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was allowed to take, or who town or court. Moreover, we took, his full swing. Byron must probably allow a good was reprobated; and Leigh deal for the many and farHunt was gibbeted (hypocrit- reaching influences of the Wesically, I fear) for the Story leyan movement, and of the of Rimini.' None of the three Anglican Church as affected would have been much censured thereby. The red-faced parforty years earlier.

sons, absorbent of port and of I have stated the problem, ale, the Parson Trullibers, died but I do not pretend to solve out. What can Mrs Trulliber it. I remember no Jeremy have read ? Nothing, proCollier, and no Addison, who bably; but the wives of the set about reforming the coarse- Henry Tilneys did read, and ness of taste, just after Smol- doted on Cowper as well as lett's day; and it does not on Clara Reeve and Mrs Radseem that Jeremy or Addison, cliffe. Moreover, even Sterne, when they tried, really pro- with his “sentiment,” made duced much effect. The ‘Spec- people desire fiction which tator,' in Lamb's situation on could touch the heart as well Primrose Hill, might, indeed, as amuse, and they got it, in have proved as embarrassing Mackenzie's 'Man of Feeling as did Pamela' herself. Nor and · Julia de Roubigné.' Sheldid foreign influences produce ley, in boyhood, tried to set the revolution, for France was the example of didactic novels, then hurrying into what had meant, he says, to inculcate been the English extreme. his metaphysics and morals.

If I must make a guess, I When sentiment, and would hazard the theory that didacticism, and romance, and the change was caused by the terror (as in Mrs Radcliffe and rise of a larger reading middle other favourites of Miss Cathclass, especially by the increase erine Morland) came in, and in the numbers of women of were found delightful, humour the middle classes, and in the and libertinism went out. Broad country, who read books. They farce was not in harmony (dehad not hitherto been literary: spite Dickens) with sentiment they had simply been house- and the wilfully didactic, nor wives and stitchers ; good with “the horrid," with spectral mothers, not bookish. At no castles, and inquisitorial duntime had their class been so


Smollett had thought free, in conductor

such attractions dead for ever, tion, as the women in “Society” but he was wrong. They reand in London. What they vived, they were hugely popuavoided in life, they disliked in lar, they held the field, and literature. They now began to horseplay went out. Miss get into contact with literature Burney, again, could not be through book clubs. There expected to sin in the direcwere regular societies of pro- tion of Astræa, yet she could vincial Blues, not spotted by interest and amuse without







such gambols. There were no not put up with the infidelities humorous novelists, or of Tom Jones, Roderick Ranwho are now remembered as dom, and Peregrine Pickle. She authors of stories, between the felt personally insulted (and no days of Smollett and Miss Edge- wonder) by their behaviour. worth. There arose a forgotten From all these influences, one school of historical novelists. ventures to conjecture, the So nobody was tempted to use singular and rapid change in the old, simple, animal taste, and the decent limitapedients for getting a laugh. tions on literary art (limitations Thus the new and great gener- hitherto conspicuously absent ation of Scott and Miss Austen from English fiction), drew their had no temptations to coarse- origin. That the once Puritan

or licentiousness, even a middle classes deserve most of moderate freedom would have the praise is a theory strengthbeen fatal, and modern critics ened by the example of Amermay think Scott and Miss ica, where prudery as to the Austen “senselessly decent."

even of simple harmless On the whole, the most ob- phrases (for example, you “revious and probable cause of tire,” in America : you never the sharp and sudden revolu- go to bed) irritated Dr Oliver tion of taste was probably what Wendell Holmes. American we may call the Wesleyan literature is assuredly neither Reformation acting on the licentious nor coarse. But these middle classes far beyond the hypotheses may be inadequate bounds of the Wesleyan com- or erroneous, in which case the munion. Wesley's movement problem becomes vastly more was really (though he did not curious and interesting. A know it) part of the Romantic problem it is: the generation movement: it began in an as- of Scott's father saw nothing ceticism, and in an emotion, out of the way or reprehensible and in “supernormal experi- in literary forms which the ences" after the model of the authors of Scott's generation ideals of the medieval Church. might, and, of course, did enRomanticism itself (in spite of joy, but dared not, and cared some old French romances) is, not to follow. Sir Walter himin essence,"

“a delicate thing"; self was an ardent admirer of knights amorous and errant are Smollett, whom at one time he all unlike the festive wanderers was constantly quoting. But of Fielding and Smollett. The Scott's own heroes never once squires of romantic lovers are wander from the strict path no Straps nor Partridges, and of a solitary virtuous attachthe knights understand “the ment. His one heroine who, maiden passion for a maid,” in fact, had transgressed from in sense unknown to the the path of Dian, was, if I may lovers of Sophia, Emilia, and say so, violently shunted back Narcissa. The new middle- into it, owing to the prudery of class lady novel - reader could Ballantyne, some of whose MS. VOL, CLXVII. —NO. MXIII.

