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through Europe, and finally buried her in Florida, No man ever, yet I think repented that he plantrecently expressed to me his thorough conviction ed a shade tree by the way-side. Nothing has so that no region in the whole world affords at any civilizing an influence upon the habits of children, season a more beautiful and healthful climate than as this taste for nature's products. I confess for this part of New England in summer. "Italy it- myself and the generation of boys of my time, that self,” said he, “has not a clearer sky nor a purer at- though we were tolerably civilized in our notions mosphere, and they who wander abroad in search about trees, the fashion of the day paid little reof health, at any season, find only suffering and dis- spect to birds and beasts. With us, a squirrel was appointment."

made to be trapped and drowned, and a bird as a How rational men and women from the cities general thing was made to be shot. Bounties on can be persuaded to pass the summer at the beach-crows and blackbirds were the only legislative aids es and fashionable watering-places, parading round to agriculture, and box-traps and cross-bows were on the sea-shore without shelter or shade of any good enough for chip-munks. But, perhaps it may green thing, suffering the tortures of Regulus, who as well be confessed, without much encouragement was exposed by his enemies to the noon-day sun from the paternal side, we find a different spirit with his eyelids cut off—how they can endure the among our children. The robin's nest, almost glare of the ball-room in dog-days, and the crowd-within reach of their chamber window, has been ed chambers of fashionable hotels, not to mention watched from day to day, and the number of eggs the killing conclusion by way of paying the bills— reported to the family. The young have hatched how all this can be translated into pleasure by ra- and grown up and Hown away unmolested. Pieces of tional people, when the peaceful, quiet hills and thread and cotton have been hung on the fences for valleys of the country invite them to health and the good robins to weave into their nests. A red freedom from restraints of fashion and artificial life, squirrel is seen hourly jumping from tree to tree, passes comprehension.

or running over the front-yard fence, and the chilBut to return to the Homestead. Fourteen dren have a hole in an apple tree, where they place years almost have elapsed, since professional ambi- nuts and other luxuries for him to carry away. tion, or, perhaps, rather, the necessity of earning The kitten is a great pet, but yesterday she my living, called me from my native town, and this caught a striped squirrel which has taken up his is my first return except as a transient visitor. abode in the wood-pile at the door. She marched

If I could assemble all the boys of New England into the kitchen with a most triumphant air, with together in this old village, and show them the her victim in her mouth, expecting, doubtless, trees that my own hands have planted and assisted as much commendation as if she had taken the others in planting, no doubt a score of years would largest rat in the cellar; but alas, no administrawitness such an improvement in the streets of our tion, with a Nebraska bill in its teeth, ever met towns as no mere talking or writing can accom- more general reprobation. Brooms and dish-cloths, plish. Twenty-five years ago or thereabouts, the with an accompaniment of shouts, and a general old Lombardy poplars which had been planted rush of the small folks upon the astonished favorabout the paternal mansion when it was built in the ite, soon convinced her that she had fallen into first years of the century, were decayed so as to be some error of taste or judgment, and she was comno longer an ornament, and were cut down. There pelled to seek safety in flight, dropping the little stood the tall, white three-story house close to the striper unhurt by the way, and taking refuge for street, with only a few lilacs and roses to shelter it. herself under the wood-shed, till the wrath of the Now, as you approach the mansion on either side, people subsided. no glimpse of it, except of a chimney-top, or of a

On the whole, this is the true education for chilwindow or door, where the branches have been cut dren. He who loves the works of God is near to away, can be seen. The rock maples and horse-loving Him. chestnuts and elms have interlaced their boughs

“He prayeth best who loveth best and lifted their heads so as completely to shelter

All things both great and small, it. A quarter of a century has sufficed to increase the trees which a boy could carry on his shoulder to a foot or more in diameter. Yesterday I fixed a Perhaps it is possible to rear children in cities, swing for my children upon a chestnut which grew with pure tastes and healthful ideas of the duties from a nut which I saw my father plant in the gar- and objects of life. Perhaps the boys may escape den, and which I transplanted to its present place the conviction that money is the one thing needful, some twenty years ago. The street is lined for half and the girls, that dress and the opera are above all a mile with elms and maples which we boys of the price, and that the chief end of woman is to exvillage with our own hands dug from the rocky cite admiration in a waltz, but surely the country is soil of the forests and planted. Now they are the true school for healthy development of body, the beauty and glory of the place.

mind and heart, and let us who live on the farms,

For the dear God who loveth us,

He made and loveth all."




