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330 CONG....20 Sess.

The Colt Patent--Mr. James.


suppose one hundred thousand of the latter to Colt's alleged wealth was ex parte, founded on mere baseless fabric of a vision. Sir, he owns no have been made and sold, the profit on one would vague, and at best assumed, grounds, without be- armory there. He has not there the ownership be ten dollars, and on the whole, in the aggregate, ling questioned, and made, too, by interested op- of a solitary square foot of land, nor of a stone, $1,000,000. And this was the actual process by ponents determined to use all means to divest him or a brick, or an inch of any other material, in a which the clear profils of the patentee were made of his patent, no doubt can rest in the mind of a building on any foreign soil. In London, sir, to amount to that sum. This was a wonderful candid and intelligent man, that the statement was where this much talked of armory is located, he piece of legerdemain. a sheer fallacy.

occupies, on sufferance, an old Government buildTo a person at all acquainted with working the To what has already been said permit me to add | ing. ' In that building he has placed some tools two metals it is hardly necessary to say a word | facts stated by Messrs. Luther P. Sargeant and and machinery, with a limited number of workto point out the fallacy of such a mode of calcula- William Fuller, sworn to before the district court men, as the commencement of an armory. This tion. In one case, the barrel, cylinder, &c., are of the United States for the southern district of stock of tools and machinery—the value of them wrought out of solid bars of cast steel; in the New York, in January, 1854, Mr. Sargeant has | -go to swell the amount of his whole property other case, the parts are of cast iron. Between been the managing agent of Colonel Colt since to $335,000, already stated. Thus stands the casting these in moulds, and giving them a polish the year 1847, and is intimately acquainted with business, as proved beyond dispute. in a lathe, and boring, planing, turning, and polish- all the details of his business. With this gentle- Mr. President, as fast as profits have accrued, ing the solid cast steel, it need not be said, there man there could be scarcely a possibility of mis- they have been applied to improvements in the is a very great difference, to say nothing of the im- take, and his character for uprightness and integ. I patented arm, and in tools and machinery to carry mense difference in the cost of materials. But, to rity places his testimony beyond the reach of out those improvements and to reduce the cost come directly to the point, when the cast iron suspicion. He states that the value of Colonel for the benefit of the public. These are his stock arm was sold at some six or seven dollars each, Coli's property, as near as he could estimate it, I in trade, valuable only in his hands, for the manin 1846, Colt's cast steel revolvers could not be was $335,000, including that, of every descrip- ufacture of the genuine cast steel repeating arms. afforded even at lwenty-eight doilars, by the aid tion, connected with his manufacture, besides | Independent of these, Colonel Colt has little or of all the improvements in the tools and machinery | which he had about $20,000, and that his contracts nothing in the form of property. Deprive him of for their manufacture up to that time. To this and engagements, on account of his armory, his patent and you destroy the value of these in fact we have the statement of Colonel Colt, under would require to meet them a much larger sum. a great measure, and leave him to commence life oath, made in May, 1854, to the Senate Committee Here, sir, is a reliable account made up from books anew in a state of comparative poverty, after on Patents and the Patent Office. Colonel Colt, and figures, and not from estimates and vague con- having spent more than twenty of ihe best years the deponent, says:

jecture. And there is some difference between of his existence on improvements highly honor. ( That he entered into a contract with the Government the two sums—the one an imaginary $1,000,000, able to himself and his country, and of incalculable of the United States, in the latter part of the year 1846, for and the other only a real substantial $335,000, a benefit to the public. And this, by some people, the manufacture and delivery to the Government of one rather heavy discount of about sixty-five per cent. is miscalled justice. I consider it wrong, arbitrary, thousand repeating dragoon pistols, for which the Government paid the sum of $22,150, as it appears by the aceounts

This amount would just about cover the actual | and oppressive. of this deponent; that the contract was closed in the fall of loss sustained some fifteen or sixteen years since, Sir, attempts have been made, in a very stren1847 by the payment of the money and the delivery of the minus the interest for that period, and the time uous manner, to cast contumely and reproach on arms; that the arms were coustrucied with as much economy

and money expended by the patentee on his in- | the conduct of Colonel Colt, mainly through as this deponent was able to exercise in their manufacture, and that he attended personally to their construction; that

vention from its incipient state lwenty-four years attacks on his friends. It would not become me he now has the accounis before him of the disbursements since. The other witness, whose veracity will in this place to point out the source of these attacks, inade for materials, work, and incidental expenses in their not be called in question by any one who knows nor the actors in the drama. The ultimate object, construction, and that this deponent paid $27,063 81, as the accounts show, leaving a balance of $786 19, after these

him, has been employed as chief inspector of arms | I may be permitted to say, was to wrest from him payments were made, with which to pay traveling expenses

in Colonel Colt's armory since 1847. He testi- what'l consider to be his natural and legal right. and the personal expenses of this deponent, and his atten- fies that all the outlays of Colonel Colt have been I regret that the attempt has been successful, while tion to the manufacture for nine months. And this depo- necessary to enable him to perfect his arms and I rejoice that the result leaves no stain on the charnent saith that the whole profit which he received out of

to reduce their cost. “ The whole of this work," the contract was not sufficient to pay his board bills at his

acter or conduct of him and his friends; that not a boarding house, and that he was compelled to postpone