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notes on Scott's proof - sheets tion that sprang from the Wesprove him to have possessed leys, but to a general revolt, all "a nice morality.” Hencefor- along the line, in favour of ward every hero was a Gala- the ideal and the spiritual, and had, till Mr Rochester broke against the godless commonaway from the rule and Richard place and brutality of the Feverel fell into the ancient early Hanoverian time. The errors of Captain Booth. Even new materialism of science has now a hero's confessions are probably fostered the new less startlingly explicit than "emancipated" literature of the those of Roderick Random; strugforlifeur of M. Daudet. and nobody would pretend to Thus reactions succeed each interest in Peregrine other; but on the whole, in Pickle, or even in a Pamela. fiction, and not looking at the The change, which was born worse than Smollettian vulgarfull grown, has lasted for a ity of such plays as “Lord

" century in England, which had Quex,” the tendency to a new previously set the very opposite licence seems to have expended example. It was a change due itself. not merely to the moral revolu







OUR army as a whole, and to see

to see a perfect organisation in each of its branches, has perfectly successful in the ends been severely tested for several for which it has been framed, months. There have been and those who are responsible many details of command and for it ought not to lack their administration which appar- meed of public appreciation. ently deserve to be criticised, There is no question but that though it is possible that, when the Royal Army Medical Corps the whole truth is eventually (the department of which we published, it may be found that speak) is animated just now by the present weight of criticism a very special desire to deserve may have to be readjusted or well of England. Some years even removed altogether. Cir- ago, and for a long time precumstances

sometimes viously, the Army Medical Destronger than organisation partment, admirable and dehowever perfect, or plans of serving as it had always proved action however well conceived. itselt, had been left by the But there is one military de- country's Government in a most partment which has proved anomalous condition both as itself quite equal to the work regards rank and privilege. It that it has undertaken, in had been systematically snubbed whose operations it has been and its professional and military impossible to detect the slight- pride had been gravely injured. est flaw, and in which there Its officers were justifiably dishas never been any friction or heartened, and the service had shortcoming. The medical ser- lost its attraction for the best vice of the army has attracted young men from the medical the cordial admiration of Con- schools. In December 1896 tinental, and particularly Rus- 'Maga' took up the cudgels in sian, military surgeons by its its behalf, and summed up the performance of duty in the subject in a manner which, she field and the completeness of is proud to believe, gained the its arrangements, and this gratitude of the department, means a great deal, as almost and had some influence in movevery other branch of the army ing the authorities to make is, whether rightly or not, necessary reforms. A due milijudged unfavourably. It is a tary rank was subsequently good thing when others see granted to the medical officers,

we would wish to be and they with their men were seen, and Maga' most formed into a special corps dially joins in the chorus of bearing the proud distinction of foreign approval, and wishes “Royal.” Although it is certo direct attention to noble tain that this concession should work nobly done. It is in be by no means final, and that, the highest degree satisfactory in many details, there yet re

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mains much to be done, it has enemy's bullets, up to the comgiven the highest satisfaction pletely fitted field hospital and to our army surgeons, and, in the still more elaborate hospital order to show themselves worthy at the base of operations. It of honour, they are, if it were is worth while to examine all possible, more anxious than ever of these, and to see what share before to strain every nerve in each takes in the saving of life, the performance of duty. They the mitigation of suffering, and can never have to submit to the possible restoration of a a higher trial than that which soldier to his place in the fightis being given to them by the ing-line. present war.

First, for the battlefield every

unit (regiment, battalion, or Few people realise completely brigade division of artillery) has what is the work that the attached to it an officer of the Royal Army Medical Corps R.A.M.C., who accompanies it has to do, how vast are the wherever it goes, and is ever at responsibilities committed to it. hand to give instant attention Let it then be understood that when casualties occur. These from the time when a severe gallant gentlemen are as much campaign is in full swing, the exposed to the enemy's fire as most moderate estimate of the any of the combatants, and they number of the sick and wounded practise their profession coolly to be dealt with is ten per cent and deliberately under circumof the total forces employed. stances the most trying to nerve If we have 100,000 men in the and mental equilibrium that field, there will at any given can well be conceived. To their time be about 10,000 in the valour is often due the presercare of the R.A.M.C. While vation of a life that is ebbing soldiers are effective for fight- away or the saving of a limb ing purposes they are distrib- that would otherwise be lost. uted in regiments, battalions, Even if the case is beyond the and batteries ; in brigades, divi- aid of science, who can gauge sions, and armies. The moment the great reduction of mortal that they are stricken by dis- agony that may be the work of ease or become victims to the their tender and skilful hands? enemy's weapons, they pass into After the first attention has another organisation. They been paid to the wounded, they become medical or surgical are removed by the regimental cases, and are on the strength stretcher-bearers to the "colof one or other of the established lecting station,” a spot as near posts over which floats the red- the fighting - line as possible, cross flag Every one of these but to a certain extent sheltered posts has its special object, from the enemy's fire. No surfrom the hurried relief on the gical work is done here ; but battlefield itself, the careful ex- the first line of ambulances is amination and treatment at in waiting, and receives the some neighbouring spot, more victims of war for carriage to

less sheltered from the the “dressing station. And

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