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dergoing the fattening process, and which has dropped, and the animal continued to grow worse. now become common and almost universal in On the evening of the 5th, additional advice from

another more experienced person was sought; every part of the country where geese are raised

and he, observing a certain frothing about the and fattened for the market. Not only the goose, mouth and gritting of the teeth, pronounced the but domestic fowls generally, are greatly benefit- creature poisoned; and, learning where I had ed by it.

kept the calf, gave me the first hint I had received

of the dangerous nature to cattle of cherry leaves. For the New England Farmer. He administered, that evening, as much as he POISON OF CHERRY LEAVES.

could get down of half a pint of lamp oil, and

again about the same quantity the next morning, Mr. Editor :—Farmers are generally aware, I (the 6th.) No effect appearing, in about an suppose, of the poisonous effects of the wilted hour's time I gave another injection of warm leaves of the wild cherry, which are said to be, water and soap, which produced a few hardened if eaten in any quantity, invariably fatal to cat-droppings, but no effectual relief. It may be tle-or, at least, no remedy effectually neutral- well enough to state that I had a little practice izing those effects is known among us here. But of something like "motorpathy;' in this case, as, has it heretofore been known that there is dan- finding the intestinal action sluggish, if not enger, also, from the wilted leaves of the English, tirely destroyed, I hoped to restore it, and, at the or cultivated cherry? A piece of experience Í same time, aid the operation of the physic, by have just had, and which has occasioned me no gently working the abdomen with my hands-an little disappointment, looks that way certainly operation which, in cholic, in the human species,

I was raising, this season, a very fine, promis- is often highly efficacious. The difficulty, howing heifer calf, nine weeks old last Monday, half ever, had got too far to be removed, though I Alderney and three-eighths Ayrshire, every mark think some effect in the way I intended was proupon which was good. For convenience of shade duced. Nature was now nearly exhausted. In and to nibble the grass, unsuspicious of danger, a short time the poor creature began to tremble I kept it tethered for some weeks, during the violently, then to move round and round, as if day, under some white-leaved cherry trees, in the tipsy and crazy, moaning piteously, knocking its front yard, where it became a cosset and play- head the while against any obstacle that came in mate with the children, and, until the evening its way, and finally dropped down and expired. of the 4th, gave every manifestation of high After death, the body was not opened, as I could vigor, growing rapidly, and being full of fun and find no one willing to do it. It soon began to frolic. The trees, meanwhile, had not been as-bloat, and, as soon as could be conveniently, it cended for the purpose of picking the cherries. was buried. A week or more ago, however, the children be- Now, Mr. Editor, does it appear clear to you, gan to get up into the trees after the fruit, and, from the above statement, that the wilted cherry in doing so, often broke off and dropped on the leaves, which the calf probably ate, were the ground the little spurs on which clusters of cher-cause of its death? Or was it something else, as ries had grown. These spurs, with three or four others still assert? I have heard of the death of leaves on each of them, for some days have been two or threo calves in this town, this spring, in a lying about on the grass in several places ; but I manner equally sudden, and, if any thing, more never observed the calf eating them, though I inexplicable. Does wind, as some say, ever occasaw it, once or twicc, strip off and chew little sion death in calves ? Respectfully yours, pieces of bark from the boles of the trees. Mean- Bolton, July 8, 1855. time, I was teaching it to eat by putting pieces of carrot, sliced thin, into its mouth, and by giv

REMARKS.-From the above statement, we have ing it, occasionally, bits of young fodder-corn, no doubt, whatever, that eating the cherry leaves (Stowell's evergreen.) But one symptom, of was the cause of the sickness and death of your which, no doubt, I ought to have thought more, favorite calf. Similar cases have been occasionhad occurred. For several days the calf had been noticed very costive, straining and showing con

ally brought to our notice through many past siderable uneasiness whenever it had occasion to years. This clear narrative of facts, by R. S. E., drop, its droppings being more like a sheep's ought to operate as a caution to all, not to let than those of a calf. Still, no suspicion of the their cattle have access to cherry leaves. cause had presented itself to my mind, and I felt no alarm. On the evening of the 4th, as has been stated,