H. F. F.

with me.

never complain that our lots are not "cast in pleas- chine from his own purse, and give the use of it to ant places,” and that we have "not a goodly heri- his neighbors, than have a half a dozen acres of his tage.”

best fields occupied and defaced with stumps all the Chester, N. H., July, 1855.

days of his life. $200 will place this machine and town right within the reach of every group of re

spectable farmers, hence stumps have now no such A WORD ABOUT STUMPS.

right to mar "fair creation,” as in past times.

I think Mr. Willis, the patentee, a benefactor ; Some things, according to King Solomon, are his patent will make rough places smooth, make enough to make a wise man mad." I know not two, yes, ten thousanu spears of grass grow where whether it be wise or unwise, but I have often been but one grew before, and prove an element in the vexed with STUMPS, with whole fields of stumps, great progress of civilization. and sometimes with even one, which has stood like A gentleman from Valparaiso, deputed by the a lubber, right in my way, to bruise toes or hurl my Chilian government, has purchased four machines, wheel aside. I have a grudge against these defor- which are now on their way to those semi-barbarous mities, which I may carry too far. I was riding regions; it is to be hoped our excellent farmers years ago in Ohio, a stump capsized the stage and will take the hint, apply this machine to some milcrippled me for months, and there my grudge be- lions of stumps which pain our eyes on the right gan. Riding awhilc after in a stormy night, the and left, wherever we travel. Gentlemen, “up and stageman planted his axle flat on the top of a huge at um."-Northern Sentinel. pine stump, which stood then, and I dare


stands now right in the centre of a Western road; this

For the New England Farmer, led to hard words between driver and wall hands,"

"LUNAR INFLUENCES." and my grudge was confirmed. We are an amazing free people, we love and hate what we please.

MR. EDITOR :—Though not a subscriber to your Some men love their deformities, and some farmers very valuable paper, nor even being permitted to seem to love their stumps, and bequeath them as peruse its columns regularly, my eye rests occaheir looms to their children. De gustibus non est sionally on an article which attracts my attention. disputandum. I marvel, however, at their taste. And among others, that series of articles which have It reminds me of the young lady, who on a warm appeared from the pens of different contributors, night in August, said she could not see for her life for a few weeks past, on “Lunar Influences,” struck why people so much object to the smell of a me as a question which may yet be one of interest skunk!" Some wonder why I object to stumps, whilst and importance to the agriculturist. From actual others, I am happy to say, are in full sympathy experience I cannot say anything, and some may

reject my remarks as of little value, citing the old I am glad to see evidence, that here and there a adage: “Experience is the best master." Very farmer is “stirring his stumps.” I have just seen well

. But from the known fact of the “influence” the exploits of Mr. WILLIS' STUMP EXTRACTOR, at of the moon on the tides, may we not reason from Orange, Mass., where he has began to manufacture analogy that further investigations may bring to the article on a large scale.

light influences operating on other substances? I I am satisfied this machine has prodigious power. am of the opinion that this way of treating anyOne of common size, it is computed, has a purchase thing new with ridicule, is, to say the least, a poor of 336 tons, and this it seems may be increased al- means for gaining one's point. “*” who writes in the most beyond computation, so as to hurl out the Farmer, (July 7,) resorts to this means. He is biggest monster imbedded in the soil !

most assuredly entitled to his “opinions heretofore I am satisfied, it can be worked very rapidly. the Pleiades, or of Orion, on the growing of Indian

entertained ;" but his reference to the influence of Three men can do as much work with it, as fifty or perhaps a hundred can do without it. Well work- corn, is in my humble view supremely ridiculous. ed, I am told, it will turn out a lusty stump each

I think if “*” will have patience, that with the ten minutes, hour by hour. I am satisfied this ma- progress of the sciences something will be produced chine is much needed, even in New England, and

in connection with this topic which will be, if not still more in the Middle, Southern and Western

demonstrative, yet convincing. We ought to use States. It has made many fields lawn-like and beau- reason in all our researches after truth, and not be tiful, in and around Orange, and if brought into re- facts have been adduced to warrant an impartial

too bold in expressing our opinion till sufficient quisition, it can do the same from Maine to Georgia, decision. Let us wait

, then, a "little longer,” and 'The cost is something, but not frightful. A good machine, with the exclusive right to use it in any

see what further developments will do. one town in the union, costs $150 or $200, no more. favor one interested in the cause of science and ag

