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STATE NORMAL SCHOOLS AND STATE TEACHERS COLLEGES-January 1, 1924 STATE NORMAL SCHOOLS STATE TEACHERS COLLEGES (Four year Curri- | Authorcula) Located at

State

Pennsylvania (Continued).

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NOTES

The following states have no State Normal Schools: Delaware and Florida.
Nevada, Utah, Vermont and Wyoming offer curricula preparatory to teaching in Schools of Education directly
connected with their State Universities. These states should be classed with states providing Teachers
College facilities, but not as having State Teachers Colleges that have developed from State Normal
Schools.

An additional State Normal School has been authorized, but not opened, in Maryland.

The preceding tabular statement takes no account of State Universities, endowed universities or colleges with Departments or Schools of Education, or of City Training Schools or City Normal Schools that have been established.

The District of Columbia maintains two normal schools.

All of the institutions in the preceding list that offer four year curricula confer degrees in education, except in the states of Washington and Wisconsin.

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That work is the preparation of teachers for the public school service.

given constructive assistance in the development which has so recently taken place in the state normal schools.

It might be well to skeletonize the state teachers college so as to see just what it is and does. It accepts high school graduates who desire to become teachers on exactly the same terms as does a college. Students elect a curriculum which they are to follow for two, three or four years. If a student is preparing for teaching in the elementary school, he may leave the teachers college after completing two years of work with some sort of limited state license. If the student is preparing to teach or supervise a special subject such as music, art, home economics, etc., he is usually at the teachers college for at least three years before he can secure any kind of a license to teach. Still other students plan from the first to stay four years, preparing for elementary, special-subject, high school teaching or for supervision. A student who has completed less than four years of professional work can return and complete such a curriculum.

There have been some misapprehensions regarding the functions of state normal schools. In the first place, and as a major premise of all the thinking by state normal school and state teachers college men, there is the incontrovertible fact that the state normal schools were established by the several states to prepare teachers for the public schools or the common schools. Colleges and universities are chartered by states for other and different purposes. Normal schools are not chartered by states; they are created by states, owned by states, controlled by states, and have one function, viz.: the preparation of teachers for the public school service. They are everywhere regarded as a part of the public school system. There has grown up a bit of academic mythology to the effect that the state normal schools are to prepare teachers for the elementary schools only and that the colleges are to prepare all high school teachers and any others whom they may choose to prepare. No state, so far as I know, has written any such provision into its law. To set legal standards for certification is one thing; to decree that the state's own institutions shall be debarred 'from preparing teachers for any part of the state's teaching service is quite another and a very different thing.

The preceding statements show how simple a matter it is for a state normal school to grow into a teachers college. The word college seems to be a great stumbling block to some people. There is a lurking fear that the normal school desires to forsake its own field and follow after the academic gods of collegiate procedure. There is no valid basis for such a fear either in professed purpose or in procedures actually followed. The teachers college adheres to the professional ideal of subject-matter. There has been, it is true, in certain state normal schools, an over-emphasis on methodology as a thing separate from subject-matter. In a few other schools, there has been as great an over-emphasis on subjectmatter. These things right themselves after a little while. Then, with the lapse of time, there sporadically appears another form of over-emphasis. Such over-emphasis, however, occurs in every field of human endeavor, and is, when considered in its perspective, a necessary condition of progress.

