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ford, and nearly three times as much as does Sullivan.
"Now, is this the end and aim of lawmakers? Do they intend that the rich shall escape all taxation and the poor be crushed down with burdens grievous to be borne? Are the children of the wealthy farmer in the valley around Jersey Shore more sacred than the children of the hardy mountaineer in McNett township, that the one shall escape all taxation, while the other is taxed so heavily that were it not for the sacred purpose of educating their little ones they would not endure it? To state the question is but to answer it. I plead for the bright-eyed boy living on our mountains in board houses, through which the snows of winter drift. I plead for the poor parent who, knowing he can give him nothing else, at a fearful sacrifice feeds, clothes and educates his child that he may go out on the world not doomed
to be a hewer of wood and a drawer of water for his more fortunate neighbor; nay, more, I demand in the name of justice that this outrage shall cease and a more just mode of distribution be adopted.
'Do not overlook this fact, for it is of vital importance, that the State Appropriation is not voted to relieve taxation-that comes incidentally-but is voted that each and every child shall have the opportunity to receive a fair education; or in other words, it is the child's interests, not the taxpayer's, that are being consulted; therefore, some plan should be adopted that would, as far as possible, place the schools on an equality with regard to the wealth of the people, and at the same time preserve the local rule of the people. We equalize the burden of sustaining the schools by taxing all according to their ability to pay. Why should not the converse of this proposition be true, and give to all according to their needs, equalizing the benefits accruing therefrom by a wise and judicious distribution of this fund? How can this be done? Suppose, instead of taking the taxable for the unit, we take some other method. Let us take the number of schools in a township, multiply it by the number of months taught, and that again by the number of mills tax levied for our wants. Let us again take the two townships having each five schools of six months each. The rich one levies two mills, her number of units would be 60; the poor one levies ten mills, her number of units would be 300. The poor township gets
five times as much of a State Appropriation as the rich; the one gets too little money, the other too much, so the rich one raises her levy to three mills and has 90 units, the poor one cuts hers to 5 mills and has 150 units; each has the same amount of money, the 3 mills in the rich township raising more money than the 5 in the poor. Is not this fair and just? No district can get money from the state but as they assess themselves. If a people are a live, progressive people, the state gives them a helping hand; if they care nothing for education, they cannot throw the burdens of taxation on the state. There can be no padding of lists to swell the State Appropriation; it fits every condition and every people, and while the lower rate of taxation must ever remain with the rich township, it permits of no such glaring injustice as at present. It will permit every township in the state to hire excellent teachers and prevent the constant dropping out of the profession of the experienced and better class, and therefore we will have fewer young, inexperienced teachers, and as a result all new teachers will be better fitted for their work. It will check the constant stream of retired farmers and others moving to towns that their children can have better facilities to obtain an education; in short, it will mean a general advancement all along the line.
"We have heard much in the last few years about the equalization of taxes. Many a demagogue has ridden into office on that hobby. The school tax is confessedly the heaviest tax we have to pay. Can you show us a better way to equalize the burdens of taxation than by this method? Perhaps there may be better ways of distributing this fund than this plan. I hope so. We need the best. Let us look the matter fully over. Before the next legislature meets a year will intervene, and the reports showing the results of the new appropriation will have been issued. Let every Director and friend of education study the tables carefully and seek the best obtainable way. The world is moving onward, the Golden Age is ahead of us, not behind, and although great has been our progress, still let Onward be our motto and eternal advancement our creed. The dark night of ignorance is passing away and the bright morn of universal education tints crimson the eastern sky. God speed its glorious noon-day!"
QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS.
FREE TEXT BOOKS AND SUBSCRIPTION
7. Question: Can the Free Text-Books furnished for use of any given public school be used by a subscription school held in the same building during a part of the year when the public school is not in session?
Answer: The law does not contemplate nor warrant the use of free books by schools not exclusively under the official jurisdiction of the directors. A Board of Directors cannot consistently nor lawfully discriminate in the use of books in favor of children whose parents may raise a fund for subscription schools for their benefit at the close of the regular public school term.