he says,

" has been done by Colonel Colt in pur- shadow of proof has been elicited to tarnish their their payment till he could get the money from another suance of a plan laid out by him at an early day | fame or their honor. source. And this deponent further saith, that since the year in the manufacture, which, when carried out, will Mr. President, the declaration may be boldly 1847 he has supplied the Government with four thousand pistols, and that the accounts show that the Government

subdivide the processes of manufacture, and the made here and elsewhere, and that without hazard, was supplied with the three thousand, before the last thou- machinery by which the result is produced, so and with the strictest regard for truth, that no more sand, at an actual loss of profit to this deponent of more that no machine will be required to perform more honest, honorable, and high-minded man breathes than $2,000; but that he coutinued to supply the arms under

than one operation, and consequently the highest the breath of life than "Colonel Samuel Colt. this constant loss for the purpose of submitting them to the test of actual service, and benefiting by the experience

degree of perfection will be reached. To accom- From his youth up, his life has been almost one which could thus be gained. And this deponeni further plish this result will require many times more continued series of vicissitude and change. Somesaith, that the profit on the last thousand arms sold to the machinery than is now employed, and at least times in prosperity, but more frequently in adverGovernment is not equal to the loss of profit resulting from the contract with the Government to supply the three thou.

three times the capital now invested; but, when | sity; he has enjoyed the one with the zest of a man sand arms which were sold to the Government next before

it is accomplished, the most perfect arms can be who knows how to appreciate the blessings and this last contract was executed, as it appears by a compar- made at so low a price as to compete successfully pleasures of life, and in the other, when the dark ison of the cost with the prices at the tiines of the respect- with spurious imitations made by a cheap process clouds of adversity rested on him, and seemed to ive contracts."

as this deponent believes.” He further states that shut out all hope for the future, he has manfully How does this statement make the case appear, the tools and machinery being of novel character, struggled with apparent destiny, conquered all when compared with that of his opponents who their cost has been very great, and that they obstacles, and emerged again triumphantly to the made it out, by their calculations, that Colonel would not be worth more than one fifth of that light of day. Sir, had noi Colonel Colt been a man Colt had been reaping large profits when he had cost to be applied to any other business.

of the most fertile genius, of indomitable energy, actually been losing money? The false statement But we hear it declared and reiterated along and perseverance, with a mind well endowed of his great profits and his vast accumulation of the ranks of the opponents of this bill, that Colonel with some of nature's best and noblest gists, and property would never have been suffered to go Colt owns a tremendous armory in England, of conscious uprightness and rectitude, he would long uncontradicted, or without refutation, on to the great value, and by means of which he is literally since have been borne down by the hostile forces records of the Patent Office, had Colonel Colt, coining money. In short, sir, there are certain arrayed against him, and crushed into the earth or his counsel, been present at the time. They lovers and retailers of the marvelous, who seem beneath the heels of his mercenary foes. But, sir, were not there, either of them. His opponents, to attribute to his patent invention all the wonder- he is indomitable—destroy him, and he rises, like of course, had it all their own way. The exam- ful properties of Alladin's lamp. But, sir, what the Phenix from his ashes, with renewed life and ination was ex parle, and they swore to what they have we to do with that? Suppose he had, by | vigor. Like the geometrical arch-with the inpleased; and his application for the renewal of his his enterprise, built up in London, under British crease of the burden you enhance his power of patent was rejected. There is one point here patronage, a large manufactory of his arms, and by resistance. which, it is believed, has not been generally under- it accumulated a princely fortune-what have we Mr. President, it is not my intention to eulogize stood.

to do with that? What business is that of ours? Colonel Colt. His standing, as a man of honor The patent I have referred to, an application for Sir, the British Government will regulate its and a gentleman, is too well known to require it. the extension of which was under consideration affairs under its own patent laws. That Govern- | His reputation, also, as the inventor of ihe arm by the Commissioner when the above examination ment does not require of us an account of what a which bears his name, is world-wide, and his was had, was not the same as that for the exten- patentee may make out of his patent invention genius, his talents, and his valuable services to the Bion of which an application is now before the here, in order to determine how much he may be public are well and truly appreciated, except by Senate. This is the patent for the pistol itself. entitled to realize there. For an invention, in this ihe harpies who, to increase their wealth, would The other was for the rammer with the compound country, the patentee is, under the law, and in prey on his vitals, and by the igncrant and prejulever. Therefore, the assertion sometimes made, justice, entitled to the opportunity to realize from diced, who either know not how to appreciate that Colonel Colt came to Congress to ask for an his invention here an amount equivalent to full merit, cast it aside as a thing of naught, or knowextension which had been refused to be granted compensation, and a reward in proportion to the ing it, sully their own consciences, by regarding by the Commissioner of Patents, is not true. I benefits that invention may have conferred on the it with envy and hatred, and refusing for it its just will now show, in brief, and by unimpeachable public-on this public. Whatever privileges or reward. Through an array of hosts of the latter testimony, that the declaration made before the immunities any other Government may have con- | description of men bas he been compelled to make Commissioner, that Colonel Colt had accumulated ferred on the same patentee for the same inven- his way. Against them his probity and honor $1,000,000 by means of his patent, is equally void | tion is no question and no concern of ours. But, have enabled him to stand firm, and justice for him of truth.

sir, this statemont of Colonel Colt's wealth and has usually triumphed, as it will in the future. When we reflect that the statement of Colonel

his great armory in London is, like the other, the Il But, sir, let the final results, as to his pecuniary

330 CONG....20 Sess.

The Tarif-Mr. Wilson.


interests, be what they may, one thing is certain, l of the country has been called during the last right adjustment of which the business of the he will have the proud consciousness of having | eighteen months to the revision of the tariff, yet country is so intimately concerned, may be sacrimade valuable gifts to his country and the world, the Senator from Ohio, and other honorable Sen- ficed by political interests and combinations conand with having acquired an enviable fame, which ators, are now taken by surprise at the action of nected with the elections of 1856. will very long survive when the names of his the House of Representatives.

