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with no education whatever must do the merest drudgery. (d) Yes. (e) We should take a person who had. Yes. (9) I would, decidedly. (h) Would prefer such by all means. (i) I would prefer one trained in the common school. (j) Always. (k) Wonld prefer the educated always. (1) Prefer the educated; not merely on grounds stated above, but the mingling of the children of the poor and depraved with those more favored, tends to impart better manners and higher moral tone. (m) We always prefer persons with education over those uneducated. (n) Give them the preference by at least 25 per cent. in wages. (0) Yes; I should vastly prefer a laborer who had been trained in the common school to one who had not. We would, but never ask that question in employing men. (P) Can't auswer. (9) Of course. (r) I should prefer the person trained in the common school.
Question 7. Whom would you, as an employer, choose for positions of trust, such as foremen or superintendents, persons unable to read and write, or those having the rudiments of education, or those possessing a saperior education, all other things, such as skill, strength, and fidelity, being equal?
Answers. (a) Those possessed of superior education in the business wo would engage. Knowledge is wealth, where skill is exercised with fidelity and honor, in a manufacturing business at least. (1) Always prefer those who can read and write. Generally the better educated the foremen the better they do, the rule has very many exceptions, however. Common sense and the natural power to manage men are often worth more than the best education. (c) The latter; no one can doubt how to answer this question. (d) Educated men. (e) We should take those, preferring superior education. (1) The best educated men of course. (9) I should have no hesitation in choosing those who had the best education; I would not employ one unable to read and write in those positions. (h) The educated. (i) Those possessing a superior education. (j) Prefer always the highest education. (l) Would in all cases choose those possessing a superior education. (1) Prefer the educated, and the more superior the education the better. (m) The latter always preferred; would not employ a person who could not read and write for positions of trust, or as foremen or superintendents. (n) By far men of superior education. Such men with practical knowledge of our business command almost unlimited salaries. (0) In answer to question No. 7, I should say emphatically that those possessing a superior education were the best; and not only that, I should prefer, all other things being equal, the man of the greatest intellectual culture. (p) Those possessing a superior education. (9) Those that have the highest education. (r) Would prefer the educated person. (8) Those having a good common-school education,
Question 8. What do you regard the effect of mental culture upon the personal and social habits of workingmen; do they, as a class, live in better houses, or with better surroundings; are they more idle and dissipated than the untaught classes; how will they compare for character, for economy, morality, and social influence among their fellows?
Answers. (a) Mental culture elevates the personal and social habits, as a general rule; live in better houses and more comfortable surroundings; as a general rule, they are less idle and dissipated; mental culture, as a general rule, cultivates economy, morality, and gives social influence among their fellows and in the community at large. (b) The general tendency of mental culture is to elevate, refine, and improve, and lead to cultivating all the moral and social virtues. (c) An educated person seeks to improve his condition at home and in all his surroundings, while uneducated men, as a rule, let things go about as they are. The uneducated are more idle, more addicted to low tastes and dissipation, and certainly cannot have the influence among their fellows that educated men have-Knowledge is power.” (d) Improving as to the social and personal habits; yes; less idle and dissipated; superior as to character for economy, morality, and social influence. (e) We regard education as elevating; as to their dissipation and idleness, we find that depends largely on their early education and associations; educated persons generally have a pride in being respectable. (f) Mental culture improves the personal and social habits of workmen; they live better; are better; take care of themselves and families; know the value of earthly possessions and social position. (9) They are better in every respect; they receive better pay, and consequently take pride in their houses and surroundings; idleness and dissipation decrease with them as their mental culture increases; an intelligent mechanic is the peer of any of his associates. (h) Of the highest importance; yes; are less so; vastly superior. (i) Mental culture refines the personal and social habits of workmen; the educated live in better houses, with better surroundings, than the ignorant;' they are less idle and less dissipated than the ignorant; their characters are higher, their economy not very different, and their morality and social influence much greater. (j) Tending to the refinement of the men, and largely to the comfort of the employer in his relations with them; always; less; greatly less; well. (k) Tho educated are more sociable, and ready to impart their knowledge and experience to others; have better care for themselves, families, and household; more industrious, provident, and moral; exert a better influence than the uneducated. (1) The reply to this question has been somewhat anticipated; but we would say further that the men
in our employ are mostly the best educated, in their respective stations, that we can procure; itre encouraged to acquire a little homestead for themselves, and thus become identified wiih the locality; they send their children to the common schools, and, by receiving their pay weekly, are enabled to pay as they buy, which they are expected to do, and thus keep within their income. (m) They livo in better houses, and with better surroundings; they are more industrious, because anıbitious to accumulate means; the educated always exert an influence over the uneducated, and in all other respects, as referred to, are superior. (n) The effects of education, in our experience, are decidedly beneficial; elevating and profitable pecuniarily; the better the education, the less inclined to vice, and the better they live. °(0) In reply to the first, I cannot believe that education makes much difference as to their personal habits; in reply to the second, I can cite instances to show where the greatest thief lives in comparatively the most thriving style; ils to the third, I think there is very little difference as to negro labor. (p) Mental culture improves the personal social habits of the men; they live better in every respect; are more industrious; they are more inclined to lay up a portion of their wages; their associations are generally good; they are more respected. (9) All in favor of education and mental culture; should any one doubt this in this age? (r) Excel them greatly in all respects. (8) Those having limited privileges have generally become the most influential; in most cases, within my knowledge, men who have prospered to a greater extent.
