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It is now certain that the hay crop in all eastern which are illustrated by the engraving at the head Massachusetts, and in several other parts of New of this article. These improvements consist of sevEngland, will be a short one; flour is still at a high eral alterations, but the principal one is the addition figure, corn commands an unusual price, the South- of another knife-giving two knives instead of one, ern yellow being sold, at wholesale, at $1,05 on the and doubling the quantity cut in a given time with1st of September, and rye and other grains propor-out materially increasing the amount of labor. tionally high. Early frosts have already materially

A person of ordinary strength may cut a cominjured the corn crop in this region, and hay will mon bundle of corn-stalks in this machine without be high. We do not say this from any anticipations over-exertion, and hay and straw, with a rapidity of want, but merely to suggest a commendable pru- and ease altogether unattainable in any other madence in the use of the fodder which has been laid chine we have ever used. by. This may be done by judicious feeding, such It is also so simple in its construction that any as changing the feed, by supplying it frequently in farm hand may take out the knives and sharpen small quantities, but mainly by cutting and mixing them, or adjust the raw hide properly against which the various kinds of hay or straw with roots or they cut. meal.

If a person has but a single horse or cow, it There is various machinery for cutting fodder, would be good economy to purchase and use one and in our judgment it is economy to use the poor- of these cutters, as the saving made would pay for est machine among them all, rather than to feed it it in two or three years, while the machine would out long; and this opinion is based upon a winter's be left, and would last, with care, for twenty years experience in feeding eight or ten cows and a horse to come. with cut feed.

It is for sale, at various prices and of various In the number of the Farmer for January last, sizes, at the Agricultural Warehouse of NOURSE & we spoke of a machine for cutting hay, called Co., 9 and 13 Commercial Street, Boston. Gale's Straw Cutter, and gave the inventor's description. This machine we have had constantly

IRON TABLETS FOR ORCHARDS, &c.—We had on in use since that time. A few days since our atten- exhibition, sent in as samples by the manufacturer, tion was called to one of the kind, to which has iron tablets, 17 by 23 inches, on which is printed, in been applied some important improvements, and raised letters, (covered with paint, bronze or gilt,)




80 as easily to be read, a copy of “An act for the

For the New England Farmer. better protection of orchards, gardens &c.," intend

OURS AN AGE OF IMPROVEMENT. ed to be placed in some conspicuous position on a post or tree in the grounds. The manufacturer has

BY JOHN GOLDSBURY. placed them for sale at the various horticultural and The age in which we live has been denominated agricultural warehouses in the city. Every town the age of improvements. In some respects, this is throughout the Commonwealth should instruct their true, but not in every respect. It is true with reSelectmen to purchase some of them, to be fastened gard to the inventions and discoveries which have on guide-boards, as a protection for fruits, flowers been made in science and the mechanic arts; for, and cranberries.

never, since the world began, has there been a time

in which so many, so great, and so remarkable imFor the New England Farmer. provements have burst upon the world, in a like LABOR-SAVING MACHINERY.

period of time, as during the past fifty years. These

have taken place, one after another, in such rapid MR. EDITOR :—It was my privilege, a few days succession, that the public mind has hardly had since, to witness some of the operations on the farm time to subside from the excitement produced by of Mr. Fay, of Lynn, which have contributed to the the discovery of one improvement, before it has formation of fertile fields, where very little grew been again excited by the discovery of another, the before;

and which now continue them in successful magnitude and importance of which have astonished culture, at an expenditure of labor greatly abridged, the world. These inventions and discoveries have compared with the products grown thereon. Among produced new and important changes in our modes these is a machine for planting, thinning and weed- of living, and in the business transactions of the ing, moved by horse-power, which, judging from whole world. All the oceans, lakes and rivers are the products now growing, does its work to perfec- navigated by steam, and the different parts of the tion. This machine was introduced from England, world are brought nearer to each other. The at an expense of $140, but is so much more com- “steam-horse” is heard puffing round our hills and plete than anything of the kind I have seen else through our valleys, transporting the surplus prowhere, that I would commend it to the notice of all ductions of one part of the country to another. curious observers. No person can look upon the And steam power has been applied to propelling alextended field of turnips, beets and parsnips there most all the machinery in the world. Besides, the growing, as also Indian corn, to all of which no improvements which have been made in machinery hand labor has been applied, and not be struck with itself are truly astonishing. And when we take the operation of the machine, and the benefit ac- into consideration the transmission of intelligence, cruing from its use.