For the New England Farmer. indications were observed of an alarming nature. THE BUTTONWOOD TREES. Then, for the first time, on being led to the barn, the calf manifested no disposition to play, but

We have noticed in this section, this season, moved sluggishly. That evening it sucked a very that the buttonwood, or buttonball trees, are little, leaving most of the milk in the bag. The more or less diseased. They began to leave out next morning, though manifesting some wish to as usual, and after the leaves were about half out get to the cow, it did not suck at all, but it poked they began to dry up, so that some three-quarters its head about its dam's legs, and repeatedly put of the leaves are dead. A few leaves on the top its mouth to the teats. Symptoms of partial and outside branches are yet fresh. Trees of all blindness were also indicated. Advice was called, sizes, from three inches to a foot and a half in dian injection of warm water and castile soap ameter at the bole, are alike affected here. Occagiven, and castor-oil administered; but the effect sionally we see a small tree that has esc:1 ped as was slight; only a few hardened fæces were yet. Some fourteen or fifteen years ago, these

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R. 8. E.


gas wa

trees were affected we think more or less through the haulm or vine. It has been ascertained by the country. Many of them died out entirely, accurate analysis, that the quantity of this conwhile others recruited again the next season.

1 think some nine or ten years ago, also, they were

stituent is 53 per cent. The pea, therefore, affected in this section, in the same way. Wheth- where the haulm is rigidly economized and dier the disease this season appears in other sec- rectly returned to the soil, must be contemplated tions, we know not as yet.

in the light of an ameliorating crop, and one, Yours, &c., L. DURAND. June 21, 1855.

the systematic cultivation of which would add millions to our agricultural wealth, and prove

ultimately a most potent auxiliary in the resusGAS WATER FOR MANURE.

citation of the soil. The lime used in purifying gas, and which is known by the appellation of “foul lime,” is now

EXTRACTS AND REPLIES. extensively used as a fertilizing agent, and with excellent success, on most field crops.


I have read much in the Farmer about guano. ter, another waste or refuse article produced in

many of the farmers think that it does not pay, the process of manufacturing gas, is also an ex- but Ỹ think it pays well on my farm. I applied cellent fertilizer, but should be used with great 550 lbs. on an acre and a half of worn-out (light) caution. It is an ammoniacal liquor, and if ap

land, without any other dressing, and planted it

with corn. plied to a surface in grass, will apparently scorch

It was injured very much by the

drought, but I harvested 68 bushels of good ears and burn up the herbage, although the next of corn, and 20 bushels of ears of small corn, year the spot on which it was applied will be which was worth at least half-price of good corn, distinguished by great luxuriance and vigor of making 88 bushels of ears. Allow two bushels development. The refuse lime, through which for shrinkage, and two bushels of cars to make a

bushel of shell corn, and I have 35 bushels of shell the gas is made to pass in order to purify it from

corn, which is worth now at least $1,25 per bushthe sulphurated hydrogen, becomes impregnated el ; making $43,75 worth of corn. I applied it with this article, and assumes in consequence, to to other lands for corn, potatoes, oats and wheat, a certain extent, the characteristics of hydro-sul- with about the same result. phuret of lime. It contains at first, in a state of

I read in the Farmer a polite invitation for farcombination with it, a certain portion of ammo

mers to experiment with old bones and horse mania, but as the carbonic acid gas of the lime co'v- like to here the result of others through your co

nure. I will give my experiment, and should bines with this article, it is converted into car- lumns. Last spring I made a layer of horse mabonate of ammonia, or volatile alkali. Ultimate-nure about ten inches deep, a layer of bones, and ly, however, exposure deprives it of its ammonia, a layer of wood-ashes sufficient to cover the bones, and none of it will be found in the lime. Foul, well with swamp mud, and let it lay about six

and after the heap was finished, I covered it over or refuse lime, is very repugnant to most insects, weeks, when it got so hot I thought it best to and to some is almost instantaneously fatal. It move it over. I found the bones about two-thirds may be applied to vegetation in the same manner dissolved; I covered it again with the mud that as gypsum, or used as an ingredient in compost.

had been taken off, and let it lay six weeks longIn either way it will prove a very efficient and bones had not dissolved any since they were sho

er, and shovelled it over again ; I found that the salutary fertilizer.

velled over the first time. Whether it was owing

to moving them, or to the dry weather, I cannot The following table exhibiting the various con- tell.