The patrons of the school are to be commended for the progressive spirit shown in the desire expressed to have better educational advantages for their children than are offered by short terms of school. The proper course, however, to pursue in all such cases is to extend the term of the public school, and thus give all the advantages of longer annual terms and free books, as well as free tuition.
This is the correct solution of the whole question, and is in accordance with the spirit of the laws governing the operation of the public school system. Where free textbooks are in use the schools must be free also, open to all children alike, without any conditions or restrictions which the law itself does not authorize.
SUITABLE AND CONVENIENT OUTHOUSES
ON PUBLIC SCHOOL GROUNDS.
8. Question: What is the meaning of the Act requiring Boards of School Directors and Con trollers to provide for the better protection of the health and morals of children in their respective districts?
Answer: In assigning School Directors. the duty of providing suitable and convenient outhouses for each school under their jurisdiction and of making provision for the keeping of the same in a clean, comfortable and sanitary condition, the last Legislature rendered an invaluable service to the children of the Commonwealth. No law has
been enacted that will do more to protect the health and morals of the pupils during the most formative period in life.
The framers of the law evidently contemplated something better than apartments separated by a mere board partition. They undoubtedly had in mind separate houses for each sex, either placed at some distance one from the other, or with walks thereto separated by a closed fence not less than seven feet in height. In cities and boroughs with school buildings two or more stories in
| height it is best to have the water-closets on each floor, although basement closets with separate stairways answer the requirements of the law. In all cases they should be made as neat, and comfortable, and modern as those of the well-appointed home in the community.
Undue economy here is criminal disregard of duty. Everything should be planned as carefully, and should be as durably and attractively finished, as any other part of the school building or its belongings. The natural result of this proper care, insuring privacy and comfort, is to educate youth to such views, impressions, and habits in this direction of vital importance as should characterize a human being. The great body of right-thinking American people are, in their personal habits, the most decent in the world. Of this fact observant gentlemen and ladies of intelligence who have lived abroad or traveled widely in Europe are well convinced. This high standard of delicacy, refinement, decency, should prevail everywhere amongst us. The purpose of general education is to lift, slowly but surely, the average of intelligent thought and refining habit to a higher plane-always higher as the generations go onward.
When, as in most cases, these houses are outside of the school building, let shrubbery, flowers and vines be planted about and near them, in part to conceal them from public view; and along the fences and walks, as may be convenient, the latter being laid out with reference to such planting. This will add to the appearance of the school grounds, relieving their too often unattractive barrenness and giving impulse to the good work of Arbor Day.
Superintendents and citizens,-especially the Directors and patrons of the schools,should see to it that this wise law is carried into effect in its full and proper intent and purpose throughout the entire State. It was published in our July number, (Vol. 42, p. 42), but for the convenience of the reader, it is republished as follows:
An Act to require Boards of School Directors and Controllers to provide for the better protection of the health and morals of school children in their respective school districts.
Section 1. Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania in General Assembly met, and it is hereby enacted by the authority of the same: That boards of school directors and controllers shall provide suitable and convenient water-closets for each of the schools under their official jurisdiction, not less than two for each school or school building where both sexes are in attendance, in their respective school districts, with separate means of access for each; and, unless placed at a remote distance one from the
other, the approaches or walks thereto shall be separated by a substantial close fence not less than seven feet in height; and it shall be the duty of the directors or controllers to make provision for keeping the water-closets in a clean, comfortable, and healthful condition.
Sec. 2. Any failure on the part of school directors or controllers to comply with the provisions of this act shall make them liable to be removed from office by the court of quarter sessions of the county in which the schools are located, upon complaint made to the court under oath or affirmation of not less than five taxable citizens resident in the school district in which the school is located.
The law of the State of New York on this important subject and the instructions of State Supt. Crocker will be found elsewhere in this issue of The Journal.
THE PENNSYLVANIA SOLDIERS' ORPHANS' INDUSTRIAL SCHOOL.