from one part of the country to another, with the I also saw in operation a Rock-Lifter, exceeding- speed of lightning, by the electric telegraph, we are ly well calculated to relieve our New England farms ready to admit, not only that we have lived in an of many troublesome incumbrances—especially in age of improvements, but in a wonderful age. All the way of the plow and of the mower. By the these inventions and discoveries have taken place help of this implement, I believe that two men, within the last fifty years. Mechanical science has with one pair of cattle, had taken out from their advanced with strides so rapid and long, that many original position more than one hundred stones in are anticipating the period, when, by the discovery one day, averaging three tons each, and transferred of some new agency, or by some new application of them to the foundation of a wall

, where they were an old one, we shall be able to travel through the made useful for a fence, thus doubling the value of upper regions of the atmosphere. an acre of land, for purposes of cultivation. Who- But the question we wish to consider, is, whether ever would know more of these operations, can easi- the science of agriculture has kept pace with these ly learn, by calling on Mr. D. Wetherbee, the far-noble and truly valuable improvements ?.. Truth mer on the premises, who will take pleasure in and justice require a negative answer to this quescommunicating instruction to all who wish to learn. tion. For, ever since the occupation of this contiMr. Fay is one of those theoretic farmers, who nent by the Europeans, and until within a few preaches well, and practices better.

years past, the cultivation of the soil, in any true September 1, 1855.

sense of the word, has been almost entirely neglect

ed. The system of cultivation, if it may be so called, For the New England Farmer. was a retrograde system, a system of deterioration

and destruction. The forests fell before the woodWORK OF MOWING MACHINES.

man's axe; the trees were burned on the ground; I have recently seen a statement of the work the fields were rapidly cleared, and sowed with done by one of Manny's machines, the present sea- grain; the earth yielded bountifully; man took the son—544 acres yielding 80 tons of hay, cut in 433 crop, but he made no returns by cultivating and enhours' labor, with a pair of horses. The person who riching the soil. The consequence has been a reguused this machine, thinks the saving made in grass, lar and constant diminution of the products of the as compared with the ordinary mode of cutting, soil, till the farmers began to think that their lands would be fully equal to a fair price for cutting, were worn out, or had become entirely exhausted say one dollar per ton. One cog and one tooth and worthless. gave way during the operation, for want of proper Within the last twenty years, however, a new imcare in management. He thinks he could cut fif- pulse has been given to agricultural education, by teen acres in a day without unreasonable fatigue of directing attention to the nature and properties of the team. These facts are stated, not because they different kinds of soils, and to the nature, character are extraordinary, but as showing what can be ac- and elements of manures and other fertilizing procomplished by a good farmer on his own farm.

perties. It was soon discovered that the old soils Sept. 6, 1855.

were neither worn out nor exhausted, but required


to be enriched, regenerated and cultivated. The 20 drops of turpentine into one ear; and after waitdiscovery that potash, soda, magnesia, lime, &c., ing a few minutes, I turned her over and poured the were, in fact, the oxides of metals, led the way to same quantity into the other. She soon began to improvement. The elements of plants were exam- shake her head, and a stream of blood ran from her ined, showing their similarity with the soils on amputated ear. In an hour she was apparently as which they grow, and the due proportions in which well as ever. Since then I have used the same these elements exist in plants for their perfect de- remedy, without cutting off the ear, and have never velopment. The action of the atmosphere upon the lost a sheep by the staggers. -Rural New-Yorker. soil, the influence of rain and sunshine on the growth of plants, the necessity and action of vege

PEEPS INTO A BEE-HIVE. table decaying substances, and the various agencies thus carried on for our benefit, have all been dis- There is nothing from the Master Hand, uncovered, and are now well understood by every sci- touched by man, however small and insignificant it entific farmer

. Still, the application of knowledge, may seem to some, but is worthy of our careful of science, of art to agriculture, is not, even at this day, generally understood or widely disseminated;

study and investigation. We forget that the minute the number of scientific farmers is small. We have insect, or the worm upon which we tread with loathno schools, academies and colleges, especially devo- ing and disgust, was framed and received the breath ted to giving instruction in agriculture. The far- of life by the same Infinite Wisdom which created mers, the producers, the very foundation and means and animated us. They are governed by laws on which all other classes are constructed and sup- which they observe far more scrupulously than man ported, are without a single school, academy, or college, devoted to giving instruction in the appli

does the laws which ought to govern him, even aidcation of chemistry to agriculture. All the knowl- ed as he is by reason, a power they are not supedge which has been acquired on this subject, has posed to possess. We have no doubt that all the been given to the young, showing the connection lower orders, even to the tiniest of them all, enjoy between chemistry and agriculture. They have never had exhibited to the eye and understanding, any

their little life, and contribute to carry out the genexperiments on the all-important subject of farm- eral plan. If we studied them more, and became ing. “These things ought not so to be.” more familiar with their habits, we should lose all