I think the time has come, sir, to take this quesopponents and persecutors shall have perished. The honorable Senator from New York (Mr. tion out of the political contests of party warfare. While living, he will be honored by all true- SEWARD) undertakes to read a lecture to the House | The business interests of the country have too hearted men.

of Representatives for their action in placing this | often been sacrificed to the supposed interests of tariff proposition upon the civil and diplomatic || party. I know that, in 1846, the best interests of

bill. Sir, the Senator should be a little more char- || the manufacturers of my section of the country THE TARIFF.

itable towards this action of the House of Repre- were trifled with, sacrificed for political consideraSPEECH OF HON. HENRY WILSON, sentatives. It so happens, sir, that the Senator tions. Men connected with the leading manufac

from New York, in 1851, voted to put upon the civil turing interests assembled at the capital to watch OF MASSACHUSETTS,

and diplomatic appropriation bill of that year the over those interests, and the tariff of 1846 would IN THE SENATE, March 1, 1855,

river and harbor bill. Yes, sir, the Senator from have been so framed as to more effectually pro

New York, who now rebukes the members of the On the motion of Hon. John M. Clayton to strike

tect them had not the politicians, who wished to out of the Civil and Diplomatic bill the sections

House of Representatives for putting upon the || carry the question into the election of 1848, rerelating to the Tariff.

civil and diplomatic bill the proposed tariff amênd- fused to coöperate with them. And I rear now,

menis, voted, with two other Senators, in 1851, to sir, that this measure is to be sacrificed, and thrown Mr. WILSON said:

incorporate into the civil and diplomatic bill of that over to the next Congress, to be involved in the Mr. President: I shall vote against the motion || year a river and harbor appropriation bill, which next presidential election. submitted by the honorable Senator from Dela- was quite as inconsistent with the bill of that year In Massachusetts, and I think I may say in New ware, (Mr. Clayton,) to strike out so much of as this action of the House can be this year. The England, we desire a change in the tariff laws. the bill as relates to the modification of the tariff Senator from New York goes quite as far as any We of Massachusetts are in favor of making the of 1846, and I shall vote for this portion of the bill other Senator in the extreme latitude with which raw materials that enter into the manufactures as it came from the House of Representatives and he construes the rules of the Senate or the powers free of duty, or placing upon them a mere nomfrom the Committee on Finance. This proposed of the Constitution. I do not, I confess, like this inal duty. We want free wool and free dyemodification of the tariff comes to us supported by mode of legislation, but it has been so often re- stuffs. We want those articles out of which we a decisive vote of the Representatives of the people, | sorted to for the purpose of carrying measures make cotton and woolen goods duty free. We by men of all parties, and from all sections of the through Congress that no one should be at all want raw silk and hides duty free. Last year country. It comes to us at a time when political surprised at the action of the House in this case. we imported into the country more than two considerations and political combinations can have The people desire an essential modification of the million four hundred and twenty-one thousand little influence upon the action of Congress. I revenue laws, and I think their Representatives | hides, valued at $11,942,000. Out of these hides know this measure is not a perfect one, but the have acted in obedience to their will in incorpora are manufactured millions of pairs of shoes and proposed changes are in the right direction, and I | ting into the bill this modification of the act of 1846. boots in Massachusetts and New England. There shall support them because, in my judgment, they The Senator from Maryland (Mr. Pearce) and is no reason why these foreign hides should not will be beneficial not only to my own State, but to the Senator from Pennsylvania (Mr. BRODHEAD) come in free of duty. All restrictions which the whole country.