Act of 1893. Providing for the erection of the Pennsylvania Soldiers' Orphans' Industrial School, the purchase of land and the erection and equipment of the building or buildings necessary therefor, making appropriations for such purposes, erection and equipment, and the maintenance of children admitted therein, placing the care of the same in the Commission now known as the Commission of Soldiers' Orphan Schools of the State of Pennsylvania, and regulating the admissions to the said Pennsylvania Soldiers' Orphans' Industrial School and the said Soldiers' Orphan Schools.
Section 1. Be it enacted, &c., That there shall be erected at some point within the state, easily accessible, a building or buildings, to be known as the Pennsylvania Soldiers' Orphans' Industrial School.
Sec. 2. That the Commission now in charge of the soldiers' orphan schools are empowered to purchase not more than one hundred acres of ground, the title of which shall be vested in the Commonwealth, and to erect buildings thereon, equipping the same with shops, tools, etc., for industrial training as well as for the educational course, and for the maintenance of the soldiers' orphans, first taking security for the faithful performance of all contracts, and for the completion of the building or buildings in a substantial, good, and workmanlike
Sec. 3. The said Commission, as now constituted, shall continue until the third Wednesday in January, one thousand eight hundred and ninety-seven, at which time there shall be appointed by the president pro tempore of the Senate, two members thereof, and by the Speaker of the House, three members thereof, to serve for two years, and the Commander of the Depart
ment of Pennsylvania, Grand Army of the Republic, shall then recommend to the Governor five honorably discharged soldiers for the appointment, who, if approved by the Governor, shall be appointed to serve for two years. The Governor shall be a member ex-officio of the said Commission. At the expiration of the said terms of the said appointees their successors shall be appointed in like manner and for like term. Vacancies occurring in the membership or the said Commission shall be filled by the appointing powers as above set forth.
Sec. 4. The said Commission shall elect, from their own number, a president, secretary, financial secretary and treasurer, and shall employ all necessary clerks, teachers and employes necessary for the proper conduct and care of the schools.
Sec. 5. The said Commission shall have full power to continue the soldiers' orphan schools as now constituted, or, if necessary, change either, any or all of them, to other localities, until such time or times as the Pennsylvania Soldiers' Orphans' Industrial School shall be completed, or sufficiently advanced to accommodate said orphans, when the Commission shall close all of the said soldiers' orphan schools.
Sec. 6. The said Commission, under such rules and forms of application as it may adopt, shall be and is hereby authorized to admit to said soldiers' orphans schools, or to the Pennsylvania Soldiers' Orphans Industrial School, soldiers' orphans, of parents residents of this state, for a continuous period of not less than five years prior to their application, who shall be under fourteen years of age, to be educated and maintained therein until they shall severally become sixteen years of age, unless sooner discharged for cause by order of the Commission.
Sec. 7. Preference in admission shall be as follows:
I. Full orphans, the children of honorably discharged soldiers, sailors or marines, who served in the war for the suppression of the rebellion, and were members of Pennsylvania commands, or, having served in the commands of other states, or of the United States, were residents of Pennsylvania at the time of their enlistment.
2. Children of such honorably discharged soldiers, sailors or marines as above, whose father may be deceased and mother living.
3. Children of such honorably discharged soldiers, sailors or marines as above, whose parents may, either or both, be permanently disabled.
Sec. 8. In order that the benefits of industrial training may be given to the childreu now in its soldiers' orphan schools, and who may arrive at an age to be discharged at or about the time of the opening of the said Soldiers' Orphans' Industrial School, the said Commission is hereby empowered to extend the time of the discharge of such children, who may be fifteen and sixteen years of age, for the space of two years additional.
Sec. 9. The per capita rate of appropriation | proved and certified to by the said Commisfor the education and maintenance of the sion. children admitted in the Pennsylvania Soldiers' Orphans Industrial School shall not 'exceed the sum of two hundred dollars per
Sec. 12. That the year for all provisions under this act shall begin on the first day of June in each year, and end on the thirty-first. day of May of the year then next succeeding.
