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latter I consider as an a'ct, the former as a lib`it-of-themind. Mir'th is sho'rt and tran'sient; cheerfulness fixed and permanent. Those/ are often raised into the greatest transports of mirth, who are subject/ to the greatest depre'ssions of melancholy on the contrary, che'erfulness (though it does not give the mind such an exquisite gla'dness) prevents us from falling into any depths-of-so'rrow. Mirth is like a flash of lightning, that breaks through a gloom of clouds, and glitters for a moment; cheerfulness/ keeps up a kind of day light in the mind, and fills it with a steady' and perpetual sere`nity.
Men of austere principles/ look upon m'irth as too wa'nton and diss'olute for a state of prob'ation, and as filled with a certain triumph and insolence of heart, that are inconsistent with a life which i's/ every mo`ment/ obnoxious to the greatest dan'gers. Writers of this complexion have observed, that the SACRED PERSON, who was the GREAT PATTERN of perfection, was never seen'/ to laugh.
Cheerfulness of mind/ is not liable to any of these exc ́eptions: it is of a serious and composed-nature; it does not throw the m'ind/ into a condition/ impro'per for the present sta'te of humanity; and is very conspicuous/ in the characters of those who are looked up'on/ as the greatest philo'sophers/ among the Heathens, as well as among those who have been deservedly esteem'ed/ as sain'ts/ and ho'ly-men/ among Christians.
If we consider cheerfulness in three lights, with regard to ourselves, to th'ose/ we converse' with, and, to the great Author of our be'ing,* it will not a little recommend it'self/ on each-of-these-accounts. The man/ who is possessed of this' excellent frame of mind, is not only easy in his thoughts, but a perfect master of all the powers and faculties of his soul: his imagina'tion is always cle'ar, and his judg'ment/ undisturbed his tem'per is e'ven and unruffled, whether in action or in so`litude. He comes with a re'lish/ to all those goo'ds/ which nature has provi'ded-for-him, tastes all the pleasures of the creation/ which are poured upon him, and does not feel the full weight of those accidental e'vils/ which may-befa'll-him.
If we consider him in relation to the persons whom he converses with, it naturally produces love and good-wi`ll to
* When any of the various appellations of the Deity occur in reading, the voice should assume a solemn and reverential tone.
wards him. A cheerful mi'nd/ is not only disposed to be a'ffable and obliging, but raises the same good humour in tho'se/ who come within its in'fluence. A man finds himself ple'ased (he does not know why) with the cheerfulness-of-his-companion: it is like a sudden sun'shine, that awakens a sacred delight in the mind, without her atten`ding-to-it. The heart rejoices of its own acc'ord, and naturally flows out into friendship and benevolence/ towards the person who has so kindly an effect-upon-it.
When I consider this cheerful state of min'd/ in its third relation, I cannot but lo'ok-upon-it/ as a con'stant, habitual gratitude/ to the Author of nature. An inward cheerfulness/ is an implicit prai'se and than'ksgiving to Pro'vidence/ under a'll its dispensa'tions. It is a kind of acquies'cence in the sta'te/ wherein we are placed, and a secret approba'tion-of the Divine w'ill, in his con'duct/ towards man'.
A ma'n/ who uses his best endeavours to live according-to the dictates of virtue and right rea'son, has two perpetualsources of cheerfulness, (in the consideration of his own na'ture, and of that Be'ing/ on whom he has a depen'dance.) If he looks into him'self, he cannot but rejoice in that existence/ which is so lately bestowed upon him, and which (after millions of a'ges) will be still new, and still in its beginning. How many self-congratulations/ naturally rise in the mind, when it reflects/ on thi's/ its entrance into et'ernity, when it takes a view of those improveable fa'culties, which in a few ye'ars (and even at its first setting out) have made so considerable a progress, and whi'ch/ will be still receiving an increase of perfection, and, co'nsequently, an in'crease of HAPPINESS !* The con'sciousness-of-such-a-being/+ spreads a perpetual diffusion of joy/ through the soul of a virtuous-man, and makes him look upon himself every moment/ as more happy than he knows how to conceive.
The second source-of-cheerfulness/ to a go`od-mind/ is its consideration of that B'eing, o'n whom we have our depe'ndance, and in 'whom (though we behold him as yet but in
*Nouns ending in ness should have the e carefully sounded, and the termination should not be pronounced niss, as we too frequently hear it. The same rule should be observed in the pronunciation of nouns ending in ent.
It will be observed, as in other similar combinations, that "consciousness-of-such-a-being" is one Rhetorical word, with the accent upon
the first, faint-discoveries of his perfections) we see e`verything/ that we can imagine/ as great, glorious, or a'miable. We find ourselves every where upheld by his goo'dness, and sur rounded/ with an imme'nsity of love and mercy. In sho'rt/,] we depend upon a Be`ing, whose power qualifies him to make us happy by an infinity of means', whose goodness and truth engage him to make those happy/ who desire-it-of-him, and whose unchangeableness' will secure us/ in this happiness to all eternity.*
TRUTH and sincerity have all the advantages of appearance, and m'any more. If the show of any thing/ be good for any thing, I am sure the reality is better; for/ why does any man disse mble, or seem to be th`at/ which he i's-not, but because he thinks it good/ to have the qualities/ he preten'ds to? For/ to counterfeit and to dis'semble, is to put on the appearance of some real excellency. No'w, the best way for a man to se`em to be any thing, is really-to-be' what he would see'm-to-be. Besi'des, it is often as troublesome to support the pretence of a good quality, as to have it; and, if a man have it n'ot, it is most likely he will be discovered to wa^nt it, and the'n/ all his la'bour/ to se'em-to-have-it, is lost'. (There is something unnatural in painting, which a skilful-eye/ will easily disce`rn from native beauty and complex'ion.)
