead cats and In my time, however, the idea of a dogs, drowned puppies, and stinking learned man could have been compreIprats *, which it formerly had. But hended by the large public or the pubric firit of all, friend, what was your last at large (how did you call it, pray ?) employment in the other world ? without the help of an interpreter. See Swift's Description of a City Shore,

But

a

But perlaps I did not take your mean- Bookseller. Have you never heard of ing.

Werter? What an illiterate, out-of

the way world is chis! You can have Bookseller. Dear Sir, what unfounded no fajhion among you; nothing clever ideas you bring forward! You take me

or sentimental, nothing that implicates up on a ground entirely different from

reciprocity of the finer feelings. Why, that on which I intended to meet you. Sir, Werter is one of the molt eventual I have formerly set store by you; having and impresive of all our novel novels; heard you beld forth as one who had the de:nand there is for it out-bounds secured the marked approbation of many. your comprehension. You smile; but You seem inclined to maltreat me, but

wbat Lfay is a truism. If you would be have said nothing that militates againtt agreeable to hear, I would give you a me as a profesional 'man, or goes to fiatement of some particulars. Werter fubftantiate any charge inimical to my is a true hero, and in his line of conduct, 'character. And since you are pleased as a person of the highest honour and to be provocative, I am bold to say, that falhion, most corre&t , though a Gersome of our best critics scout and repro- man by birth, he must have kept the bate your yahoos with the most marked

best company in France; and so extra. energy; complain that they feel squeam- ordinary a scholar, that he actually ish when they think of them; and have carried a Homer, a Greek Homer, Sir, the idea that descriptions of that descrip- in his pocket. But misfortune ingurtion can be agreeable to readers of no gitated him in the very lowest ebb of description. I have heard one author, distress. His affections were captured whose name has long been inregistrated by a neighbouring gentleman's lady, in the annals of literature, affirm, that with whom he wished to have a fentithey are disgufting to civilization. A mental arrangement, a little firtationJustice of Peace of my acquaintance (you understand me) an affair of gala committed himself

lantry, I mean; and whole cruelty fracSwift. The deuce he did! The laws, made him temerariously put a termina

tured the good young man's heart, and as well as language, of England, muit

tion to his existence. Þe greatly changed of late years.

Go on, Sir, perhaps I may at last under- Swift (t0 Mercury entering). You

come in good time, Mercury. Our

friend Horace says you were famous in Bookfeller. I say, the justice com- your day for eloquence; perhaps you mitted bimself, that he would prove your may be able to interpret lome of this diction, as well as imagery, to be low learned person's gibberish. He was and vulgar; that it has nothing of the speaking of one Werter. tou in it, no long sonorous phraseo

Mercury. I overheard all that passed, logies, no appearance of your being conversative in ancient or foreign lana

so you need not recapitulate. Those

same Sorrows of Werter I have seen. guage; nothing, in a word, but what the common people may under/tand, wife, and not wholly without luccels;

Werter tried to corrupt his neighbour's as well as the most learned men in the kingdonn.

but finding the lady not quite so for

ward as he wished, he left her in a Swift. Was there ever such a fel- rage, blew out his brains with a pistol, low? Hark you, sir, do you know and (if we may believe some men of whom you speak to, or what you are

shime, who have been whimpering on fpeaking?

the occasion) went incontinently to

heaven. Bookfeller. Most decided'y, Sir; but

Swift. Is it possible that so filly a fellow my no fellow's, if you please. Your tale can be popular ? writings, however great their publicity

Mercury. It is poslible, for it is may once have been, have bad ibeir

true: or, as this gentleman would perday; they are now a boar, Sir, a mere boar; I look more money lait winter by haps say, is a trusin. the Sorrows of Werter, than I have taken

Swift. I am glad I have got out of by a seven years' tale of the lucubrations that vile world. It was in my time fo of Swift.

bad, that I toolishly thought it could

not be worse; but now it must have Swift. Werter! What is that? renounced both common honesty and

common

stand you.

a

common sense. But whence comes it culars of the degeneracy of the Englith that I underitand lo little of this man's tongue, and of the principles on which Englih.

it seems to have been conducted. It is Mercury. Would you have English- a subject, you know, which engaged my

, men of the present age speak the lan- attention not a little while I was on the

earth. guage of Queen Anne's reign?