B. W. Gay. stituents of several important products of the

New London, 1855. soil may not be uninteresting :Wheat Straw. Barley Straw.

MESSRS. EDITORS :- I take much interest in farm.... 3............15

ing. In fact, I may truly say I love it; but I .104.

know but a little about it, and that little more in Magnesia.. Alumina..

theory than in practice. My business is merOxide of iron..........231 .........

chandizing ; still, if every thing should go to my

..73. Sulphuric acid...

liking, I may, at some time in the future, know Phosphoric acid.....



Oat Straw






.....14 ....... 3

Silica or flint..........81




more of it practically than at present. OccaChlorine.....


sionally, now, I steal away from other duties, and seize the hoe. This is my pleasure, my recre

ation, my “hobby.” It is said that all men Corn contains, potassa, 20.87; phosphoric acid, have their shobbies," and mine, perhaps, is as 18.80 ; lime, 9.72 ; magnesia, 5.76 per cent. innocent as any that can be selected. Grass abstracts from the soil no potash. It con

Being a "know-nothing,so far as farming is tains, carbon, 45 per cent. ; hydrogen, 5; oxy. that I may know something.

concerned, allow me to ask for some information, gen, 38; nitrogen, 1, and ashes, 9 per cent.

Are coal ashes of any value to apply to land or There are few vegetables which contain, probably, vegetation? If so, what are the most advanso large an amount of potash as the pea—i. e., tageous modes of application ? (a.)



......... 100





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Which is the cheapest and most advantageous

Watch the falling apples, nearly half grown; fertilizer for sandy land, house ashes that are out of a bushel you can scarcely find one free from good, at 15 cents a bushel, or a good load of the curculio worm. Could these be gathered up common manure, at $1,25 per load, both deliv- by children or pigs, (I mean no invidious classiered in the field ? (6.).

fication,) before the maggnt goes into the ground, Which impoverish the land the most, potatoes his species would be lessened. or corn? (c.)

“A jewel of gold in a swine's snout,” or some Is chip manure, mixed with barn-yard manure, baser metal, would be required to protect the a good fertilizer ? (d.)

land against his rooting propensities, but would What is the relative strength of chip manure, it not pay? It is simply putting rings into the compared with barn-yard manure? Or, in other nose instead of the ears.

P. words, will one load of the latter produce the July 5, 1855. same results as four of the former? (e.)

Would you recommend the use of lime to sandy and much worn soil? And if so, how many A subscriber from Lowell inquires in your last bushels to the acre? At 25 cents per bushel for paper, “what is the best preventive for the grub good stone lime, would it be more advantageous or cut worm, upon flower and other roots." I than a good load of manure at $1,25, both deliv- was formerly much annoyed by cut worms deered in the field ? (f.)

stroying plants I had transplanted, particularly Is good muck, without being carted into the the tomato and cabbage; in some cases a large barn-yard, but simply spread on plowed, sandy portion of them would be bitten off at the surface and worn land, in the fall, valuable ? (g.)

of the ground. Some years since, I tried the exBy giving me information on these points, you periment of wrapping around the stem of each will much oblige a reader and

INQUIRER. plant, before transplanting, a piece of soft paper, Burlington, Vt., June 9, 1855.

extending from a short distance above the root, REMARKS.—We should be glad to reply to the to the first leaf, and found it a perfect remedy: queries of our correspondent at length, but an the plant is large enough to take care of itself.

It is done very quick, and the paper lasts until affection of the eyes, probably occasioned by read- Cambridge, July 11, 1855. ing in the cars, and the long-continued use of them by lamp-light, has prevented us from reading or writing much for several weeks.