As a class, farmers far outweigh in natural ad- repugnance to them, and perhaps find lessons of vantages every other class ; in numbers, they con- value for every-day life in many of their works and stitute more than three-fourths of the whole nation; yet, strange to say, that, as yet, they have never re. ways. Let us see ! ceived any adequate instruction in their high call- On the 17th of July last, we placed in our dininging-a calling, which, in truth, demands as high an room window an observing bee-hive, constructed of education for its perfection, as any other position in glass, so that all the operations of the bees could be life. There is the same necessity for shedding the light of science on agriculture, that there is upon

plainly and conveniently seen. A comb about a foot

а law, medicine, commerce, manufactures, and the square was placed in it containing some brood, with mechanic arts. And no one but a quack would plenty of workers and drones, but without the queen think of following either of these as a calling, till bee. The hive was then carefully observed by one after he had devoted to them years of attention and of the ladies of the family, who has given us the folstudy. A lack of interest on the subject of agricul- lowing account of their doings. ture, is generally equivalent to a lack of knowledge ; for, all who attend to it and study it as a science,

“ The first business the bees attended to, was in become deeply interested in it; and the more they commencing cells for a queen, and they prosecuted it know, the more they desire to know. But poor with energy for two days. At the end of that farms, poor stock, poor productions of every kind, time, a queen was taken from another colony and are the natural and necessary results of neglecting this study.

placed with them, upon which they pulled down

the cells they had made in less than half the time STAGGERS IN SHEEP.—Formerly I lost sheep by it had required to construct them, and then began this disease, until by experiment I discovered a rem- to piece out and repair the comb, which needed a edy, which has not failed me for many years, and The queen at once commenced laying, and I think it a safe as well as a sure remedy. About twelve years since I found that a nice ewe of mine, soon filled the unoccupied cells, when she was again which had two fine lambs, was affected with this dis- removed, and the bees once more began the conease. She was down by the fence, at the side of struction of queen cells. the pasture, and when she endeavored to walk or The unhatched bees now began to come forth, run, would stagger and fall, and appeared to be and in two weeks the family increased so fast as to blind. I went to her, took my knife out, cut off an ear close to the head, and to my surprise found the make it necessary for them to prepare to emigrate. blood did not start; not so much as one drop could So they built six queen cells, and in about twelve I obtain. Thinking my sheep as good as dead, I days, the first queen was hatched. As soon as she concluded to try experiments upon her. I returned was fairly born, she marched rapidly, and in the to my dwelling, and taking a bottle of spirits of tur, most energetic manner, over the comb, and visited pentine in my hand, went again to the pasture. I had been absent perhaps an hour, but the sheep had the other cells in which were the embryo queens, not moved from where I left her, and there was no seeming at times furious to destroy them. The discharge of blood from the ear. I poured perhaps workers, however, surrounded her and prevented



such wholesale murder. But for two days she was Our operations with bees, and these observations intent upon her fell purpose, and kept in almost by our “better half,” have been under the direction continuous motion to effect it. On the fourteenth of the Rev. L. L. LANGSTROTH, of Greenfield, day the second queen was ready to come out, peep- Mass., a gentleman of fine native talent, aided by a ing and making various noises to attract attention. most thorough classical education. Prevented from

A part of the colony then seemed to conclude that preaching in consequence of the state of his health, it was time to take the first queen and go, but by he turned his attention to the delightful study of some mistake she remained in the hive after the bees, and for more than fifteen years has pursued it swarm had left. The second queen came out as with all the patience and ardor of a first love, until soon as possible after the others had gone, and then he probably has acquired more accurate information there were two in the hive! Several minutes than any other person who has yet written of them. elapsed before it seemed to be known that she was He has explored the subject in other languages, and left, and the two queens ran about on the comb, in his work has brought together the most agreeawhich was now nearly empty, so that they could be ble incidents and information, making it more atdistinctly seen. But they had not apparently, no- tractive than any work of fiction. ticed each other, while the workers were in a state of great uneasiness and commotion, seeming impatient for the destruction of one of them; and the