Swift. Certainly. Why did Addi. Mercury. Would you have me give fon, and I, and some others, take so you the arrangement and natural histomuch pains to improve and fix the Eng. ry of chaos ? However, though I can. lish tongue ? Should we have done that, not pretend to enter minutely into so think you, if we had imagined that, in complex a business, I shall offer a few so ihort a time, it would be so mifera. directions, which would enable you, if bly altered and dehaled? But who are you were so disposed, to make English they who thus take it upon them to dif- of the neweft and beft pattern as well, figure the language, and, by fo doing, nearly, as this leurized bookselier. to discredit the literature of Englani? My frit rule is a very comprehensive Not, surely, the most respectable part one: " Avoid hort words as much as of the community. Men of true learn. posible, however lignificant and well. ing and good judgment are anxious to founding, especially if they be of Eng. preserve the purity of language. Those lith or Saxon original, and univerfally barbarous idioms I take to be the undersiood; and, in order to raise ad. manufacture of illiterate and affected miration of your learning, use, in their persons, who mistake grimace for ele. Itead, longer words derived from the gance, and assume the appearance of Greek, Latin, or French. Instead of learning because they know nothing of life, new, wiih for, take, plunge. &c. its reality.

you must say, exi/lence, novel, desiderate, Mercury. You are a pretty good capture, ingurgitate, &c.as,-i fever put guesser, my old friend. But you must

an end to his existence know there is now, in the world you Swift. But that would mean-inni. left, a most vehenient rage of innova. hilated him both body and soul. tion in language, government, religion,

Mercury. True; but language is and every ibing elle. That a thing is new is now a sufficient recommenda.

not now thought the worse for being tion, however inconvenient it may be, is not in ie's request than ambiguity of

ambiguous; and ambiguity of manner however unnatural and unseemly; nay, the more unnatural it is, the better phrase: it is conīdered as a proof of chance it has of coining into fathion. confummate urbanity, when a writer,

even a writer of history, and of ancient On the British ftage, with infinite applaule, young and Beautiful actresses history too, 1o disguises himself, that his

reader cinnot find out whether he be in perform sometimes the parts of highwaymen; and some linging actors jest or earneit. Besides, I need not tell squa!! in an atfected voice, reiembling, you, that by many genteel people death

and annihilation are lupposed to be the and intended to imitate, that of wo.

same thing men: the most humourous dramatic pieces are frittered away into songs; Swift. Proceed, if you please. and I should not be surprised to hear,

Mercury. Instead of a new fashion, that henceforth Miranda and Juliet are

you would do well to say--a novel to be personated by grim-vitaged gre. fashion; for this looks like French, nadiers leven feet high, and Falstaff hy and this, by the common people, will a fender Miss jult entered her teens; not be understood. For the lame reathat Hotspur and Henry of Monmouth son, and to (new your skill in the Latin are to fight to the tune of Lillibullera; tongue, say, not--I wish to be quier, and that Hamiet and Cato will fing but--i desiderate quietness, or rather their respective soliloquies in a dance quietude: and you must, on no account, accompanied with a Scotch bagpipe. Speak of taking the enemy's fhips, Similar remarks I could make on other

towns, guns, or baggage; it must be public exhibitions. The pulp- capturing. About twenty years ago,

Swift. We will, if you please, defer, when this word was imported, I beird those to another opportunity. In the a furly English ghost reinark, that once mean time, I wilh to hear more parti- his countryinen had learned to talk of

capturing

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