have made estimates in regard to the operations of weigh heavily upon the manufacturing interests But, sir, I do not expect, I cannot expect, after this proposed measure upon the revenue of the should be speedily removed, and all raw materials the manifestations I have witnessed here to-day couniry. The honorable Senators see in this used for manufacturing purposes should be placed that this tariff provision will be retained by the measure a plan for the depletion of the Treasury. on the free list. Then, sir, we want the duties Senate. Honorable Senators, who are hostile to Pass this measure, and the vaults of your Treas- || reduced upon those articles of prime necessity this proposed modification of the act of 1846, seem determined to defeat it or to defeat altogether the empty: Well, sir, if these predictions should be masses. Coal should be placed on the free list. civil and diplomatic appropriation bill. I may be verified, I shall not complain, and I am quite sure | The duty on sugar, now thirty per cent., should mistaken, sir, but I think I see influences at work || the business men of the country, who have felt the || be reduced. The people of the United States pay in this Chamber from the other end of Pennsyl- pressure which has borne so heavily upon them, | annually, it is estimated, not less than $10,000,000 vania avenue to defeat this measure, a measure while your sub-treasury has hoarded up twenty- || in the enhanced value of sugars alone. This which comes to us sanctioned by the voice of the five millions of gold, will not complain. I wish to enormous burden is imposed upon the people for House of Representatives. Power, sir, does not see your coffers of hoarded gold emptied—not by the direct benefit of some thirteen hundred sugar like to relax its hold upon the hoarded millions | squandering the money already there, but by || growers. By this bill sugar will be taxed twentynow locked up in the national Treasury. Men, | diminishing the sources which supply those sur- four per cent., yet the Senator from Louisiana, who have looked with hungry eye upon a Treasury | plus millions. I wish to see the revenue reduced (Mr. BENJAMIN) denounces it as a bill which conoverflowing with surplus millions, do not wish to io less than $50,000,000 annually from all sources, fers great benefits upon the manufacturers of texsee the sources from which those coveted millions and the expenditures greatly reduced, and I shall tile fabrics. are derived dried up. Then, sir, I fear that now, | vote for this measure in the hope that the antici- The Senator from Delaware (Mr. CLAYTON) as in times past, political ambition is not unwilling | pated reduction will be realized. But I would thinks the passage of this measure will put the to sacrifice ihe business interests of the country in suggest to the honorable Senators from Maryland || knife to the ihroats of millions of sheep. The Senthe hope to win political power. The measure is and Pennsylvania, that they should be a little cau. ator from New York (Mr. SEWARD) is also very doomed—the hopes of the people are destined to tious in regard to these predictions and estimated | anxious to protect the wool-growing interests of be disappointed.

deficiences. In 1846, when the tariff of 1842 was the country. These distinguished Senators seem Sir, the honorable Senator from Ohio, [Mr. || superseded by the act of that year, the chairman filled with the most gloomy apprehensions about Wade,) who has just taken his seat, declares that ll of the Committee on Finance, and other distin- the fate of the seventy millions of sheep that range this lariff measure has been sprung upon the coun- 1 guished Senators, predicted, with the utmost con- over the country. These millions of sheep will try. He is not prepared to vote upon the propo- fidence, that the Treasury would be beggared by not be sent to the shambles, even should this bill sition. Upon this question he assures us he is, the change proposed. The predictions so confi- || become a law. It seems to me very strange that we indeed, a "Know-Nothing:" I am sorry, sir, || dently made by the Senators of that day have been cannot raise wool just as cheaply upon our cheap although I have a great deal of regard for gentle- || proved entirely incorrect by subsequent events. lands in America as it can be raised on the costly men who bear that charmed name, that we have | If the Senators from Maryland and Pennsylvania | lands of the Old World. I believe that the interso many “Know-Nothings" here upon this ques- I will glance over the congressional debates during ests of the wool-grower would be promoted by the tion. My friend from Ohio, who has indulged in the past twenty-five or thirty years, they will find repeal or material reduction of the duty on wool. some fine declamation about protecting the labor that ninety-nine of every one hundred of the pre- At this time the woolen interests of New Eng. of the country, is not ready to vote for this propo- dictions which have been made in regard to the land are sadly depressed. Of sixteen hundred sition because it has been sprung upon the coun- operations of the tariff upon the revenues of the looms in New England, which manufacture broad try. Does not the Senator know ihat the busi- || country, have been falsified by the facts which cloth, nearly fifteen hundred, I am told, are not ness interests of the country imperiously demand time has disclosed. The Senate and the country now in use for that purpose. an essential modification of the act of 1846? Does should receive with caution these estimates which The Senator from Ohio (Mr. Wade) has rehe not know that the President called the attention || honorable Senators have chosen to indulge in. peated again the old story of protection to Amerof Congress to the subject in his first annual mes- "But the Senator from Delaware (Mr. Clayton) ican labor. He thinks American labor will suffer sage, in December, 1853, and that the Secretary of tells us that we should not act upon this tariff at if this measure passes, if the act of 1846 shall be the Treasury made a report in favor of a modifi- this session—that we should leave the subject to | essentially modified. I think American labor will cation of the tariff? Does he not know that the the next Congress. There has been, he tells us, a be best protected by taxing all the necessaries of President again called the attention of Congress revolution in the composition of the House of Rep- || life lighty, placing the raw materials which enter to the subject at the beginning of the present seu- resentatives, greater than has ever been known || into our manufactures on the free list, raising rev. sian, and that the Secretary of the Treasury again before in the history of the country. It is true, as enue to support the Government upon articles that made a report in favor of an essential change? the Senator from Delaware suggests, the next come in competition with our manufactures, and Does he not know that the Committee of Ways House will have a decided majority opposed to the upon the luxuries of life which are consumed by and Means in the House have had the whole majority here in the Senate. This very difference the more wealthy classes of society; by improving question under consideration for weeks, and that may make it more difficult to make any changes our harbors and rivers, and extending and comthe measure, as it now stands, received the sanc- in the tariff. There may be a contest between the | pleting our lines of internal communication, so that tion of gentlemen versed in the financial and busi- two Houses, into which political considerations | ihe commercial, manufacturing, and agricultural ness interests of the country? Sir, the attention may enter, and this question of the tariff, in the Il sections of the country may be brought into close 330 CONG....20 Sess.

Texas Debt Bill-Mr. Jones, of Tennessee.

