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Further Nlustrations of the Blood.
magnified as they appear here, 400 times ; that is, they are 400 times larger in diameter than in their natural state in the blood. The first cut, or d, represents the globule with its coat or pellicle still on it; while e represents it with the pellicle taken off.
You will think these red globules of the blood very small, to be only a four hundredth part as large in diameter, as the spots in the picture; and they are so. If they could be laid closely together, in a row, it is thought by naturalists that it would take no less than 1940 of them to form a row an inch long; and a hollow ball an inch in diameter would hold 7,301,384,000 of them.
The use of these red globules in the blood, that is, the reason why the blood is better for having them in it, or especially for being red rather than some other color, is not well known.
The fibrine or thready substance, in which the red globules are entangled, when the blood cools and coagulates, or dies, is the most important part of the blood. From this, all the various parts of the body are formed. How they form the parts of the body is conjectural. We only know the fact.
Some suppose ihat the fibrine of the blood is made from the globules. They think that these, in swimming round, as it were, in the blood, at last attach themselves together by some known or unknown law, and form the fibrine. Those who believe in this doctrine suppose the red globules come together and arrange thernselves in a mass to form a row, as in the following engraving; and that this row becomes a fibre.
I have one more picture to show you. You have been already told that all the various parts of the body are made from the fibrine of the blood. This fact is most obvious in the formation of muscle, or what is usually called lean flesh. This lean Aesh, or muscle, is made of threads or fibres, and these fibres also seem to be divisible again into fibres, smaller still. But when we come to the smallest fibre we can find it is thought to be inade up in the manner already mentioned ; that is, of little particles or red globules of blood, joined together, as represented on the following page.
Example of Massachusetts.
But I must stop here, not because there is nothing more to say on the subject, but because I have no time nor space for it. In my next lesson I shall endeavor to tell you how blood is formed, and describe to you the curious and coinplicated apparatus wbich is concerned in forming it.
The Massachusetts Board of Education have published a blank register for the use of schools which, if faithfully kept by teachers generally, must furnish the Board with a thorough history of the schools annually. The register is to contain the names of the teacher and committee, with the number and names of the scholars in the several schools, male and female ; their ages ; time of entering and leaving ; the names of their parents or guardians ; their daily attendance and absence, forenoon and afternoon; the whole number of days' attendance ; present or absent at each visitation of school comınittee; the names of books; every study which cach scholar pursues ; deficiency of class books; days when visited by school committee ; names of committee present; time of commencing and ending the school, with remarks.
To convey some idea of the particularity of the requisitions of this register, says the “Traveller,' (from which we copy the foregoing, not having a copy of the School Register at this moment before us,) the teacher is required, for each attendance or ab
Movements in Ohio.
sence in the forenoon, to make a cross or a dash in the upper left hand corner' of a square one tenth of an inch in width, and for the same in the afternoon, to make a simple sign in the lower right hand corner of the same square.'
The editor of the Traveller thinks the foregoing quite too much for a teacher to perform, without neglecting his other duties. He is especially displeased with the minuteness or particularity required, and attempts to throw ridicule on it, by talking about the demand for magnifying glasses,' and 'humming bird's quills.' Have those newspaper editors, who are so ready to pass judgment on every subject which comes up, whether they understand it or not-have they, we say, any practical knowledge of school keeping? Do they indeed know any thing of the reasons which exist for having a register kept? Do they know how much space there is for writing on a spot a tenth of an inch square? Surely there is room enough for two small dashes or marks. We believe it would not be out of the way to say that all the really important events of many a man's life might be written out on this little spot of a tenth of an inch square,
The experience of many years teaching convinces us that every school ought to have a register of at least equal minuteness, with that recommended by our board. It has a prodigious effect not only on the school, but on the teacher himself; and it will do much to elevate the character of both.
DUTIES OF SCHOOL EXAMINERS.
GREAT efforts are making in many parts of the United States, at the present time, to raise, in various ways, the character of Common Schools and Common School Education. Among the efforts which have particularly interested us, have been the proceedings of the Board of Exainination of Common Schools for Cuyaboga County, Ohio. This Board, at a meeting held in Cleveland in May last, and in conformity with the new School Law, adopted a code of by-laws embracing the following arrangements in the appointment of Special Examiners.