It is hard to pe'rsonate and act' a part lo'ng; for/ where truth is not at the bottom, nature will always be endeavouring to return, and will betra'y herself/ at one time or oth`er. The`refore, if any man think it convenient to see'm good, let him be so indeed, and then his goodness will appear to every one's satisfaction; for/ truth is convincing, and carries its own light and e`vidence alo'ng with it, and, will not only commend us/ to every man's con'science, bu't (which is much more) to Go n, who se'archeth our hearts. So that upon a'll accounts sincerity is true-wisdom. Parti'cularly as to
* Such a tone and modulation should be employed when a lesson is about to be finished, as to show the hearer (without his being told) that the subject is drawing to a close.
the affairs of thi's world, integrity/ hath many advantages over all the artificial modes of dissimula'tion and dece'it. It is much the plainer and easier, much the safer and more secu'reway of dealing in the world; it has less of trouble and difficulty, of entanglement and perplexity, of danger and haz'ard-in-it; it is the shortest and nearest way to our end, carrying us thi`ther/ in a straight line, and will hold o'ut, and last longest. The arts of deceit/ continually grow w'eaker, and less effectual to tho'se/ that practise them; whereas, integrity/ gains strength by us'e, and the more and longer any man practiseth it, the greater service it does him, by confirming his reputa'tion, and encouraging tho`se/ with whom he hath to do', to repose the greatest con'fidence in hi'm, which is an unspeakable advantage in business, and the affairs
A dissembler must always be upon his gu`ard, and watch himself carefully, that he do not contradi`ct his own prete'nsions; (for he acts an unnatural part, and, the`refore, must put a continual force and restraint upon him'self.) Where'as, he that acts sincerely, hath the easiest task in the world; because he follows na'ture, and is put to no trouble and ca're/ about his words and actions; he needs not invent any pretences before-hand, or make excuses afterwards, for any thing/ he has said or don'e ;—
But, insincerity is very troublesome to ma'nage; a h'ypocrite/ hath so ma'ny-things to attend to, as make his life a very perplexed and intricate thing. A liar/ hath need of a good meʼmory, lest he contradict at one-time/ what he said at another; but truth is always consistent with it'self, and needs no'thing/ to help it out; it is always near at hand, and sits upon our lips; whereas a lie is troublesome, and needs a great many more to make it goo'd.
A'dd to all this, that sincerity is the most compendious wi'sdom, and an excellent instrument/ for the speedy dispatch of business. It creates confidence in those we have to dea'l with, saves the labour of many inq'uiries, and brings things to an is'sue/ in few wo'rds. It is like travelling in a pla'in, beatenroad, which commonly brings a man sooner to his journey's en'd/ than by-ways, in which/ men often lo`se-themselves. In
e "inconvenience," requires the rising circumfler. See page 5 of Introductory Outline."
a wor'd, whatever convenience may be thought 'to be in fal ́sehood and dissimula'tion, it is soon o'ver; but, the inconvenienceof-it/ is perpetual,* because it brings a man under an everlasting jealousy and suspicion, so that he i's-not-believed/ when he speaks truth, nor tru'sted/ when/ perhaps/ he means honestly. When a man hath once forfeited the reputation of his integrity, nothing will then serve his tu'rn, neither truth nor false hood.
Indee`d, if a man were only to deal in the world for a da`y, and should never have occasion/ to converse mo're with mankin'd, never more need their good opinion or good wo'rd, it were then no great mat'ter (as far as respects the affairs of this-world) if he spent his reputation all at once, and ven`tured it/ at one throw-b'ut, if he be to continue-in-the-world, and would have the advantage of reputa`tion/ while he is i'n it, let him make use of truth and sincerity in all his wor'ds and ac'tions; for nothing but this will hold out to the en'd. All other arts may fail, but truth and integ`rity/ will carry a man thr'ough, and bear him out, to the last.
CHARACTER OF QUEEN ELIZABETH.
THERE are few personages/ in hi`story/ who have been more expo'sed/ to the ca'lumny of e'nemies/ and the a'dulation of friends, than Queen Elizabeth, and yet there scarce is any/ whose reputation/ has been more certainly determined by the unanimous conse'nt of posterity. The unusual length of her administration, and the strong features of her character, were a'ble to overcome all p'rejudices; a'nd, obliging her detrac`tors to abate much of their inve'ctives, and/ her admi^rers/ somewhat of their panegy'rics, ha`ve, at last, (in spite of political fa'ctions, and, wh'at is mo're, of religious animo'sities), produced a uniform ju'dgment/ with regard to her conduct. Her vigour, her co'nstancy, her magnanimity; her penetra'
* The rising circumflex () is required at "inconvenience." This circumflex begins with the falling inflexion and ends with the rising upon the same syllable; and while it imparts to the word upon which it is placed a peculiarly significant emphasis, it seems to twist the voice upwards. See page 5.