Ho. OF Reps.

and cheap connection with each other. By this facturing, and agricultural interests of the country, five hundred and fifty.” The amendment which I policy will American labor be protected and Amer- require that these railways should be speedily || propose will, ifadopted appropriate the $5,000,000, ican interests permanently promoted.

coinpleted; and the idea that the railroad interest being the principal of Texan indemnity bonds Mr. BRODHEAD replied.

is to be checked, is to be repressed for the purpose issued under the boundary act of September, 1850, Mr. WILSON. Mr. President, the Senator of developing the railroad iron resources of Penn- but retained in the Treasury because the Texan from Pennsylvania (Mr. BRODHEAD) misunder- sylvania, a State that does not make railroad iron creditors have not complied with the conditions of stood me altogether, if he understood me to allude enough to keep in repairs twenty-one thousand that act, requiring them to file releases against the to any anticipated conflict between the Senate and miles of the railways now in existence, it seems to United States—$1,250,000 being interest at the the House of Representatives upon any question me is a singular doctrine to advance here or else- rate of five per cent. per annum, from the date concerning slavery, whether it be the repeal of where. Depend upon it, sir, the country will not of the bonds to the 1st of January, 1856, and the fugitive slave law or the restoration of the stand still or consent to keep pace with the growth | $300,000, being for premium at the rate of six per Missouri compromise. When those questions of the Pennsylvania railroad iron establishments. sent., that being the rate of premium which is now come up here, I shall

be as ready to meet them as But the Senator thinks that it is a strange doc- being paid for the redemption of such portions of any other Senator. Sir, I made no allusion what- ll trine to come from Massachusetts, that we care Texan fire per cent. bonds issued and delivered to ever, direct or indirect, to the subject of slavery. I little for protection. I do not mean to say, sir, Texas in 1851 upon presentation at the Treasury did not wish to thrust that question into this debate. that Massachusetts does not care for protection; of the United States. Whenever it is introduced here I shall meet it, I admit that she desires it upon some articles which The bill provides that $8,500,000 shall be apand freely express my opinions, and freely give she manufactures, but your tariff of 1846 is a real propriated and distributed among the creditors of my votes. Everybody will know just where to discrimination against her on some of those arti- || Texas, provided that they shall, in consideration find me whenever any question comes up con- cles, and she wishes that corrected.

of such payment, release the Government of the cerning slavery.

But, sir, this talk about protection, the history | United States from the entire debt which they now The Senator from Pennsylvania congratulates of the past twenty-five years shows, has been claim the Government is liable for. Now, sir, if Senators from the South on the union of Massa- | mainly for political effect. Every public man I could believe that this Government, by their chusetts with the South in support of this measure. knows that it has been so. I think the interests action with regard to Texas, had assumed these Massachusetts will noi shrink from the support of of the labor of this country will be best promoted debts, or made themselves liable for the payment, wise and patriotic measures through fear of any | by living as near as we can practically to the doc. I would vote most cheerfully to pay an amount rebukes the Senator from Pennsylvania may as- trines of sound political economy.

out of the United States Treasury sufficient to pay sume to administer. Massachusetts is here to The Senator from Pennsylvania is in great the liabilities; for, sir, I wish that the Government maintain her interests and her rights. She has trouble about an arrangement between Massachu- shall deal justly, fairly, honorably, and honestly, no favors to ask of the South or of Pennsylvania. setts and the representatives from the South. Sir, || with all persons, and that they shall discharge, to She will never, in the persons of those who rep-|I do not know that any arrangement has been the last dollar, all the liabilities, for which they are resent her here this day, follow the example now made, but I am free to say that, upon this question legally bound. Bet her by Pennsylvania, and bow her head low of the tariff, I am just as ready to make an arrange- The ground upon which this appropriation is in the dust and beg for a little protection on her ment with the South as I should be with the State based, is the assumption that, by the annexation interests, pleading her servility to southern de- of Pennsylvania, or any other State. I do not of Texas, and by her incorporation into the Union, mands as a reason why southern Senators should know that any arrangements are made, but I am and by the act of 1850, proposing to settle the now stand by her.

not to be frightened from voting according to my boundaries between her and the Territories of the The Senator from Pennsylvania alluded to a convictions by any allusions of that kind, by my United States, by those various acts we have remark made by me concerning the doctrine of friend from Pennsylvania, or any other Senator || virtually and legally assumed upon ourselves the protection. Sir, I have no apprehensions whatupon this floor.

liabilities of Texas, and particularly, say gentleever that we shall come to a system of direct tax- 'I support this measure because, in my judg. | men, that portion of it for which thó custome rere ation. Whatever professions men may have made ment, any legislation of Congress which tends enue of Texas was pledged. in the past, whatever professions they may make || towards freedom of trade, towards liberalizing the Mr. Chairman, I cannot perceive, I have been now, either North or South, we shall not come to revenue laws of the country, is an advantage to its unable to see, how the debi of Texas, for which direct taxation in your day or mine. I take it || capital and labor. I believe it sincerely, and the her customs revenue was pledged, is of any higher that we must have from foriy to sixty millions of l experience of the past proves it to be true. 1 | grade or of any more binding force upon Texas, dollars annually, to be raised mostly by duties believe this tariff provision is doomed to defeat. or upon this Government, than the debt for which assessed upon the imports of the country. What My appréhensions are that it is to be thrown over she had pledged her faith. When this or any I contend for, is, that upon all the articles that into the next Congress. There will, unquestion- other Government, in my opinion, pledges ite enter into the general consumption of the country, | ably, be a large majority, an overwhelming ma- faith for the payment of a debt, the amount of there should be a light tax, or that they should jority, of the nexi House of Representatives op- | money included within that pledge is a lien upon come entirely free of duty. What I wish to see posed to the present Administration.