For the New England Farmer. mode they adopted to accomplish it was' of the most

WHAT AILS THE APPLE TREE? deliberate and cold blooded kind. A circle of bees MR. EDITOR :—I have an orchard of fifty apple kept one queen stationary, while another party trees, (with peach trees alternately) set out in 1850, dragged the other up to her, so that their heads and now seven years from the bud. I noticed nearly touched, and then the bees stood back, leav- of them; since then there have been more affected

about four weeks ago the bark was affected on some ing a fair field for the combatants, in which one the same way. It is in spots from two inches to was to gain her laurels, and the other to die! The twelve or more in length, and about an inch wide, battle was fierce and sanguinary. They grappled though in a few cases, extending nearly round the each other, and like expert wrestlers, strove to in- tree. Where affected, the outer bark cracks off flict the fatal blow, by some sudden or adroit move

from that adjacent that is not diseased, and the

spots that are diseased shrink to the tree. ment. But for some moments the parties seemed I have peeled a few to discover the cause, but equally matched—no advantage could be gained on could arrive at no satisfactory conclusion. In one either side. The bees stood looking calmly on the case the inner bark of last year seemed to be gone, dreadful affray, as though they themselves had been

but the wood appeared bright, and I found a small the heroes of a hundred wars.

worm about three-fourths of an inch long; although

But the battle, like the bark did not seem to have been eaten by the all others, had its close ; one fell upon the field, and worm; though it would seem that it was, (I am not was immediately taken by the workers and carried entomologist enough to describe him,) it was not the out of the hive. By this time, the bees which had common borer, it was slimmer. In other cases the left, made the discovery that their queen was miss

bark was all dead and the wood black. In one case, ing, and although they had been hived without any yet was growing finely, and looks bright. I found

the tree was girdled except the width of my finger, trouble, they came rushing back, but not in season no worms except in that one instance. Two of my to witness the fatal battle, and the fall of their poor neighbors have trees of the same age, affected, slain queen, who should have gone forth with them though not so badly. to seek a future home.

In all three cases the bark had been washed with There was evidently sore disappointment in this first year, I made my solution a pound of potash to

alkali in previous years, though not this year. The result, for when they realized their loss, they ut- two gallons of water, one-half the strength of Mr. tered piteous cries, and for a day or two “refused Buckminster's wash, since then I have used it weakto be comforted,” wandering about, apparently er every year. Last season I used soap suds. Trees without object, and great confusion.

in this neighborhood that have not been washed are

not so affected as yet; whether the washing makes The hive was now crowded again almost to suffo- the bark more tender, I leave you to judge. cation, and after a few days' uneasiness the bees all I write, thinking the subject might be of interest left and lighted on an apple tree near the window, to you, and to see if any of your subscribers are

troubled in the same way.

J. W. W. from whence they were jarred off, and the queen

Canton, Mass., 1855. and a half pint of the bees returned to their old quarters, where they are to-day, Aug. 30, doing REMARKS.—Some of our correspondents will unwell. A small colony made in July, was now doubtedly be able and willing to express their brought forward, and after sprinkling it as well as views of the difficulties stated above. the bees from the house, with peppermint water, so that they might be all of one odor, the two strange

It has been ascertained by experiment, that colonies were mixed, and have continued to go on a cow will drink about eighty-seven pounds of waharmoniously together.”

ter in twenty-four hours.

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Thermon, at sunrise.

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1845. October 17........
1846. October 11..

1849. October 15...


27 .28 27

1841. October 3.......



For the New England Farmer. reason, why a like effect could not have been proEARLY AND DESTRUCTIVE FROST.

duced throughout, under like treatment.

Suppose it to have been done, here would have MR. EDITOR: On the morning of August 31, been 8096 lbs. of hay, where there grew but 1792 1855, there appeared the hardest and most destruc- lbs.three tons, at least, created by the applicative frost that I ever knew in the month of August, tion of a fertilizing material, that cost not exceedalthough I am over 56 years of age. I have taken ing $20. I am no enthusiast in my admiration of a little pains to look over a part of my record of fancy manures ; but when I see well-attested facts the weather, and find the following account for the like these, springing up in the natural way, I feel past twenty-two years :

irresistibly impelled to state them, that others may FIRST FROST IN EACH YEAR, SINCE 1834. have the benefit of the instruction. Mr. O, has Hard Frost, so as to kill Corn, Beans, Potato tops, Pumpkins, made numerous other experiments, in the cultivaTomatoes, &c. &c.

tion of crops, particularly vegetables, the details of

Thermom. at sunrise. which I hope he will give in due time, that others 1834. September 30.........1835. September 17.........