Sec. 13. To carry out the provisions of this act the following sums are hereby specifically appropriated out of any money in the treasury not otherwise appropriated, which sums shall be paid to the treasurer of the Commission of Soldiers' Orphan Schools, who shall be required to give a bond in the sum to be named by the said Commission, with security for the proper application of such moneys:
1. For the establishing, building, furnishing and fitting up of said Pennsylvania Soldiers' Orphans Industrial School, as hereinbefore provided, the sum of one hundred and fifty thousand dollars, or so much thereof as may be necessary.
2. For the education and maintenance of the children admitted to said Soldiers' Orphans' Industrial School, for the year ending May thirty-first, one thousand eight hundred and ninety-four, the sum of ten thousand dollars, or so much thereof as may be necessary.
3. For the education and maintenance of the children admitted to said Soldiers' Orphans' Industrial School, for the year ending May thirty-first, one thousand eight hundred and ninety-five, the sum of fifty thousand dollars, or so much thereof as may be necessary.
4. For the expenses of the Commission, as hereinbefore provided, the sum of three thousand dollars, or so much thereof as may be necessary.
Sec. 14. All moneys to be paid on the warrant of the Auditor-General, drawn on the State Treasurer upon requisition, ap
Sec. 15. Any balance remaining unex pended for the year one thousand eight hundred and ninety-four shall be available for the year one thousand eight hundred and ninetyfive, in addition to the sum of fifty thousand dollars herein appropriated for that year.
Sec. 16. That all acts or parts of acts inconsistent with the provisions of this act be and the same are hereby repealed.
ITEMS FROM REPORTS.
ARMSTRONG-Supt. Jackson: The County Institute, held at Kittanning, was pronounced by those in attendance as the best we have had in many years. Out of 289 teachers, only 17 were absent; most of these were kept away by sickness.
BEAVER-Supt. Hillman: On Saturday, Nov. 11th, the people of Aliquippa, in Logstown, Ind. District, did themselves great honor in the dedication of their fine new two-room school-house. The P. O. S. A. presented a flag. There were speeches, lunch was provided, and a pleasant time was had in every way. The good impression made on the minds of the many children present will be lasting. An important educational event during the month was the dedication of the beautiful new school-house at Fallston. It is a fine brick structure, containing four school-rooms and a hall, with the latest improved arrangements for heating and ventilation. The building and grounds cost about $9,000.
BEDFORD-Supt. Potts: Never have we had a more successful session of County Institute. The attendance was large, both of directors, teachers and patrons. The instruction was of a high grade and duly appreciated. T. L. Gibson, of Ebensburg, our musical director, is equal to the best we have ever had. Good work is being done in most of our schools. Local Institutes are being held in many districts. Bedford township has completed the Wolfsburg schoolhouse. It is the best in the township and one of the best in the county. Directors deserve the thanks of the people for the good work being done. Hopewell has moved into its new house; it is a model building.
BLAIR-Supt. Wertz: The new schoolhouse at Tyrone, a beautiful and substantial building, was damaged by fire on the night of December 15th, to the amount of several thousand dollars. The arrangements for the dedicatory exercises had been made for December 30, preparatory to the opening of the schools January 2d. The damage will be repaired as speedily as possible, and the house will be ready for occupancy early in February. Neat and substantial book-cases have been placed in the school-houses of North Woodbury, Huston and Greenfield townships, and some of the houses in the latter townships have been neatly repaired.
The first session of the County Teachers' Association, for the present school year, was held in Altoona December 9. It was well attended, and was pronounced the most interesting meeting since the organization of the Association.
