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on his back to his home at a considerable distance, altissimo-extending, in fact, as high as the warble and there proceeded to reduce them to the shape of the lark; down to the deep bass of a funeral bell. he considered necessary, and to put to the test The tones produced are equal in quality, and sometheir varied tones. This involved an amount of times superior in mellowness and fulness, to those effort not easily estimated; it was made after many of a fine piano-forte, under the hand of a skilful a hard day's work in the mountains, and often did player. Difficult chromatic ascents and descents Richardson deny himself the repose he required, are performed with a truly extraordinary brilliancy and pass whole nights after his family had retired and crispness. A professor of music at Liverpool to rest ; pursuing the object on which his heart was produced, in conjunction with the sons of the inset. A considerable share of disappointment must ventor, and also alone, some very pleasing and still have been his lot; the stone which promised striking effects. M. Costa, addressing the inventor, well, would not answer the purpose if hammered says, “ I have been very much gratified with the and chiselled beyond a certain point; and it may performance of your three sons on your very ingebe supposed there were times in which his heart nious instrument, and sincerely wish you may be failed him, particularly as a family of eight children recompensed for your wonderful discovery." Sir were dependent on his daily labour for support, George Smart also writes, “ I am happy to offer and his task was continued amidst much weariness my testimony in favour of your very clever invention, and trial.

and think the production of the Rock Harmonicon' At length, however, his skill and perseverance does infinite credit to your perseverance and muwere rewarded, and after more than thirteen years' sical feeling; the tones of the instrument are incessant labour, he succeeded in constructing a powerful and beautiful, and I was highly pleased musical instrument of a very extraordinary cha- with the performance of your three sons upon it. racter, whieh is properly called “ The Rock Har- I sincerely hope your labours will be rewarded as monicon.” It consists of rough stones, the longest they richly deserve.” of which is four feet six inches in length, about It would be a pleasing occupation to trace, at three inches in breadth, and about an inch and a considerable length, the obligations under which half in thickness ; and the shortest of which is society is placed to the invention and perseverance about six inches in length, an inch in breadth, and of men in humble life. Joseph Richardson has half an inch in thickness : these are placed across shown by what he has done in circumstances apa pair of wooden bars, covered with twisted straw, parently hopeless--for the visitor is as much asand form the keys, like those of a piano-forte; the tonished by the singular originality of the design material of them all being the mica schist, or as it as its extraordinary results that in a different is commonly called, in Cumberland and other places, situation, he might in some other way have been whinstone. The means employed to extract their as strangely and signally successful. But the.catasounds are wooden hammers ; small, and of lignum- logue of such claims is, happily, too long for us to vitæ, for the treble ; larger, and of elm or ash, for furnish, within the space we can properly occupy, the middle notes; and larger still, and covered with anything more than a brief glance. leather, for the bass. Sometimes for the centre It is now more than half a century since one of keys, hammers are used with two knobs on each, our countrymen, John Harrison, received the parin the form of a crutch-handle, to strike thirds. liamentary reward of 20,000l. for the invention of Those who are acquainted with the toy harmonicon, an admirable timepiece, by which the longitude at consisting of pieces of glass laid on tapes, to be sea might be ascertained. This man was brought struck with a cork hammer, will readily form an up as a carpenter, but early discovered a taste for idea of this singular instrument, and the mode in mathematical science; in consequence, it is said, of which its sounds are elicited *.

his accidentally meeting with a manuscript copy The pieces of stone, it should be remarked, are of some of the lectures of the celebrated Saunderarranged in two rows; the lower one being tuned son. Even before he was twenty-one years of age, in the diatonic scale, and the upper one containing he had made two wooden clocks, without any inthe flats and sharps. A piece of music may there-struction in the art, or assistance in the work. fore be played in any key, with the greatest facility Living for some time within sight of the sea, he and fidelity. Three sons of the inventor-simple, first thought of constructing marine chronometers; well-looking Cumberland lads, perform on the in- to prosecute his object he proceeded to London, but strument pieces of music in three distinct parts ; he had to devote to it the anxious labours of nearly one playing the melody, the next executing a clever forty years before his inventions were perfected, working inner part, and the third the fundamental or their general merit fully allowed. bass. Its power extends to a compass of five To the same individual the art of horology octaves and a half, accompanied by all the semi- owes several valuable improvements; among which tones, tuned from F below the bass stave to C in may be particularly mentioned the gridiron pen

* It is now exhibiting at the Royal Musical Library, 75, dulum, serving to equalize the movements of a Lower Grosvenor Street, Bond Street,

clock, and an ingenious compensation-apparatus to

RAILWAYS AND CANALS OF THE UNITED STATES.