The first normal school to become a state teachers college was Albany, New York (1890). Albany became a school for the preparation of high school teachers and supervisors exclusively. Ypsilanti, Michigan, followed in 1897. It developed four-year curricula for high school teachers, teachers and supervisors of special subjects, and, more recently, for elementary teachers. Emporia, Kansas (1904), Terre Haute, Indiana, Kirksville, Missouri, the four schools in Illinois (1907), Cedar Falls, Iowa (1909) and Greeley, Colorado (1911), soon followed and in general adopted the plan set by Ypsilanti. Some of the state teachers colleges have for a while followed the college plan of major and minor electives. After a while these schools come back to the principle of differentiated curricula based on differentiated courses that are closely and definitely related to certain types of teaching. The pattern determining institution, for the past fifteen years at least, has been the teachers college of Columbia University which has

A "professional course" for a teacher in any subject or field of learning is one that presents from the teacher's point of view the knowledge involved as a means of educating somebody. A professionalized course, therefore, presents a unified treatment of its subject-matter in such a way as to make futile

as

all such distinctions "academic" and "method" because both of these aspects of the knowledge are given their proper relations. To the question "Which is more important for the teacher, knowledge of the subject or of methods of teaching it?" there is only one answer, viz., BOTH! And both should go together. It is, of course, possible to teach mathematics as a related whole quite apart from its genesis and quite apart from its serviceableness to men. This would be called "pure mathematics" and such knowledge is probably properly referred to as "academic knowledge." For teaching purposes, at any level, such knowledge is wholly inadequate. It is wasteful of good human energy to teach subjects in this way and then add to them a bit of "methods of teaching." The two are divorced in the mind of the prospective teacher and the one that has been given the most attention is regarded as the most important.

The professionalized subject-matter course means that knowledge is important and that scholarship is desirable. But knowledge and scholarship are to be acquired in order that through them the education of boys and girls may be advanced. It is not knowledge per se, but knowledge as a means of education, that is needed by teachers. This is as distinct a use of knowledge as is made by any professional school and is what the state normal schools and state teachers colleges stand for. This is the basis for the whole contention that young people can be taught to teach. Students can be taught how the mind learns, grows and develops, and they can be taught how to present subject-matter in such a way as to bring about learning, mental growth and mental development.

The function of the recently established state teachers colleges is to do in a better way the same types of work that their immediate predecessors, the state normal schools, have done, viz.: prepare teachers and supervisors for the public school service. The additional work should be distinctly professional in character. There is no justification for a state teachers college that is merely or chiefly a college in the ordinary sense of that term.

It has often been suggested that the normal school graduate should be given full credit at a college or university, and take his degree there later. This has been tried quite widely and it never works out as its proponents think

it should. The first thing that gets in the way is that the normal school graduate must go to a new institution. That discourages many. Then, too, the college has its academic requirements for the degree. The more truly professional the student's normal school course has been, the more of strictly academic work he has to do at college. The student doesn't see the teaching value of the work thus required and he doesn't want it. The character of this required collegiate work is such that relatively few of those who have graduated from a state normal school and have taught in the elementary field care for it, simply because it does not throw any light on their teaching problems. Since the number of high school graduates increases year by year, and since the colleges and universities are filled to capacity and beyond, it would seem reasonable that the state should provide more adequately than in the past for its own institutions in the field of teacher-preparation. The preparation of teachers is a distinct professional problem to whose solution the state is, by the implication of its public school system, irrevocably committed. The colleges of Pennsylvania experience great "inward difficulty" in granting normal school graduates one full year of credit for the work done in two years. It is even more difficult for a normal school to find a year's equivalent of normal school work in two, or even three, years of college work. This doesn't show that either party is in error or of an evil disposition. Each is right from his point of view. The points of view are fundamentally different and there is, therefore, no substantial equivalence. The teaching responsibility in the elementary school has grown to such proportions that it can not be met by two years of direct, distinctive professional work, it can not be met by four years of academic work, or even by a "fifty-fifty" combination.

The teachers college movement is, at bottom, a frank recognition of the truth just stated. It is, in some ways, much easier to prepare a person for high school teaching than for teaching in the elementary school. Therefore, a normal school that has been preparing teachers for high school service keeps right on at it when it becomes a teachers college. It gives up nothing-it concedes nothing-it very directly and sensibly proceeds to do a much better piece of work in preparing young people for various types of teaching positions than it could formerly do.

