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us very little with which we were previously unacquainted. He inakes many common-place remarks, which seem to us perfectly uncalled for, and communicates from the best authority' the following anecdote.
• A butcher at James-town, who used to deliver meat for his (Bonaparte's) table, being at length wearied out with continual repetition of complaints, though he furnished the best meat he could procure, directed the following laconic epistle to the Governor : “ Sir Hudson! May it please your Excellency, this same General Bonaparte is hard to please. I begs to be excused sarving him any longer with meat.
After touching at Ascension Island, the ship ran for England, and without stopping at any intermediate port, reached the anchorage at Cowes, December 9. The following recapitulation of the mingled melodies' of a ship of war, has to landsmen the recommendation of novelty, and is amusingly described.
• In sleepless nights, I was both disturbed and amused by the various noises on board a ship of war. First, the centinel before our door cried, Log-time! The officer of the watch on deck: Heave the log! Hold the reel! Shortly after : Strike the bell! The Zebra's bell, however, being broken when she went on shore in Simon's bay, it sounded like an old tin kettle, till the broken piece fell out, by which its tone was improved. This lasted about a fortnight, when by some means it got another crack, and lost its voice entirely. As make-shifts are very common among sailors, they found, on trial, that striking with the hammer on the Rook of the anchor, answered the purpose as well, and that was now our bell. It is struck every half hour, but not in imitation of a clock. The day is divided into six parts. At twelve at noon, it strikes eight times, or eight bells, as the phrase is, two and two strokes distinct, »:»:»•»•
at half after twelve, one stroke; at one, two strokes ; at half-past one, three ; and so on till four o'clock; when, of course, the eight strokes return. Then, beginning with one at half-past eight o'clock, they are again complete at twelve. If the officer says to the Captain, it is twelve or six o'clock, the answer is, “make it so.” When the King was sailing in a frigate at Weymouth, hearing the commander use that expression, he observed : « You, Sir, have more power than I have ; I cannot make it what time I please.” After the bell has struck, the sailors placed as watch on the shrouds, and fore-castle, cry out, as loud as they can, lest they should be suspected of sleeping : Larboard quarter ; Starboard quarter; Larboard bow. In the morning, there is pumping, scrubbing, trampling overhead, and the noise increases.' pp. 389, 390.
The notices respecting Natural History, are so brief and scattered, that we have been unable to reduce them to any tangible form. With Botany, Mr. L. does not seem to be much acquainted, and in fact the Flora of the Cape, and the leading particulars connected with the birds, beasts, and reptiles of
South Africa, are of general knowledge; but we could have wished that, as Mr. L. seems to bave some practical acquaintance with mineralogy, he had devoted a chapter to that important subject : his casual references are too slight to be satisfactory. The decorations of the book are respectable; they give a very pleasing and sufficiently complete representation of the principal features of the Moravian settlements, and of other remarkable scenery in Mr. L.’s track; two of them, in particular, the pass of Trekataʼkow, and the Paerdekop, are well managed both in design and colouring. We must, however, make a decided protest against all the puny aids of the Camera Obscura and Lucida ; they are but substitutes for skill, and completely destructive of it, since they tend effectually to discard all feeling and discrimination of outline. The unerring dependence of the true artist is on his eye and hand, and with right principles and sufficient practice, they will never deceive nor desert him.
We are glad to learn that Mr. Thom is about to take a journey into the interior of the Cape colony, for the purpose of fixing geographical positions. It appears to us that there are three objects which our missionaries should keep in view, all of them valuable, though unquestionably of very uuequal importance. The first and most indispensable is the religious instruction of the ignorant; the second, and next in the scale, is the civilization of the barbarian; and the third is the promotion of science and discovery. The elements of Botany, Mineralogy, and the scientific arrangements of the various kinds of animal existences, may be easily and pleasantly acquired in the intervals of more important studies. Mapping, surveying, and the means of taking the observations necessary for ascertaining geographical position, are also accomplishments of easy and agreeable acquisition. We would also especially recommend, that in acquiring the art of drawing landscape, the iostructions of a genuine artist should be obtained. Students are in the twofold danger of cramping their band by endeavouring with imperfect means to instruct themselves, or of acquiring erroneous principles from unqualified masters; but a few sound instructions from an experienced artist will, with practice, enable them to form a decided and characteristic outline, and to put in with a bold and rapid pencil such indications of shade and colour, as shall give a far happier and richer effect than they would otherwise be enabled to produce by hours and days of feeble elaboration. Above all things, we would urge scrupulous fidelity, a quality wbich we have too often seen sacrificed to effect and false principles. In this respect, the late Mr. Gilpin did extensive injury: his writings contain some sterling matter, mingled with large alloy of affectation. He was a sort of picturesque dandy, and carried bis new invented fashions in art to the extreme of foppery. His original drawings, some of which are now before us, display great dexterity and much knowledge, but are disfigured by a flutter and feebleness; palpably the effect, not of ignorance, but of misapplied knowledge.