349

regulate those of a watch, under all changes of Or to take a similar case. His aunt sitting with temperature. They both depend on the alteration him one evening at the tea-table said, “ James, I under change of temperature of two different never saw such an idle boy! Take a book, or emmetals, which are so arranged, in forming the rod ploy yourself usefully. For the last half-hour you of the pendulum and the circumference of the have not spoken a word, but taken off the lid of wheel, that the contraction of the one exactly that kettle and put it on again, holding now a cup, counterbalances the expansion of the other. and now a silver spoon, over the steam ; watching . In dwelling on similar facts,' it ought not to be how it rises from the spout, and catching and forgotten that the Cornish miners have often been counting the drops of water.” But in this idle time pointed out as a remarkably observant and intel- he was studying the condensation of steam. ligent race of men. The colliers have been less Such was the childhood of one whose genius has noticed; but between them and the actual labourers exerted, and is still exerting, an amount of influthere have existed several gradations of rank, the ence on society, and in many respects for its im. humblest often rising to range with the highest. provement, altogether incalculable. The late celebrated Dr. Hutton was originally a Deeply interested as we are in the improvement hewer in Old Long Benton Colliery; Mr. Stephen- of our race, we have taken this brief survey with son, the far-famed railway-engineer, was originally emotions of indescribable pleasure. Here are some a coal-miner, and so was Thomas Bewick, the of the triumphs of mind-of mind quickened and father of modern wood-engraving. “ I have heard invigorated by circumstances of apparently insuhim say,” remarks a friend, “ that the remotest perable difficulty. What encouragement is there recollection of his powerful and tenacious memory then to labour for its advancement and enlightenwas that of lying for hours on his side between ment! Nor, in the contemplation of its struggles dismal strata of coal, by a glimmering and dirty and successes, should we fail to derive a powerful candle, plying the pick with his little hands—those stimulus to task to the utmost our own energies hands afterwards destined to elevate the arts, illus- and perseverances, when we feel that the path of trate nature, and promulgate her truths, to the philanthropy is, as it has always been, rugged, and delight and instruction of the moral and intellectual that sometimes its reward is very long delayed. world.”

To conclude these details, we cannot refrain from adding to the instances of ingenuity in humble life now given, the illustrious name of James

RAILWAYS AND CANALS OF THE Watt. M. Arago, in his celebrated memoir, has

UNITED STATES. told us that “ Watt attended the elementary public Perhaps hardly any more striking illustration school at Greenock,” and adds, “so that the humble could be produced of the progressive spirit which grammar-schools of Scotland may boast of having forms so remarkable a feature of the American educated the celebrated engineer, in the same way character, than the achievements of the people in that the Collége de la Flèche was wont to enumerate those classes of public works which tend to increase Des Cartes.” He afterwards states that habitual the facilities of communication from place to place. indisposition interfered with young Watt's regular Located in a country of vast extent, and, compared attendance at this public school, and that for a with our own, of very limited population, the great part of the year he was confined to his cham- American people are not content to await the orber, where he devoted himself to study without dinary and gradual development of its resources ; any extrinsic aid.

but, with a rapidity unparalleled elsewhere, they The fact is, that from being so delicate, he was are supplying themselves with those conveniences left at home very much to the choice of his own of civilized life which, in older countries, have not employments. Who will not admire the power of been attained without a long and laborious state of intellect in such a fact as the following ?