CARBON-Supt. Beisel: Our annual Teachers' Institute was held in the opera house, Lansford, the first week in December. We have 179 teachers, of these 177 enrolled. The average daily attendance was 174. The same two teachers were noted for their absence a year ago. The work done at our County Institute was very satisfactory. "Not a weak man on the programme" was the remark of a person able to judge. The Institute was well patronized, which made it a success both financially and intellectually from an educational point of view. The directors decided to hold their meeting hereafter on Wednesday, and to devote the whole of the afternoon to the discussion of topics bearing upon their office. On Saturday, December 16th, the principals of the county held a meeting at Mauch Chunk. After squaring up the business pertaining to the County Institute, they formed a permanent organization. At this meeting we divided the county into five local institute districts and decided to hold two institutes, one in the second district at Weatherly and the other in the fourth district at Lehighton. This organization will prove a factor for good both to themselves and to me. Four
of our teachers resigned-one has gone West, another into business, two are promoted to the "queenship" of the household. The schools of Carbon are doing well.
CENTRE-Supt. Gramley: The attendance of teachers and citizens at our annual Teachers' Institute was very gratifying. All manifested unusual interest in the proceedings. The executive committee of the Directors' Association had outlined an excellent programme for Directors' Day, and although the number of directors present was not as large as it might have been, yet such interesting discussions cannot fail to be productive of good to our schools. Our instructors were Drs. Schaeffer, Groff and Philips, and Profs. Swift, Twitmyer and Brumgard. Our evening lecturers were Dr. Philips, Profs. Twitmyer and Perrine, and an entertainment by the Schumann Concert Company.
CLARION-Supt. Beer: We have two new school-houses ready for occupancy-Rimersburg, three rooms, and Callensburg, two. I have arranged for several local Institutes. But one township (Piney) divided their term and employed two corps of teachers. Toby also divided the term, but only so far as wages were concerned. The same teachers are teaching the winter term that taught the fall term. The average length of the term is 61⁄2 months; it ought to be longer. There are 37 districts, 243 schools, which is a gain of 4 over last year; 244 teachers and 219 Directors. Of those now teaching, 187
hold provisional or one-year certificates, and 57 have high grade certificates or State Normal diplomas. There have been 365 applicants examined for provisional certíficates, of whom 42 were rejected, and 323 passed with an aggregate grade on nine branches of 18 or less. About 50 of those who passed are not residents of Clarion county, and of the number who passed the required grade, 137 are not now teaching in the county. The supply is greater than the demand. This condition suggests the necessity of a higher standard. Such work as barely gave a teacher a grade of 18 this year will cause that teacher not to be licensed next year. Let Directors give the longest possible term, pay the highest wages, and demand the best teachers obtainable, regardless of the desire to bestow personal favors and do acts of charity. This year 184 persons were granted certificates aggregating only 16 or lower. And as near as I can tell about 65 persons each hold a professional certificate, a permanent certificate, or a Normal diploma. So we see there are more than enough teachers of good grade to fill all the schools. I would, therefore, suggest to all school directors that as soon after the first of June as possible, they determine the length of next term, and the salary of the teachers they will employ, then pass such resolution in regard to the teacher's certificate as they think right. Such action will do more in one year to raise the standard of qualification than I can do in three. If they will elect teachers early, they will have an opportunity to choose from the best. Next spring examinations will begin in May, and be finished before July 1. This will give directors a chance to act on the above suggestion. Let our teachers strive to meet all conditions imposed by the most advanced school board, and let our watchword be progress all along the lines. A very interesting local Institute was held at Sligo. The programme was arranged by Prof. C. M. McNaughton, principal of the Sligo schools. County Institute was held at Clarion; 232 teachers were enrolled, all but eleven of the whole number. Some new departures were taken in Institute work, one of which was the reading of a Pestalozzi Primer. It was a success. Much of the time was given to local talent, with gratifying results. Prof. Isensee, of Pittsburg, conducted the music. Receipts, $787.15; expenditures, $771.33. The Înstitute was accounted by the teachers as good as any ever held here, and it had a larger enrollment of actual teachers than ever before.
CLINTON Supt. Snyder : Our County Institute was very largely attended, limited only by the capacity of the court house. Directors' day found most of the districts represented, and considerable interest was manifested on their part as to how they can best advance the school interests.
CLEARFIELD-Supt. Youngman: The County Institute was well attended, 365