all of its resources, whether derived from customs, is, that the raw material which enters into the Mr. SEWARD. Will my honorable friend direct taxes, or property. Then, sir, if I am right manufactures of the courtry shall come in free of allow me to ask him a question? Has he less in that, we are no more bound for that portion of duty. W: want free wool and free dye-stuffs. i confidence in that House of Representatives than the debt for which the custom-house receipts were The manufacturing interests of the country de in the present one?

pledged than for all the balance of it. mand it. The comm-rcial interests of the country Mr. 'WILSON. I have as much confidence in

But it is argued that Texas, under the annexe demand it, and, in my humble judgment, the agri- the next House of Representatives as I can have ation resolution, having transferred her custom• cultural interests of the country would be promoted in the present one. I certainly have more political houses and custom revenues to this Government, by it. Yes, sir, we want all those articles, that || sympathy with it. I suppose it will have a decided, after having previously pledged them to the pas; enter as raw materials into the manufactures of an overwhelming, majority against the present Ad- ment of certain debts and liabilities which she had the country, free of duty; so that the country can ministration; but in the next House of Represent- || created, those debts and liabilities follow the trans. stand on an equality in the markets of the world | atives, and in the Senate, we are to have repeated fers into the hands of the Government of the Uniwith the other nations of the world. The Senator the lessons of the past. Questions connected with ted States. Sir, I understand it to be one of the from Pennsylvania defends, as he should defend, the next presidency will come up, and will have clearest principles of law, that when an individual the interests of his State; but Pennsylvania has more or less effect upon all subjects which may be being in debi sells his property to a third party, had more protection than any other section of the brought before the two Houses. I do not want if it is a bona fide transaction, in which the pure country, and she has more to-day. There is a to see this question of the tariff mingled up any duty of thirty per cent. on iron, and at least fif- longer in political contests. The business interests ity or responsibility upon the purchaser for the

chaser pays a sound price, then there is no lisbilteen per cent more protection by the cost of im- | of the country have been too often sacrificed to debts of the person from whom he purchased the portation. The interesis of Pennsylvania will be advance the political purposes of the public men property, unless-suggests my friend frona South cared for under this bill. She will have for her of the country. I am willing to take the bill as it Carolina (Mr. Boyce)-it be morigaged. Sir, ! iron not less than thirty-five per cent. protection comes to us from the House of Representatives, and ask if this Government can mortgage a thing that in reality. The Senator desires that the seventeen I shall vote for it, although I have apprehensions is not in existence? Could Texas mortgage a thousand miles of railway

that the motion made by the honorable Senator thing that was not in existence? Can an individ, Mr. COOPER. Will the Senator allow me to from Delaware (Mr. CLAYTON) will succeed. ual mortgage a thing which is not in existence? ask him a question?

Now, were ihe custom-house revenues of Texas in Mr. WILSON. Certainly.

existence, could she sell the duties of the next year? Mr. COOPER. How does he show that Penn

Why, sir, she was engaged in a struggle with the sylvania will receive a protection of thirty-five REMARKS OF HON. G. W. JONES, I country from which she had separated herself for per cent. on her iron? It is a matter of some in


her very existence. Suppose that that Govern, terest to me, and I should like to know how it is. Mr. WILSON. I will answer the Senator.


ment had made a conquest of Texas, where would

have been her sovereignty? Where would have She will receive, under this bill, twenty-four per

February, 6, 1855,

been her faith? Where would have been her cuscent. of protection. The cost of importation is On the bill to provide for the payment of such tom-houses? Where would have been her power not less than fifteen per cent. That gives a pro- Creditors of the late Republic of Texas as are to levy duties? Would not all the resources of that tection to Pennsylvania in the article of iron of comprehended in the act of Congress of Sep- Republic have passed into the hands of Mexico nearly forty per cent. Now, sir, we have seven- tember 9, 1850.

Then, sir, again, suppose that Texas had reteen thousand miles of railway under process

Mr.-JONES, of Tennessee, said: of construction. Those railways are mainly in

Mr. CHAIRMAN: I move to amend the first sec

mained independent, and had repealed her custom

house laws, and had resorted to direct taxation, the new States of the West and Southwest. The tion by striking out the words si eight millions five

or the disposal and sale of the public lands to interests of the country, the commercial, manu- ll hundred," and inserting the words " six millions | support her Government, where

would have been


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330 CONG....20 Sess.