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Every now and then, a new angle of the controversy is brought out. In Illinois, at the present time, the question as to whether the State University should do any undergraduate work in education is being seriously discussed. The unsatisfactory arrangements that can be made, or, at least, that have been made, for student-teaching at university and college is one of the great obstacles to the adequate preparation of teachers therein. At present, in Pennsylvania, only three semester hours of student teaching are required of colleges in the preparation of high school teachers while the state normal schools are giving fifteen semester hours of student teaching in the preparation of elementary teachers. Again, the State Council of Education, through the Department of Public Instruction, requires only eighteen hours of professional work and twelve semester hours in a given field of learning, or a total of thirty semester hours, in order that one may be licensed to teach a given subject in high school. This is one year's work and just one-fourth of a four-year college course. If this requirement produces satisfactory high school teachers, then such preparation is a far simpler matter than the preparation of a rural school or elementary school teacher. The peculiar problem of preparing high school teachers ought not, from this angle, to be so difficult or occult that a state institution devoted exclusively to the preparation of teachers would find it impossible of accomplishment in a four-year curriculum. As a matter of fact, the preparation of high school teachers is proceeding in practically every state teachers college in the country.

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The present rate of growth of the Junior High School movement alone requires that the state teachers colleges should carefully anticipate the need for teachers in this field and construct curricula that will equip teachers with an adequate command of professionalized subject-matter and with the insights into life and the love of pubescent boys and girls which will enable them to lead wisely these youth who no longer think of themselves as children and who are not yet men and women. The spirit of elementary education, which exalts pupils as individuals and regards them as more important than subjects, should prevail in the junior high school. There can be no controversy over the plan of the state normal schools to extend their curricula enough to prepare in

an adequate way the teachers needed for the rapidly developing junior high school field.

The great significant function of the state teachers college is the better preparation of teachers for the elementary and junior high school fields. This is, at first, accomplished more largely through extension classes and the return to summer schools by those who have already finished two or three years of work than through those who stay four continuous years. The working out of the institute-substitute law in Pennsylvania ought to require just such advanced professional work in extension classes and in summer schools. And while it is easy to say that teachers should do such work for the sole purpose of improving their service, human nature enters into the problem and insists that it shall count. Count toward what? Toward a degree, which is almost universally agreed upon as evidence of mental achievement which admits one to "a goodly company of scholars and learners." In every state in which state teachers colleges have been established, there is a constantly increasing number who keep growing in insight, teaching power and culture while teaching in the elementary or junior high school field and who are not compelled by historic collegiate tradition to desert their chosen field of teaching work in order to gain a degree. The success of this work proves that preparation for teaching should be recognized frankly as a differentiated, technical, professional service that can best be performed in an institution devoting itself exclusively to that field of human endeavor. The higher reaches of such work may well be exclusively given as post-graduate work in our great universities and schools of education.

This upward growth of state normal schools into state teachers colleges is a matter of great educational significance and of great social value. There has been, in some states, a bit of heated controversy, but no residual bitterness. The movement is not attempted reprisal nor offensive warfare against other institutions. On the contrary, it is a great endeavor for the improvement of teaching and, as such, merits the support of all right-thinking and forward-looking citizens. It must soon be met and settled in Pennsylvania. It should first be discussed until it is clearly understood by schoolmen, laymen and publicists, for in this way only can a constructively useful judgment be reached.

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The cartoons on this page were drawn by high school and upper grade readers of "Looseleaf Current Topics." Teachers write that cartoon contests not only stimulate interest in important current problems but help them in their actual drawing. If they draw it, they know it. Drawing teachers say it gives a new interest to their basic work. For every cartoon used the student cartoonist receives a $2.50 fountain pen. You are invited to send student drawn cartoons to

JULIUS H. BARNES, Chairman Institute for Public Service
1125 Amsterdam Avenue, New York City

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"By Mary F. Elliott, Washington, D.C

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