Art. Il. 1. Third Report from the Select Committee on the Poor
Laws ; (1818 :) With an Appendix, containing Returns from the General Assembly of the Church of Scotland. Ordered by the
House of Commons to be printed, 26th May, 1818. 2. A Bill (as amended by the Committee) for the Establishment of
Parochial Benefit Societies. This Third Report of the Select Committee, is in itself ex:
tremely short, and merely serves to introduce the Report of the Committee of the General Assembly, which occupies the bulky Appendix. It states, that it has been the object of the Select Committee, during the late sessions, rather to carry into effect the suggestions contained in their previous report, than to bestow more time on the investigation and discussion of the subject at large, the Committee being satisfied of the justice of those principles and opinions which had been before sub
mitted to the judgement of the House.' It represents the attention of the Select Committee to have been necessarily so much occupied with the details of those measures which bad received the sanction of Parliament, as to have added na
terially to the difficulty of maturing other measures that would • apply to the radical evil of the system. If they have, therefore, the Report proceeds to say, 'abstained from offering to • the consideration of the House, during the present Session of • Parliament, any measure the nature and object of wbich might have been to provide an effectual check to the progress, and a gradual remedy to the evils which have resulted from a compulsory assessment for the purposes of relieving the Poor;
it has not been from any alteration iñ the opinions they have • expressed of the necessity wbich exists for making such a provision, or from any unwillingness on their part, to en• counter the difficulty of offering such a provision to the con
sideration of the House.' It is, however, far from being improbable, that the Honourable Committee, although they may not see reason to change their opinion as to the theoretical expediency of radical remedies, have found the practical difficulties of the subject baile every attempt to frame a feasible plan conforinity to the principles they have adopted.
In resuming the general subject of the Poor Laws, what we propose to ourselves, is, to take a cursory review of the various semedial projects which have been submitted to public atten. bon; and this will necessarily introduce the consideration of the
rcknowledged evils connected, either inherently or otherwise, with the system of Parochial Relief, as at present administered.
With regard to the projects having for their object the eventual abolition of the Law of Relief, they are of such a dature as in themselves almost to justify the doubt whether the end can even be desirable, the attainment of which must evidently be regarded as so hopeless. Unless, however, we are satisfied as to the precise nature of the ultimate object at which it is desirable to aim, we shall make but little progress in the inquiry into the fitness or expediency of any measures of a remedial nature, Is, then, the ultimate extirpation of the present system, the object to which every modification of the existing laws should tend? Can we, to adopt Mr, Courtenay's language, hope
that labour and wages will so completely adjust themselves, " and the people be so nicely proportioned to the soil and wealth * of the country, as to confine want and misery to the profligate
only? Or, if we are not sanguine enough for this, are we pre
pared to leave wholly to private benevolence the relief of un* foreseen and undeserved inisfortune? If so, if our readers are prepared to concur with Mr, Ricardo in his assertion, that no scheine merits the least attention which has not the total aboJition of the Poor Laws for its ultimate object, it will only re. main to inquire how the transition from one state of things to another can be accoinplished at the least expense of intermediate suffering, or, (what may perhaps be a still more impressive consideration,) with the least danger to ourselves.
The following are the projects having for their object the removal of the radical evil of the system.'
1. ? To fix the whole sum to be raised, at its present rate, or any other that might be determined upon, and to make a
law that on no account this sum should be exceeded i' a plan said to have been suggested by Sir Win. Pulteney, favoured by Sir Frederick Eden and the Coinmittee of the House of Commons, but strongly condemned by Mr. Malthus and Mr, Davison, as well as by Mr. Courtenay, who exposes its injustice, and shews at the same time the impracticability of realizing it.
2. To reduce the amount raised, by taking off one-tenth of the Poor's Rates annually, so as to destroy the whole in ten years; (a scheme recommended by Mr. Townsend ;) or, by means of a decennial reduction of one-tentb, to deliver us from the burthen in a hundred years.'
3. To exclude, after a short notice, from the benefit of the Law of Relief, the children of future marriages. This is Mr. Malthus's suggestion ; but, in his Letter to Whitbread, cited by Pir, Courtenay, be seems virtually to abandon it, wheú be owns
that he should be very sorry to see any Legislative regulations ' founded upon the plan be bad proposed, till the higher and • middle classes of society were generally convinced of its de
cessity, and till the poor themselves could be made to un• derstand that they had purchased their right to a provision
by law, by too great and extensive a sacrifice of their liberty
und happiness.' Such a condition as this, if it does not amount to a sine die postponement of the plan, refers it to a period too remote, we imagine, to come into our present cal. culations. Mr. Courtenay has, in our opinion, satisfactorily disposed of each of these propositions; we are not aware of any others.
Were there, however, no alternative but such as the above suggestions imply, to our sitting down under the unmitigated pressure of the existing burdens, the desperation wbich such a prospect would incluce, might seem to warrant any experiments, however bold, that afforded the chance of eventual relief. Much, however, it is admitted on all sides, may be done towards alleviating the evil, by correcting the injurious administration of the Poor Laws, which has, within a comparatively recent period, given a new character to the original system, and by institutions adapted to raise the moral character of the lower classes. TO these two objects, we are well persuaded, all measures of beneficial reform must be exclusively directed.
And here, at the very outset, in considering the evils arising from the mal-administration merely of the law of relief, we are met with the prevailing practice of mixing relief with wages. This in itself presents by far the greatest obstacle to any plans of amendment. The Cominittee of the House of Commons, although they have expressed themselves very strongly on the subject, have been unable to suggest any legislative remedy for this enormous abuse. There would seem, indeed, to be but two ways in which this practice could be put a stop to; either to make it obligatory on the employer, in every branch of productive industry, to pay a certain price for labour according to a fixed scale, regulated by the price of provisions, so as to supersede the necessity of relieving any who are in the receipt of wages; or to enact that no man who is in the receipt of wages, shall be entitled to claim pecuniary relief. To the former plan, insuperable objections would oppose themselves; ohjections both of principle and of detail. We have seen, it is true, that in one branch of our manufactures, a local bill of this description bas appeared to have had a beneficial effect in protecting the labourer from oppression; and in casss where no legislative interference has been exerted, a scale of wages mutually agreed upon hy the masters and workmen of a trace', is generally found to be attended with their mutual advantage. But setting aside the reasonings