MR. EDITOR :="Verdant Farmer” wishes to (a.) Coal ashes have been found valuable in

learn through the columns of your invaluable pa

per, whether there is a remedy for the grubs,which the garden and on the field crops. We have pub- he says are destroying whole fields of

corn, lished several notices of their highly beneficial pumpkins, and young hops in his vicinity. An results. They should be sifted clear from all instance once came under my observation which coals and cinders.

I will relate, as it proved an effectual remedy. (6.) At $1,25 per load, 20 loads of manure,

A neighbor once had a field of corn that was

nearly destroyed by the grubs, and by way of at 34 bushels each, would cost $25,00. At 15

experiment, he applied plaster thoroughly satucents a bushel, 1667 bushels of ashes would cost rated with spirits of turpentine; the result was, $25. Now if the sandy land has, within a year the corn resumed its healthy color, (one shade or two, received a dressing of barn manure, we

darker than the original) grew rapidly, eared should greatly prefer the ashes ; if it has not, field of corn.

well, and was to all intents and purposes a good we should prefer the manure. No definite rule

The plaster should be allowed to dry after havcan be laid down, because circumstances vary so ing been saturated, and care should also be used, much.

that it does not come in immediate contact with (c.) It is a question not well settled. We the corn, or it may prove too strong. think corn does.

The above was the white grub that eats off the

roots, and not the darker one, though I think it (d.) Good, if the chips are well rotted, but would answer for both. excellent, when air-slaked lime is added, to dig New Canaan, Conn., July 3, 1855. in about fruit trees.

(e.) Cannot answer it. You must experiment, when you have opportunity, and let us know the Mr. BETHEL, of Queeche,Vt., states that vetches result.

should be cultivated as we cultivate peas when (f.) As a general thing, the manure is the sown broadcast; that a few oats sown with them most valuable. If the land is acid, and as an oc- will prevent lodging, and that they remain green casional use, the lime would be best.

for a long time and make excellent fodder. (9.) It would be very valuable if it had been

REMEDY FOR APPLE-BORER-TROUT AND GOLD-FISI. dug out a year or two, and overhauled two or

FRIEND BROWN :-My object in addressing you three times.

at this time, is to inform your numerous sub

scribers and readers of the Farmer, of a new remSix cents a quart for the plums that daily fall the sea-shore one day visiting a friend, I noticed

edy for the grub or apple tree borer. Being near from the trees; burn them, and destroy the cur- the thrifty appearance of his young apple trees, culio maggot deposited in every one of them.

C. F.S.




J. D.



O. A. H.



and upon inquiring the cause, he informed me that he mulched them with rock weed, and that I have quite a number of young apple trees, the borer never troubled them. Having just set and have noticed numerous insects on them; they out an orchard, I concluded to try the remedy ; collect on the ends of the twigs in numbers, are I have tried it for the last three years, and have about the size and shape of a louse, and of a green not found a borer around one of them during the color, and the small ‘ants or pismires are thick time, while my neighbors that do not use the around them. What I wish to know is, whether rock weed, are losing their trees by their ravages. they are destructive or not? If so, by what The mode of applying it is to dig the earth from means can they be destroyed ? around the collar of the tree, and then for a tree Exeter, N. ř., 1855. four or five years old, use from a peck to a half bushel of the weed, laying it upon the top of the

REMARKS.-Plant lice, or Aphides, are someroots immediately around the trunk of the tree. what destructive. They may be destroyed, in For larger-sized trees use about the same propor- some measure, by an application of whale oil tion. I would state that my trees are set out soap, through a syringe, or by gently tapping the upon greensward, and as a matter of course, the limbs of valuable plants and shaking them into borer would be more apt to trouble them than if

bowls of water. The ants are among the aphides cultivated among. I have never known a tree attacked by the borer, where the rock-weed has to collect a sweet, sticky fluid which they eject. been applied.