transition. Railways and canals, which, in this A gentleman one day calling on Mr. Watt, ob- country, are seldom formed until the exigencies of served the child bending over a marble hearth, traffic appear to call for them, and even then not with a piece of coloured chalk in his hand; “ Mr. without many tedious preliminaries, are made in Watt,” said he, you ought to send that boy to a America to anticipate and call into existence the public school, and not allow him to trifle away his traffic by which they must be supported; and are time at home.” “ Look how my child is employed often projected, commenced, and completed, in before you condemn him," replied the father. And little more time than would be requisite, in England, what was the result? The visitor then discovered to comply with the formalities of Parliament, and that he had drawn mathematical lines and circles to obtain legislative sanction for the project. The on the earth ; and on questioning the boy, he was surprise naturally excited by the rapid execution gratified and astonished at the simplicity, quick of such works will be increased by taking into ness, and intelligence he displayed. Young Watt consideration the high price of labour, and the had been trying to solve a problem in Geometry. comparatively limited amount of capital which our Transatlantic brethren employ in their formation. | discovery; for at the date of this table-after the In England, an expenditure of from 20,0001. to lapse of barely ten years—they had no less than 50,0001. per mile is usual in the construction of 3,430 miles of railway in operation, and 5,948 miles passenger railways; while, in America, lines are in progress, of which near 2,000 miles were on the laid down, fit for working at a speed not greatly eve of completion; making a grand total of 9,378 inferior to our own, at a cost of usually not more miles of railway in operation and in progress. Of than 40001., and very rarely exceeding 10,0001. per the lines now in operation by far the greater part mile. That the American railways are very inferior are worked by locomotive engines; the portion to our own in finish and durability, is evident from worked by horse power being stated at 206 miles. this fact alone ; but this circumstance is not out of On the remaining 3,224 miles, 475 locomotive encharacter with the state of rapid progress which gines were in use at the commencement of 1840 ; distinguishes so wonderfully the people by whom being at the rate of one engine for every 6-8 miles they are made. The surprising part of the matter of railway. Of these engines it is stated that less is, indeed, not that the great engineering works of than 100 were imported from England; while from North America are as slight and temporary as they 1837 to 1840, during which period one-half of the are, but that many of them should ever have been railways in operation were completed, the number undertaken at all. In allusion to the temporary so imported was not more than ten. To this we character of these works, and the inconsiderate may add the curious fact that American locomocomparison sometimes instituted, apparently to tive engines have been purchased and brought their disadvantage, with those of our own country, into use by one English railway company—the a contemporary has well observed—“Where trade Birmingham and Gloucester. is small, population scattered, capital limited and in As regards the geographical distribution of railurgent demand, the sole object is to open channels ways in the United States, it appears that they of communication at the least possible cost, and in have been introduced, more or less, in all the states the shortest possible time; solidity is even incon- excepting Missouri and Arkansas. It has been sistent with progression, and tends to check de observed that in this, as in all measures of improvevelopment. But the wooden quay will serve to ment, those states in which slavery exists are far land the stone with which a pier may be built, and behind the others. Owing to the peculiar circumthe rough wooden lock enables the projector to fill stances under which many of them have been the canal which then carries at easy cost the mate-formed, the construction of railways and canals rials for more perfect and durable construction, and has been more frequently aided by government in raises the revenue to pay for it*."

America than elsewhere; yet, out of the whole The latest, and apparently the most accurate number of 179 railways, only 16 have been underaccount of the railways of the United States, with taken by state governments; the remainder being which we are acquainted, has been recently pub- made, either with or without the aid of the governlished in this country, in a journal devoted princi- ments, by about 160 different corporations. The pally to railway intelligencet. It contains a tabular longest line of railway undertaken by a single comview of 179 railways; being all that were in pro- pany is the New York and Erie, which is proposed gress or in operation in all the states of the Union to be 454 miles long; and the longest completed by at the commencement of 1840; showing the dates a single company is the Wilmington and Raleigh of their charters, the time of opening, length, cost, railway, of 161 miles. But in America, as in this and several other particulars. The table itself is country, the railways of several companies are too long for transferring to our pages; but some of connected, so as to form continuous lines of great the accompanying notes will assist in conveying an extent. Of these the line from Boston to Buffalo, idea of the energy displayed by the Americans in of 517 miles, is described as nearly completed ; this department of national industry. From these while another of 544 miles, interrupted only by 60 we learn that the first railway charters in America miles of steam navigation upon the Potomac, exwere granted in 1826 ; and the the first railway tending from New York to Wilmington, is entirely constructed—a short line for the conveyance of finished. granite from the quarries of Quincy, Massachusets, According to the table before us, the most was opened for use in 1827. It was not, however, expensive railway, per mile, yet constructed in until our own successful experiments on the Liver- America, cost 31,8021. per mile ; this being a short pool and Manchester railway had established the line of 74 miles, from New York to Harlem. Taking practicability of rapid locomotion by steam power, an approximate estimate of the cost of lines then that by far the largest and most important class of unfinished, the compiler of this statement gives the American railways were called into existence. total cost of all the lines, finished and in progress, Since that event the Americans have lost no time as about 35,500,0001. ; or, on an average, 3,785l. per in availing themselves to the utmost of the splendid mile. This calculation is, however, probably too * Athenæum, Sept. 22, 1838.

low; the estimates of engineers on the other, as Herapath's Railway Magazine, May 22, and 29, 1841. well as on this side of the Atlantic, being too freNIGER EXPEDITION.