The Collins Steamers Mr. Jones, of Tennessee.


the mortgage? Where would have been the power Then, sir, if there were some plausibility in the rates of fare for passengers, and the receipts for to have enforced it? Bat, sir, I hold that this Gov. argument that we incurred these responsibilities, || freight, we have nothing to do. That, sir, is the ernment, by annexing Texas and incorporating yet, having purchased her property at a price private business of E. K. Collins & Co. With her into this Union, gave to Texas, and gave to which was, perhaps, beyond its value, in a bona them I have no more to do than I have with the the creditors of Texas, a sound and valuable con- l fide transaction—at a price which would have amount of goods imported by Stuart, the mer. gideration for the transfer of her custom-houses liquidated that debi-I think that we are released | chart, of New York, or of any other merchant in and customs revenue, in the guarantee of her per- from all responsibility, and even from all stigma that city. manent existence and independence. In placing which might attach to their non-payment. And it My business upon this subject, as a Representher upon that permanent basis which this Govern- is upon these grounds, and for these reasons, that ative of a tax-paying constituency, and as a legigment itself enjoys, we guarantied to her her ex- I cannot give my support to the bill as it is now lator, is to inquire whether the services rendered by istence and her independence, and we have main- | before the committee. The amount of $8,500,000 E. K. Collins & Co. are worth, in the first place, tained it so far. Now, sir, I appeal to you and in the bill passed by the Senate, is made up of the the money which we pay them; and, in the second to this committee, to say whether that was not a $5,000,000 of bonds, and the interest at five per place, whether or not we can get clear of any porfair and bona fide equivalent for the custom-house cent. per annum on that $5,000,000 for the four- tion of that expense without violating the contract revenues received by this Government? Suppose teen years the bonds have to run, $3,500,000. with that company, or giving them cause of comthat, instead of annexation and incorporation into The amount which I propose to insert in the bill | plaint. In 1847, Collins & Co. came here and this Government, Texas had transferred to the ($6,550,000) is made up of the Texas indemnity | made a proposition, in accordance with which, United States her custom-houses, and her revenues bonds issued under the act of September 9, 1850, without altering one word, Congress directed by from that source, upon condition that the United dated January 1, 1851, and due in fourteen years law that the Secretary of the Navy should close States would guaranty her independent and sepa- after date January 1, 1865-bearing interest at the contract upon their own terms, which were, rate existence against Mexico and all the world, the rate of five per cent. per annum, now depos- | that they should carry the mails iwenty round would that not have been a fair equivalent for the || ited in the Treasury of the United States, and trips a year, and receive for it $385,000 from the custom-houses? Would it not have been better worth in the market six per cent. premium. United States-being $19,250 for each round trip: for the creditors than to have left them with Texas? | This six per cent. premium on $5,000,000 makes They commenced the services in April, 1850, and Would any person have said that, under such a $300,000.' The reason why I assume the rate of || in 1852 came back to Congress and represented compact as that, this Government would have been premium at six per cent. is, because, by an adver- i that they could not carry out the contract and perbound for the debt of Texas ?

tisement now in the papers of this city, the Sec- form the services at the compensation they were But, Mr. Chairman, admitting, for a moment, || retary of the Treasury gives notice to all holders receiving: The proposition was successfully adthat we were bound; and if that be conceded, I of any part of the $5,000,000 of bonds which were vocated in Congress, that if you would increase think that it must then follow that we took those delivered to Texas, of the same character and the number of trips by six, and increase the comrevenues of Texas derived from her customs, with description as these, that he will pay them the face | pensation to $33,000 ihe round trip, they would all the incumbrances and all the liabilities to which or par value of the bonds which they may present, carry out the contract and perform the services. they were subject. Now, in the first place, Texas with all interest accrued at the time of presenta- In both cases one of the strongest arguments relied mainly upon her customs revenue for means tion, and six per cent. premium on the face value | urged was, that it was the building up of your to defray the current expenses of her Government of these bonds.

Navy, and would supersede the necessity of a in an independent position. Then, sir, if we took This rate of premium on the $5,000,000 is direct expenditure in increasing the Navy estabher with ihese incumbrances on her, by all fair | $300,000. This bill proposes that it shall not be lishment. That argument has now no force, for and legitimate rules, we should go into an account executed until Texas, by an act of her Legisla. I believe no one now seriously contends that these and see what it has cost us to defray the expenses ture, shall give her assent to its provision; and I vessels will answer for war purposes. incident to Texas since she has been annexed, and assume that it will take the greater part, if not the Again, you were told, when this compensation then strike the balance. It appears to me, that whole, of the present year before the assent of was increased, that the increased mail' facilities even upon the assumed ground that these custom- Texas will be obtained, and that the Treasury would so increase the correspondence between the house resources were mortgaged by the State of will not be able to pay out the money, if appro- two countries, and, consequently, so increase the Texas, that course would be the correct one to priated, before the lsi of January next, which amount of postage, as to remunerate the country pursue. I have not looked into the facts as to the will be five years from the date of the bonds. || for the extra expenses paid. Now, sir, after two amount received from customs revenue through the Consequently there will be five years’interest due years' experience under this new arrangement of custom-houses of Texas since she has been an. at that time, at five per cent. per annum, which increased trips and increased compensation, how nexed to this Government; but I suppose that it makes $1,250,000. "This, when added to the stands the account? Well, here it is: will not be contended that the revenue from that $5,000,000 of bonds, and the $300,000 of premi- | Amount paid to E. K. Collins & Co. for mail transportation source has been equal to or beyond the propor- | üm, makes the whole amount $6,550,000, which from New York to Liverpool, for the year ending June tionate and legitimaie expenses which we have in- sum I have moved to insert in lieu of the amount 30, 1853....