Mr. Editor, by inserting this you will greatly This is less than the price of a Piano, less than the

riculture. price of the gold watch, with "fixins," which dangle

“DELTA." from the pocket of many a fop! One machine may

Chelsea, Mass., July 10, 1855. serve a whole town; and a tax of $200 levied on a

REMARKS.-Does the moon affect the tides? score of enterprising farmers, would be no killing affur. One young man in a town hard by me, has We are more inclined to the belief that the tides made purchase, and is now working the machine day are occasioned by the revolutions of the earth, empby day at a clean profit, of from $3 to $5. What tying the contents of caverns into each other at work, what sport is more lively and amusing than stated periods

, and of which Boston harbor is one. "ousting” stumps ? What agricultural work will pay half as well?

We have several articles under the same head as A man is blind, he needs a candle at noon-day, this, but doubt whether any of them would be pro who does not see that he had better pay for a ma-fitable to the reader.







try. He feels that all the world is prosperous exBird of the wilderness,

cept himself, and the trading public, forgetful or Blithesome and cumberless,

careless that the farmer maintains and even proSweet be thy matin o'er moorland and lea! Emblem of happiness,

duces all this prosperity by his quiet pursuits, look Blest be thy dwelling-place,

down upon him perhaps with contempt.
0, to abide in the desert with thee !

To be sure, he has at such times, in common
Wild is thy lay, and loud,
Far in the downy cloud,

with others, enough of food and clothing. He Love gives it energy, love gave it birth.

does not want, but his abundance and success seem Where, on thy dewy wing,

to profit others more than himself. Indeed, he Where art thou journeying? Thy lay is in heaven, thy love is on earth.

hardly participates in the general prosperity which

his own hard work and watchful care has created. O'er fell and fountain sheen, O'er moor and mountain green,

But by-and-bye the scene changes. The crops O'er the red streamer that heralds the day,

are short in some sections of the country. SupOver the cloudlet dim,

plies are not forwarded to the great marts of trade Over the rainbow's rim, Musical cherub, soar, singing away!

for the adequate supply of the inhabitants of the Then when the gloaming comes,

cities themselves, or to meet the demands of comLow in the heather blooms,

merce. Business is deranged, merchants fail, the Sweet will thy welcome and bed of love be! Emblem of happiness;

country traders are discouraged, the whole country Blest is thy dwelling-place,

languishes, and there is a general cry of hard times. O, to abide in the desert with thee.

But the farmer does not fail. He raises his own

food in abundance still. What he can spare brings THE FARM SUPPORTS ALL. him an increased price in the market.

The traPeople may reason and theorize about the com- ders and speculators come to his very doors, and parative usefulness of different pursuits and occu- entreat him to sell them at any price enough to pations. We will not quarrel with any man, be- meet the present necessities of their business. And cause he insists that a trader or broker is as useful so, when the earth is laid waste and labor diverted a man as the farmer, but we will quarrel with any from its legitimate pursuits, by want. Then the man in a gentlemanly way, who will not admit that farmer increases his exertions. He sows more the farmer's life does possess as much true dig- broadly, he labors more earnestly. He feels that "nity and utility as any other. We will, for civili- men in foreign lands, who are dragged by hard ty's sake, admit equality, but can acknowledge no masters from their homes to engage in bloody batsuperiority.

tles, are dependent on him for their daily bread. Agriculture is the basis of all national prosperity. Still his own supply is abundant, and others deA child may see that if the earth is not cultivated, mand a share, and offer him a generous reward for the whole population in a single year, or at most, his labor. The world, stupid as it often is, in times in two years, when the cattle are consumed, must of general peace and prosperity, now appreciates literally starve, while society could exist to an in- the farmer's useful life. What then is the true definite extent, were the labors of any other inter- position of the cultivation of the land ? Is it one est to cease at once. Observe the course of trade, of hard work and servile labor only, or is it one of and inquire of the merchants even in our own dignity and importance, indispensable at all times ? country, and we shall find, that upon the products Farming is doubtless hard work, in the general acof the soil does all the prosperity of trade depend. ceptation of the term, but it is a great mistake to If the cotton crop is short, the southern trader can- call that only hard work, which is performed with not order goods from the North, or having or- the hands. The lawyer, confined to the stifling dered, fails, and cannot pay for them. He fails be- and crampt air of a court-room for days and weeks, cause the planter having fed to his negroes all his with the property and lives of his clients at stake, corn and bacon, has nothing left wherewith to pay and dependent on his watchful, constant care ; the for his family supplies. If the wheat crop fails, minister, bound to his stated preaching, whether in the Boston and New York merchants at once feel health, or feeling himself sinking already under his the effect of the failure, for the Western merchant harassing and never-ceasing responsibility; the doccannot meet his liabilities, nor incur others. tor, called out at midnight to prescribe in an in