See Harris on “Insects Injurious to Vegetation,I have an artificial pond that I wish to stock for a full and exceedingly interesting account, with fish ; will you please inform me if trout and


205 to 214. gold-fish will live peaceably together. I have already trout in it, and wish to add gold-fish, if they will do well together.

Yours respectfully, Yarmouth, Me., June 23, 1855.

One ounce of blue vitriol (sulphate of zinc) dissolved in four quarts of water.

When horses REMARKS.–Will some one who has had experi- are chafed by the saddle, or oxen are galled by ence reply to the queries about the fish ? the yoke, bathe the wounded parts freely several

times a day, and they will rapidly heal under its

In these times, when it is difficult to get

rum to wash animals that are chafed, it is well Mr. Editor :—Being in possession of a small for farmers and stable-keepers to keep a jug of lot of poor land situate in western Massachusetts, the above remedy ready prepared for use,

It is consisting of stony hill and swampy intervale, I much better than rum, which is so generally used would inquire through the medium of your valua- for the same purpose. able paper the method of constructing drains of Concord. small stone. What sized stone, how many to the rod, how

For the New England Farmer. deep, wide, and far apart the drains, and how

HAY CAPS. much fall to the rod ? Is it indispensably necessary to use drain tile ?

MR. Editor :- Sir,-Permit me through your How long will they last if well laid ?

respectable agricultural journal to advise my What is the greatest objection to this kind of brother farmers to supply themselves with a most drain? A TILLER OF Stony Soil.

useful and economical article of covers to protect June 11, 1855.

their hay agninst rain and heavy dews, which I

bave fuìly tested for the last five years to my enREMARKS.—It would require an essay on the tire satisfaction. They should be made in the subject to answer the above questions. They are following manner, namely : pertinent, however, and “A Tiller of Stony Stout unbleached cotton sheeting should be Soil” ought to understand the whole matter, if he purchased (such as is made by the Lyman Mills intends to continue its cultivation. Being on a the latter

Company at Holyoke) from 36 to 42 inches wide

the best-which should be cut instony soil, he has plenty of the best material for to lengths of from 40 to 45 inches,—the latter is the purpose of drainage. We will do better than the most useful—a much larger size would be to answer his questions with our acccustomed objectionable, as they would exclude the air from brevity by advising him to purchase Murns the hay cocks. Practical Land Drainer, in which he will find should have less than 100) would require a gal

To make 40 of them (and no extensive farmer the most approred system of drainage, and the lon of linseed oil, which should be simmered scientific principles on which they depend, and with 4 pounds of bees wax, and a quart of japan are explained, and their comparative merits dis- should be added after it is taken from the fire. • cussed, with directions for making drains, and When cold, the mixture should be about the

thickness of lard in summer, if not, more oil or the materials of which they may be constructed. wax may be added. The cloths should then he

“payed over,” to use a sea expression, with the

hand or a small piece of shingle, on one side onWe are not able to give S. W. S. any informa- dry, the females of the family will cheerfully sew

ly, and then dried in the sun. When they are tion whether the acid from oak timber where into the corners a stone of the weight of about staves are steamed, is good for anything or not. seven or eight ounces, which completes the affair.





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No hemming is required, as the wax and oil will experiment. The straw of my wheat—that which keep the edges sufficiently firm.

was first cut-was all consumed by my cows, I don't think I am extravagant in saying that while that which was left till ripe, was rejected. they will pay the cost in one season, and will — Germantown Telegraph. last ten years, if taken good care of. Within the last week we have had one entire rainy day, when

For the New England Farmer. my neighbors' hay was thoroughly souked, while mine was as safely covered as if it had been WHO WOULD NOT BE A FARMER. packed away in the barn. My manager thinks that one-third of the cost of some new covers just Who would not be a farmer, and till the grateful soil, made, were paid for on that day.

Which yields in golden harvests rich recompense for toil ? Large covers, made in the same manner, to Who would not be a farmer, and work the precious mine cover the whole of a load of hay, with heavier which seeds the hungry nations, yields food for all mankind ? weights, of course, would be an admirable pro- Who would not be a farmer, and walk his own domain, tection against sudden showers ; but, as I have Behold bis cattle grazing, and his fields of waving grain ; not often made hay at a distance from home, I

List to the wild-birds' warblings, as they flit from tree to tree; have never required them.