$858,000 00 curred in consequence of the annexation of Texas. now in the bill. This amendment will be, I hope,

Amount of postages received from mails carried

192,313 87 Again, sir, by the annexation resolution it was

by Collins line for the same year........... sustained by the committee and by the House, provided that Texas should retain all of her public and will become the law, so as that this Govern- Net loss to the United States in 1853.. $665,686 13 lands and other property to pay her debts. Now, || ment will have paid over its indebtedness to Texas, sir, by the boundary act of 1850 we proposed to and will have got rid of the matter.

Amount paid E. K. Collins & Co. for similar service, for Texas that if she would relinquish her claim to I was here, Mr. Chairman, when Texas was the year ending June 30, 1854....

$858,004 00 certain territory which she claimed, this Govern- || annexed. I supported that proposition. I was

Net receipts of postages from Collins line for
the same year.......

153,377 61 ment, in consideration of that relinquishment, here when she was admitted into this Confederacy, would pay to her the sum of $10,000,000, in a and voted for that, too. I was here when the war Net loss to the United States for the year 1834, $704,622 39 stock running fourteen years and bearing interest was declared to support her independence, and to at five per centum per annum. Texas having give her that protection which we have pledged given her assent, $5,000,000 of these bonds were ourselves she should receive at our hands. I sus- | from this ocean mail steam line from the preceding

And a falling off from the receipts for postages issued, under the law dated January 1, 1851, and due on 1st January, 1865. This last '$5,000,000 gress of the United States to prosecute, vigorously year of the

pretty little sum of $38,936 26.

I would thank the advocates of this line to inform is deposited and retained in the Treasury of the and efficiently, that war. I was here, and voted

me, this House, and the tax-paying people of the United States, because certain stipulations of the

for the boundary bill. And, sir, when I look back | country, when the revenues from the line will meet act of 1850 have not been complied with by the I cannot bring my mind to the conclusion that, in

the compensation paid to these especial favorites creditors of Texas. any one act I have performed in all these various

of Congress. By the terms of the annexation resolutions of cases, I assumed the debt of Texas, or pledged

E. K. Collins & Co. commenced this service on April 27, 1845, Texas entered into a solemn compact with these United States to pay that debt. We do, 1850, and from that date to June 30, 1854, have received this Government, that her invaluable public lands || however, owe the $5,000,000, with the accrued from the people's Treasury the sum of.... $2,835,406 57 should be retained by her, and appropriated to the interest thereon; and I am willing to pay a fair

The whole amount of net revenue received

for ocean postages on mails carried by Colpayment of her debts. By the boundary act of premium for this stock.

lins line for the same period.............. 734,466 01 September, 1850, the United States purchased of Texas her claim--and it was a bare claim, the

Net loss to the United States in four years... $2,100,940 56

THE COLLINS STEAMERS. most worthless of all her public lands—for which the United States agreed to pay Texas $10,000,000. REMARKS OF HON. G. W. JONES,

Thus we see that, for the first two years under This was for only a part of the pledged public

this new arrangement of an increased number of lands of Texas, but for which the United States


trips and increased compensation, the amount paid agreed to pay an amount sufficient to pay the


out by the Treasury over the amount received entire debt of Texas, or very nearly so, leaving

February 16, 1855.

from postages on mails carried by this line was her all of her most fertile and desirable lands within her present boundaries relieved and unem- The House being in the Committee of the only $1,370,318 52; and the total amount paid 10

E. K. Collins & Co., over and above the amount barrassed. Not only so, but

Texas being annexed Whole, (under the five-minute rule,) and having of postages received by the United States from and made one of the United States, thousands of under consideration the bill making appropria mails transported across the Atlantic Ocean since our people were induced to go there who never

tions for the transportation of the United States the commencement of their contract, is only the would have identified their fortunes with the Re- | mail, by, Ocean Steamers and otherwise, during trifling and insignificant sum, in the estimation of public of Texas. We bought her worthless lands the fiscal year ending June 30, 1856,

legislators of enlarged and liberal views, but to to free her from debt, and furnished her with many Mr. JONES, of Tennessee, said:

the honest tax-payers, whose toils and whose labors of the best of our people as purchasers of her better Mr. Chairman: With the cost of the Collins have to foot all these bills, the enormous sum of lands and permanent citizens.

steamers, the expense of running them, with the l' $2,100,940 56, more than the Government price 330 CONG.... 20 Sess.

The Collins SteamersMr. Jones, of Tennessee.


of the public lands sufficient to settle, upon home- | be sufficient to provide homesteads, of one hundred | few? And yet the same Congress which fails to steads of their own, of one hundred and sixty acres and sixty acres each, to over ninety thousand free pass the homestead bill will pass this bill for the each, ten thousand American citizens with their | American citizens, who pay your taxes and fight benefit of the owners of these mail steamers. wives and children, averaging six to the family, your battles, who, with their wives and children, Sooner or later the people of the country, of the making an aggregate of sixty thousand human of six members to the family, would constitute a rural districts, will be aroused against this kind of beings, each one of whom are as much entitled to population of about five hundred and forty thou- || partial legislation, the tendency of which is to the favors and bounty of the Government as E. sand, sufficient to entitle six of your Territories to enable the few favored objects to amass princely K. Collins and his associates. And estimating admission as sovereign States into the Union. Is fortunes and establish castes and classes in this the public lands at the actual cost to the Govern- this legislating for the rights and benefits of the country, against the genius and principles of the ment of fourteen and one half cents an acre would many, or for the benefit and advantage of a favored || Government.

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