351 quently erroneous. Up to the end of 1839, the many grand works have been executed for imsum actually expended was about 20,000,000 ; proving the navigation of natural channels, by being probably less than half the sum expended at damming up and deepening rivers. To show the that time on the railways of Great Britain, although immense extent of the water communication obthey extend to little more than 2,000 miles. This tained by a judicious combination of artificial great difference may be accounted for by the in-channels with the rivers of the United States, we ferior gradients and curves of the American rail- need only refer to a continuous line of inland naviways; the circumstance of many of them having gation from New York to New Orleans, a distance but one track ; the low value of land ; the exten- of 2,702 miles ; of which 672 miles consist of sive use of timber in their construction ; and various canals. other circumstances.

Can we contemplate these wonderful exertions Respecting the canals of America our informa- of human energy without the feeling that they are tion is neither so recent nor so minute; yet it is at once the produce and the instruments of a high suficient to indicate the restless enterprize which degree of civilization ? North America is indeed urges the people constantly to break up new a country highly favoured by natural advantages ; ground; to develop new sources of wealth ; and but in how many other parts of the world are the to do all that art can accomplish for the improve like capabilities allowed to lie unimproved, bement and extension of the means of intercourse cause man himself needs to be improved - to be through the length and breadth of their noble civilized! A striking contrast is instituted in the country. In Stevenson's “Sketch of the Civil “Athenæum,” in the article previously quoted Engineering of North America,” published in 1838, from, between the condition of the northern and the aggregate length of the canals in operation in southern divisions of the New World. “ The rivers the United States is shown to be more than 2,700 of South America,” it is observed, “ more than miles. Of these and the railways Mr. Stevenson rival those of the North ; the soil is more fertile, observes that their extent appears the more won- the climate superior.” Let the reader contrast tho derful from the circumstance that many of them misery and desolation on the shores of the Parána " are carried for miles in a trough, as it were, cut and the Paraguay, as exhibited by the Messrs. through thick and almost impenetrable forests, Robertson, with the busy, stirring, enterprizing life where it is no uncommon occurrence to travel for on the Ohio and the Mississippi. “The broad sura whole day without encountering a village, or even face of the river,” says Mr. Robertson," was undisa house, excepting perhaps a few log-huts inhabited turbed by any bark; the land was fertile as nature by persons connected with the works.” The most could make it; the climate most salubrious-yet extensive independent line of canal in North all was still as the grave.” “There are,” says Mr. America is the Erie canal, which was commenced Stevenson,“ between 40 and 50 steam-boats, varyabout 1817, and finished in 1825. It is 363 miles ing from 200 to 700 tons register, constantly plying long, and cost about 1,400,0001. ; or, including between Buffalo and the several ports on the its branches, 543 miles, and total cost 2,300,0001. shores of the lakes." Yet the one country has been When this gigantic work was projected, only two for three hundred years in the undisputed possessmall undertakings of similar character had been sion of the Spaniards, and the other little more executed in the United States ; and the scheme than half-a-century under the controlling influence was considered by many to be quite chimerical. of civilized man. May not the explanation of the Even Jefferson pronounced it to be “at least a difference be looked for in the fact that the one century in advance of the age.” This work was country has been overshadowed by the clouds of executed by the state of New York; and, four ignorance and superstition, while the other has years after its commencement, the prospective been colonized from a land of Gospel light and revenues were estimated by the comptroller of the civilization ?

Y. state at 150,000 dollars annually for the first ten years ; whereas the actual income during that period exceeded 10,000,000 of dollars ! Even its far-seeing projector, Gouverneur Morris, in a me

BISHOP OF WINCHESTER'S ESTIMATE morial to the legislature, asked if it would be

OF THE NIGER EXPEDITION. deemed extravagant to predict that the canal THE Niger Expedition is certainly one of the would, within twenty years, bring down 250,000 most interesting expeditions which ever sailed from tons annually. In 1836, the canal actually brought this land, and to which, perhaps, we may look with down 696,347 tons; and the total tonnage, both more of hope and Christian interest than to any Ways, was more than 1,300,000. The still rapidly other in ancient or modern times. There are three increasing traffic on the Erie canal was considered, points which impart to this expedition some pecuin 1838, to justify its enlargement from 40 to 60 liar and appropriate distinctions. or 70 feet in width, and from 4 to 7 feet in depth. It sets out from our shores with something of a

In addition to the still-water canals of America, national character attached to it ; for if its expenso

DISCOVERY OF COAL.

QUICKSET HEDGES.

be not entirely defrayed by the nation, it is an im

NEW ZEALAND. portant feature in the undertaking, that it has been projected as it were under the national sanction.