When all things are prosperous, the farmer is stant, in a new and doubtful case, these have all almost forgotten. He labors hard and brings the their labor, harder work than any performed by the product of his labor to a full market. He is met hands alone. Many farmers labor too severely, by sharp speculators with the cry, that the market more so than there is any need of; but still, we is glutted and his supplies are not wanted, and is think, their hardships are not so great as those incompelled, because he cannot enter into combina-cident to the professions we have named. They tions to meet the banded monopolizers, to sell at a have, besides, what traders and speculators, and price which gives him but scanty pay for his indus- even mechanics, can never have, what is really a


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source of more enjoyment than wealth can bring— we had “to hitch on a horse to help it along.” We they have security for the future. They plant and can only say, that the machine he tried could not sow in faith, and with full assurance that the har- has occasion to halt for a moment, in the use of one

have been such as are now in use; because no one vest will not fail. Railroad and bank stocks may of these machines, where the grass does not exceed rise or fall, the market for their own produce may two tons to the acre. We have never witnessed a be high or low, war or peace may prevail

, free-trade stoppage of a machine by reason of the burden of or high duties may triumph, but they know that grass. The editor further says, that two of his men

will cut as much grass in a day, on fair labor, as “God giveth the increase," and that they and theirs

one of these machines. In this we think the editor are dependent on Him alone. Young men make mistaken,—and that they will not cut more than haste to be . rich. They forsake their "paternal half as much. We agree with the editor, that there acres," and strive in doubtful paths to outstrip the is need of much improvement in these machines, to fickle goddess, Fortune. As age brings reflection, commend them to general favor; that they should and juster views of the true objects of life, most that they should be made of better materials, so as

be lighter, so as to be operated with less power ; men place a higher value on the peaceful pursuits to be in less danger of breaking or giving out in of agriculture. The repose and serenity of a far- the fields; and if possible, that they should be so mer's life have charms for them, beyond riches, and made, as to be sold at half their present prices.all the pleasures wealth can buy.

These improvements being adopted, we cannot Indeed, it is rare to find a merchant, or success

doubt that mowing machines will ere long come into general use.

A LOOKER-ON, ful mechanic, who has in early life left his rural July 28, 1855. home for a life in the city, who does not look forward with pleasant anticipations to the day, when

For the New England Farmer. he shall return once more to his native hills, or at

MURIATE OF LIME. least to the occupation of a homestead, where his

MR. EDITOR :- I noticed in your valuable jourchildren may imbibe true ideas of the dignity and nal an advertisement of muriate of lime. As some independence of a life on a farm.

of your readers may not know the value of this maThis may seem a trite and common-place subject. nure, I have taken the liberty of sending you a few We claim no originality for these thoughts, but it lines upon the subject, which, if you think worthy,

you can insert in your paper. would seem that now, when wars are desolating the This article has been already noticed in some of earth, when prices are paid in our markets that the journals of the day, as the best article for the would indicate that famine must somewhere prevail, destruction of the canker worm, which has commitit would seem that now, both the farmer himself

, in ted such ravages upon our fruit trees during the past his independence of other men from the vicissitudes The soil of meadow lands contains a large propor

This is, however, only one of its virtues. of life, and all others, in their dependence on him tion of humic acid, which is one of the principal confor daily food, might see and feel, what more than stituents of peat, muck, and different kinds of deall else we would impress on all, that Agriculture is cayed vegetation. The heat of summer and cold of the foundation of national prosperity, and that the winter alike render this acid insoluble ; in this state

the nutritive matter cannot be absorbed by the position of the farmer is entitled to be that of the

plant. It is necessary, then, in cultivating meadow highest honor.

lands, or in making a compost with peat-muck or

vegetable matter, to add some corrective, which will For the New Englaud Farmer. make this acid soluble, and capable of being assimLABOR-SAVING MACHINERY.