:25 may profit thereby. There are so many fancy notions 1836. September 7..........28° 1847. October 12........ 23 abroad in these days—when we get hold of rea1837. September 14.........26 1848. September 14........ 28 1838. September 3..........28

:23 ones, we should cherish them as pearls of great val1839. Oct. 5 and 6...29 and 33 1850. September 30.....

Truly yours,

J. W. P. 1840. September 23...... .27 1851. September 25.... South Danvers, Aug. 16, 1855.

.29 1852. October 6....... 1842. October 7... ...27 1853. September 30........30 1843. September 13... ....27 1854. September 21........ 26 1844. September 28.........23 1855. August 31.......

AMERICAN WOOL IN ENGLAND. REMARKS.—During the whole twenty-two years Sometime since P. A. Browne, Esq., of Philadelthere has been no frost in the month of August, in phia, obtained from different parts of the U. States this and the neighboring towns, equal to that which samples of wool, which he forwarded to the Society appeared on the morning of Friday, Aug. 31, just of Arts of London. The agent for the Commissionpast. The year 1836, nineteen years ago, the month ers of the permanent Exhibition of objects of Art of August came the nearest to it. In that month and Industry, in a letter to Mr. Browne, acknowlthere were five frosts, viz: Aug. 10, 18, 21, 23 and edging the receipt of them, says : -"The collection 24; but not severe enough to do any great damage. of samples of American Wools is of the highest valIn August, 1835, a little frost on the 4th. In 1834 ue and interest, and I feel extremely obliged for In 1837 none.

In 1838, Aug. 15, a very your kind aid in collecting them." In a circular little in low ground. Since 1838, making sixteen addressed to Ameriean wool-growers, Mr. Browne years in succession, none during the months of Au- remarks : gust. And none of any consequence for eight of The deposit of these specimens of fleece in this the sixteen years during the month of September, Museum, (where they can and will be examined viz: 1839, 1841, 1842, 1845, 1846, 1847, 1849 by thousands of visitors,) I cannot help regarding and 1852. In those years, none in September equal as highly important to your interests, and the reto the killing one of August 31, 1855.

sult will, I feel assured, prove creditable to this naMy cranberries have fared the worst. Not one tion. in fifteen but what are rendered soft by being killed The consumption of wool in England is vast and by the frost, and are therefore unfit to pick, unless increasing : last year the woolen manufactures of done immediately, and made into sauce. We have that kingdom amounted to 150,000,000 of dollars : done up some, and it tastes not so bad as might be and yet they do not raise one pound of wool fit for expected, but not equal to fully ripe and unfrost- making the best broadcloths. The finest wool sucbitten ones. In fact, the loss to me by that frost I cessfully produced in England, is from the Southconsider fully equal to one-third of a crop, to what Down, for the Merino is not suited to their climate. it might be, had it kept off, till the last of Septem-Formerly the British manufacturers depended for ber. Most of my potatoes were in the very height their supply on Spain-afterwards on Germany, and of growing, being planted on reclaimed swamp lastly upon Australia; from which latter place were land, and the black potato, which grows late. brought in one year, upwards of 47 millions of Yours, &c.,

ISAAC STEARNS. pounds. Mansfield, Mass., Sept. 1, 1855.

So soon as they ascertain, by inspecting these

specimens, that the United States can raise wool For the New England Farmer.

quite as fine if not a little finer than any other counEXPERIMENTS WITH GUANO.

try in the world, the demand will be extensive and

lasting. So it was with American cotton, so it will Mr. P. L. O., a careful cultivator, the last spring, be, I predict, with fine wool; and our wool-growers late in April or early in May, applied 25 pounds of should prepare themselves steadily, for this great Peruvian guano to ten square rods, or at the rate event. The agricultural disturbances, occasioned by of 240 lbs. to the acre. This was upon a flat, high the war in Europe, has injured German sheep breedmeadow, moist and fair soil, which had been mowed ing; and the pursuit of gold in Australia, has had for a dozen years last past without any application its effect upon this portion of agricultural industry of manures, or any manner of cultivation. When in that region, so that Great Britian will naturally the crop was fairly grown, he cut from this lot 253 turn her thoughts to this extensive Continent; where lbs, of good hay. From an adjoining lot of the sheep may be raised, almost to any cxtent that can same field, of like dimensions and character, (ex- be contemplated. The farmers of the United States cept the guano applied) he cut only 56 lbs.-show-have only to be careful to form their flocks from the ing an increase of more than four-fold, by reason of best breeds, and to keep them pureno crossing of the application of the guano.

species,—and they will garner a golden harvest. — The field contains two acres, and he knows nol Country Gentleman.


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