To facilitate the future examination of teachers, they first divided the County of Cuyahoga into five districts, each district, except the first, containing four townships. Of the first district, consisting of Cleveland and two other townships, the County Board of Examiners are to be the Special Examiners, but the
Rules of School Examiners.
Special Board for this purpose in other districts, is appointed annually, one from each township, by the County Board ; to which number the Clerk of the County Board is always added, and is required to attend their meetings.
The times and places of holding meetings for examining teachers, usually twice a year—are also fixed in the code of by laws, and published in the papers, so that they may be known throughout the county. Even the very hour and the particular school house in which to meet are designated.--The number of each Board, including the County Clerk, is, of course five; but any three of them may form a quorum for business. A record is made by the Clerk of their proceedings.
The following are the Regulations of the Special Examiners, as published in the form of a circular, in the Cleveland Obser
'1. Candidates will be expected to pass a thorough examination, in Spelling, and in the Rudiments of the English language, as contained in the ordinary Spelling Books.
2. They will be required to write a fair hand, both coarse and fine.
3. They must be good readers both in prose and poetry.
4. No Female Teacher will be entitled to a certificate, who does not give evidence of a thorough acquaintance with the fundamental rules of Arithmetic, Compound Numbers, Vulgar and Decimal Fractions, Interest and the Rule of Three ; and no Male Teacher who does not possess a thorough knowledge of the whole Arithmetic.
5. Those who are examined in other studies, such as Geography, Grammar, Philosophy, &c., will not be allowed a certincate to teach them, unless they make it evident that they are well qualified to instruct in these respective branches.
6. Candidates for certificates will be expected to furnish evidence to the Board of good moral character.
7. In cases where the candidate, though deficient in qualifcations, gives evidence of ability to teach a PARTICULAR school, the Board may, at its discretion, give a certificate to teach that school for six monihs only ; but in no instance shall a certificate of this kind be given the second time to the same individual.'
All this is well, and we rejoice at any efforts whi h are ade to riduce what has hitherto been a matter almost of hap-hazard, to any thing like order and regularity. Perhaps, moreover, , the Cleveland Board have done quite as much as the public sentiment in that region will sustain. And yet a great deal more is desirable. All which
All which appears to have been hitherto attempted in the examination of candidates
for school teaching seems to us to fall exceedingly short of what is desirable. Nothing is more obvious than that a teacher may understand every thing which the Examiners in Cleveland county or in any other county require, and yet be but poorly qualified to teach. The power to communicate what we know is vastly more important to a teacher, than the inere knowledge itself. Nor is this sufficient. A person may understand all mysteries and all knowledge,' and even be able to communicate it fluently, and yet for want of judgment or tact in applying it in suitable portions and under suitable circumstances, as the learner is qualified or prepared to receive it, he may utterly fail of performing his whole duty. He may, indeed, keep a quiet and orderly school, and his pupils may love and respect himwhich is certainly of very great importance-but after all there will be little real progress. Nay, more still. The teacher who is even wise enough to do all which we have named, may fall short of the highest point desirable. If he regards the mind of his pupils as a mere storehouse, or receiver, or supposes it is to be enlarged by accretion, instead of being developed from within by the judicious exercise of its own powers, he has yet to learn an important point of his duty.
We would have the examinations of teachers—to say the least of it-inore practical. What is usually done is very well, but there is a great deal more which should not be left undone. It may serve to give our readers some idea of what we mean by examining teachers practically, if we present the following remarks on a branch of the subject before us, made by the editor at the Annual meeting of the Norfolk Association of Teachers,' at Dorchester, Sept. 11, 1833.
After ascertaining whether the candidate understands a given branch, say arithmetic, why should he not be asked, How would you teach arithmetic to your pupil ? Would you commence, if he had never studied it before, by requiring him to commit to memory all the rules, explanations, cases and tables, say as far as Reduction, before you allow him to use a slate at all? Or, would you begin with questions in mental arithmetic, and defer for a time the consideration of written arithmetic ? Or, rather, would you begin at the same time, or nearly the same time, with both ? Would you make any use of sensible objects, in illustrating the properties and relations of numbers ; such, for example, as balls, blocks, cubes, beans, corn, panes of glass in the windows, &c.? Or should you reject all these as useless innovations ?
"To these and similar questions, those who had taught before, might answer verbally. And if the inexperience and diffidence