Coal has recently been found in Evans Bay, on Again, it goes forth from our land not simply as an expedition of colonization, nor as an expedition it, says it is the best coal for welding iron he has

Mr. Revans's section. A blacksmith, who has tried of commerce, nor as an expedition of inquiry, nor as an expedition for conquest or for aggrandize used at Port Nicholson. This is merely on the surment, nor with the view of promoting any of those face of the ground; a few feet deeper it is expected other objects on which men in general love to

to prove of the best description. It is impossible spend their time and money, but for a higher ob- to overrate the value of this discovery. ject and with a holier design-for the purpose of spreading the knowledge of the Gospel of liberty Extract of a Letter from R. Stokes

, Esq., Wellington, New and life.

Zealand, April 13th, 1841. But there is yet another feature, which, in my “We very much want the quickset here to mind, especially commends this expedition to the make our fences; there is no thorn to substitute interest and prayers of every Christian. It goes for this valuable plant indigenous to New Zealand; forth, led by commanders and manned by crews and the post and rail, the only effectual fence for whose hearts are in entire sympathy with its object. keeping out cattle, is too expensive to be used to a In that simple fact, we have the best ground for great extent. I have requested a friend to send hoping for the highest and holiest results from this me a bushel of the seed of the quickset, and you expedition, and I cannot neglect this opportunity would confer a benefit on the colony by promoting of commending it, in an especial manner, to the its introduction. If every colonist intending to prayers of every friend of our beloved country, of farm were to provide himself with a good supply this institution, and of Christianity.

of the seed, we should soon naturalize the quickset here; its growth is very rapid, and in two years it would make a sufficient hedge. The mis.

sionary house at the Bay of Islands is surrounded FRENCH BIBLE SOCIETY.

by a hedge of sweetbriar, grown from seed; and I

am told its growth is luxuriant." The issues of the French Bible Society, in the course of the last year, have been 18,999 Bibles and

THE NELSON COLONY. 41,268 Testaments. The Society has carried through

Extract of a speech by the Rev. Dr. Hinds, delivered to the the press, in the same period, 17,593 Bibles, and emigrants previously to their departure, on the 17th September : 38,362 Testaments; its receipts have amounted to “You are on the point of quitting your old country, your old little short of £4000 sterling, and its expenses have

homes, your old friends, to find, I trust, in that New World to been a little above that sum.

which you are going, more than enough to repay you for all the

sacrifices which you have the courage to make. But pray recolThe Society has begun to print the Bible in the lect, that there is at least one sacred tie which I do hope will Sechuana language, translated by their missiona- always bind you to all of us whom you are leaving behind you ries in South Africa; it has also produced this year, -the religion of our Lord and Saviour Jesus Christ.-You are for the first time, trying to imitate what is so com

not going to an uninhabited country; you are taking with you mon in this land, a very small pocket Bible. The

the light which God has given you to the poor benighted hea. word of God has been distributed to various classes

then, who are the aboriginal inhabitants of New Zealand.

Fulfil God's intention, and endeavour to civilize and to Chris of persons,-to the Spanish who have come over as

tianize them. Do it by the Christian life you lead amongst exiles into France, to the seamen in our ports, to them. Do it by showing them that Christ does not make men prisoners both under condemnation and those wait-spirit-sellers, and spirit-drinkers, debauched and reprobate ; ing trial, and to the military.

but sober, honest, and industrious. Your responsibility is very In one of the great towns, when the young con

great ; you are going forth to be the founders of a new country;

and as your settlement is to be called by the name of our illusscripts were ready to go into garrison, an agent of

trious Nelson, let me say to you in his words, “ England expects the Society asked permission of the officer to distri

that every man will do his duty." Let me say—" CHRISTIAN bute Testaments to his men : the permission was England expects that every one of you will do his duty to God granted, the Testaments were distributed, and the

as well as to her." young soldiers went off, each with a New Testament in his knapsack. It has also begun printing

LONDON: the Bible for the blind ; it was felt incumbent upon

PUBLISHED FOR THE PROPRIETORS BY JOHN SNOW,

35, PATERNOSTER ROW, it to try to enlighten them with that light which is

To whom all future Orders and letters from correspondents better than the light of day—the light of Him who

should be addressed; calls himself the light, the truth, and the way. The Gospel according to St. Mark is finished.

J. MENZIEB, Edinburgh ; GRIFFIN and Co., Glasgow ; CURRY

and Co., Dublin ; Simms and DINHAM, Manchester ; SloCOMBY and SIMMS, Leeds ; W. WEBB, Liverpool

ALSO BY

SHADBYXY AND EVANS, TRINTERE, WHITENIARS.

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