They the farmer's feathered minstrels, his their gushing melody.
Respectfully yours,

Who would not be a farmer, live in a rural cot,

Inhale the balmy breezes, with healthful odors fraught; Round Hill, Northampton, July 11, 1855.

Possess a gentle, virtuous wife, and little folks a few,

Take an agricultural paper, and pay the printer, too?

Somerset, July 5, 1855.
Mr. Editor :-In harvesting grain of all kinds,

For the New England Farmer. I am convinced from my own observation and experience, that we do not commence early enough. ABOUT TRAPPING WORMS. Grain that stands until it is dead ripe--especially Mr. Editor :- 1 perceive, by the New England wheat-makes darker flour than that which is Farmer of June 23d, that ". Q." recommends cut when in the milk, or about the time the ker- the trapping of wornis. I hardly know whether nels begin to glaze. Last year, in order satisfac, he intended to joke or not, for, after reading the torily to test the correctness of this position, I article referred to, I thought I would try the excut one-half of a piece of wheat just at the time periment. After making the holes per direction, the grain was beginning to harden, and allowed I tumbled a “fellow” (rather odd) into each hole, the remainder of the piece to stand till it had and, if the original experimentor, “C. Q.” had matured. The grain cut in the milk, was bound been there, he would have wondered, for no in small bundles, and stocked on grass lands, sooner in, than, to show their smartness, they where it remained for a fortnight, being protect- turned "head over heels” two or three times, ed from rain and heavy dews, by caps, but ex- then, by watching all of them, I saw they had posed to the sun by removing them during the suddenly disappeared. I began to think the day-time, when the weather was clear and fair, paper is not to be relied on, for there were no Both parcels were threshed separately, and birds near, nor did the sun draw them up, nor weighed, and the first cut was found to be in did starvation put an end to them. I rather think every respect superior to that cut last; the ker- that "C. Q.” must have been a grave-digger, and nels were finer in the sample-more plump and lying down to try the size of the grave he was farinaceous, the skin thinner and whiter, and the digging, finds such a snug fit that he can't get general appearance so different that, when placed out, and lying there "twenty-four hours,” bebeside the other, it did not look like the same va- gins to think that a hot sun and starvation will riety of wheat.

kill any worm. This is reasoning in a practical Á like experiment on oats resulted in a simi- inanner, and there is a great deal of such reason. lar way; and I am confidently persuaded that ing in the farming journals of the day. All early cutting will be found in every respect pref- have some wonderful working plan, something erable to late cutting. Another, and by no no one else can follow but themselves. About mcans unimportant consideration, is the superi- the middle of June, I find the lumps of manure ority of the straw for fodder. Grain straw that plowed in in the spring to be impregnated with stands until it is perfectly or “dead ripe,”' con- almost a countless number of worms. Now, what tains but little nutriment; all the saccharine is best to do with the inanure? And what is juices are abstracted, and little except the fibrous best, and what can a farmer afford to buy insubstance of the plant remains ; but when it is stead of home-made manure ?

E. cut early, and properly cured, there is nearly as much alimentary matter in it, as in hay. Dat REMARKS.If home-made manure is thoroughly straw is generally regarded—and with justice worked over and made fine, there will be few as of much greater value for feeding purposes, lumps in which the worms may congregate. than the straw of wheat, barley or rye. Early cutting, with reference to the harvesting of this The farmer, in our opinion, cannot afford to grain, is therefore of more consequence, so far as purchase any manure instead of the common barn the straw is concerned, than it is of either of the manure, only under peculiar circumstances ; such varieties. But in all cases, the practice possess- as where the land is difficult of access, or far es a decided advantage over the old method.

Any person who is at all skeptical on this from home, or where he has team and help suffipoint, can, with a very little difficulty, satisfy cient to cultivate more land, but has not manure. himself of its correctness; he has but to make the In such cases, he will be quite likely to be re

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