ilated by plants. The best chemists and vegetable

physiologists tell us that the muriate of lime and The precautionary remarks of the editor of the the alkali formed from wood ashes, are the proper Massachusetts Ploughman, in the paper of July 28, correctives. As the former is cheapest and easiest on the use of Mowing Machines, are well calculated to be obtained, of course it is preferable. to arrest the attention of farmers of less practical Liebig, one the first agricultural chemists of the experience, and to awaken the inquiry, who is right ? age, tells us that this salt (muriate of lime) retains If it be true, as is asserted, that an individual will all the ammonia which falls to the earth in the rain, cut four acres of grass in a day, with a scythe, then consequently, if it is applied to the land in the fall, there would seem to be no occasion for applying by spring it has not only its own fertilizing propermachinery to this purpose. Such individual labor ties, but has received and is constantly receiving, has not come to our observation—two acres in a an additional property, and the one which has renday being the extent that we have known to be dered guano of so much value as a manure for so mown by a single man. We had supposed that a many years past, machine, properly operated would cut four times as For grass lands this is probably the best manure much as a man, and quite as well. In fact, we are which has yet been discovered, and wherever it has entirely confident that ten or twelve acres, contain-been used the yield has been very abundant. Much ing as many tons, can readily be cut in a day, by a more might be said of the value of this article, but single machine. This we know to be true, because I think sufficient has already been said to show that we have seen it done the last week.

it is worth trying, and why it is so. If this should But, says the experienced editor, we tried one of meet your approval, Mr. Editor, I may send you these machines that came from Philadelphia, with more on a similar subject.

G. I. F. the power of a pair of oxen, and it was "no go"-| Charlestown, Aug. 1, 1855.


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Por the New England Farmer.stony,) and it will make fatlings of five cows ; first, WINTER WHEAT--CHESS GRASS.

put in wheat, then laid down to a pasture. No soil

so good as inverted sod for wheat; no plow so good MR. EDITOR :-Yourself and your readers may as the double Eagle, which leaves the furrow so think I have exhausted my subject long ago, but I pulverized and broken, that the grain is buried deep wish you to understand, I am a martyr to the belief enough to escape winter-kill

, if sown on the furrow, that wheat is a legitimale crop of New England. using the cultivator or a loaded harrow. My own experience, and my correspondents from Again, I have planted wheat from one to six your region, confirm me in all I have said and writ- inches deep. At six inches, it came up, but was ten upon the subject. It would really seem a work feeble; at two, three and four inches, it headed out of supererogation, in any one, to advise a farmer to finely. If sowed early and put in two or three inchraise his bread. He ought to know it, from prompt- es, (on deep plowing,) it will scarcely ever winterings of self-interest. Certainly, the products of his kill on descending lands. farm are the bulwarks of his independence. The Sow 1bushels to the acre; soak twelve hours blacksmith should shoe his own horse, and the cord- in a weak salt pickle, and rake it in dry ashes.wainer should shoe his own children, yet they are Ashes spread in the spring have a fine effect on it. often found barefooted. There is an inaptitude to What is gained in the autumn growth, is so much realize home wants. Is it not so ?

accomplished for the next spring. Root, and What a relief it must be to the farmer, to go to strength of blade is secured by early sowing. his granary and measure out his wheat for the mill , I learn that chess grass has troubled you.

It instead of going to "the store” and paying out $12 must have been by carelessness in seeding. It accash for a barrel of flour. What an improvident cumulates wonderfully. It properly may be called thing is all this, while God has given him spring the "tares” among the wheat. The remedy is, not and winter grains, commanding him to “till the to sow it, and if it appears

, pass through the grain ground,” with the sure promise of “seed time and and pluck it up; it resembles a tuft of oats. We harvest.” Who will have the hardihood to doubt ? hope to be enlightened upon this chess grass by

The time for sowing winter wheat is nearly at some of your readers. It seems to be wedded to hand. Be sure not to pass the middle of Septem- winter wheat, as if by matrimonial alliance. ber; if put in the first week, so much the better. Again permit me to say, that twenty-five per Worn-out mowing lands, and old pastures over-run cent. of your unprofitable pasture lands put into with low laurel, (Killamb,) hardhack, thistles, moss, wheat, would produce grain enough to bread the &c., where fifty acres will scarcely keep a cow; wall State of Massachusetts. Laid down to a pasture off five acres, (pastures are generally good soil and again with rich feed, the cow returns ten dollars

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