WORKMEN'S ANSWERS. * Browning, J. W., bricklayer, New York. (a) Olum, Thomas, cigar-maker, Syracuse, New York. (6) Coöperative Foundry, manager of, Rochester, New York. (c) Davis, Thomas H., mining and engineering, Massillon, Ohio. (d) Douai, Adolph, printer and editor, New York. (e) Flanagan, John, iron molder, Pittsburg, Pennsylvania. (f) Grogan, James, pianoforte-maker, New Haven, Connecticut. (9) Holstead, Charles H., machinist and carpenter, Mentz, New York. (1) Huston, James E., printer, &c., Elmira, New York. (i) Lainty, James, iron works, Rochester, New York. li) McCarthy, William J., mining, engineering, &c., St. Clair, Pennsylvania. (A) O'Hara, James, shoemaking, Rochester, New York. (1) Owen, William E., coal mining, Caseyville, Illinois. (m) Ribl, C. H., bricklayer, Indianopolis, Indiana. (n) Shufflebotham, Eli, carpenter, Albany, New York. (0) Saffin, William, iron molder, Cincinnati, Ohio.
p) Simpson, Frank, miller and laborer, Albany, New York. (9) Stockton, Aaron W., ship-builder, Baltimore, Maryland. (7) Vincent, John, printer, New York.
NOTE.—The paper marked with an asterisk (*) will be found in the Commissioner's report.
Question 1. Have you, as a workingman, observed a difference in the skill, aptitude, or amount of work executed by persons, arising from a difference in their education, and independent of their natural abilities 1-Answers. (a) I have not in the branch of business that I work at, but in other branches, such as carpenter, bricklayer, stonecutter, and machinist, I have. (b) Yes; a material difference. (c) I have observed that the educated man is by far superior to the uneducated ; at least one-fourth. (d) As a typo-sotter and printer; when I learned the trade in San Antonio, Texas, in a printing office, which was later my own, I found a most decided difference in favor of welleducated persons; not only do they learn the trade faster, but their type-setting is much more correct, and faster, especially when the manuscript is in a foreign language; it is for this reason that German type-setters, educated in Germany, are, all over the world, preferred to those of other nationalities; they are better at work in foreign languages. (e) Yes; I consider education as a great assistance in all classes of labor. (f) I have always noticed that an educated man can do more work, and do it better when taste has to be displayed, than an uneducated man, in the same amount of time; and the reason is, in my opinion, an educated man takes advantage of a great many cir cumstances which are not presented to the mind of an uneducated worker; yet, I believe a man can be reared up to any business, and become proficient without an education, though I believe it would increase his powers to have one. (9) In laying out work, I have; bat none in the handling of tools. (h) I have; in our business it is demanded that a person shall have at least a common-school education, and if possessed of the higher branches of study, their progress in labor is more apt. (i) I have observed those who have had a good common-school education and taken advantage of it, are at least 10 per cent. better than any others, and earn at least 10 per cent. more. (j) I have observed that the skill and sorvices of an educated workingman are superior to those of an
uneducated workingman, independent of their natural abilities. (1) I, as a workingman, have observed a difference in the skill of an educated over that of an uneducated person, but not in amount of work executed. (1) Have found a wido difference. (m) I havo; I have seen very good mechanics who had a very limited education ; still, one with an education is preferable. (n) I have, basing my observations on an experience of over forty years. *(0) I have; in no business, perhaps, is education so little thought of as a necessity; and yet, in none is the effect of its application so marked as in the business of iron molding. (p) I have. (q) As to aptitude, the amount or neatness of work done, there is very little difference with the educated or non-educated, except when lines of a peculiar shape are to be obtained. (r) Iu skill and aptitude, yes; in the amount of work, I am unable to state.
Question 2. Where were your observations made; town; State; in what occupation were the laborers engaged ?-Answers. (a) Syracuse, New York; in the making of cigars in particular, and the building trades and machinists.' (6) Rochester, New York, inanıtacturing stoves. (c) Massillon, Ohio, and in other States; in mining coal, blasting rock, sinking slopes, shafts, setting pumps, laying track, and carrying air into mines. (e) Pittsburg, Pennsylvania, molding in foundery. (f) Carving, turning, blacksmithing carriage-making, and various other occupations; in New Haven, New York, Boston, New Orleans, Chelsea, Cambridge, Jersey City, &c. (9) Mentz, New York, in machino and carpenter shops. (h) Elmira, New York; in printing and other trades, as well as on farms and in State work. (© Rochester, New York; in the iron trade. () St. Clair, Pennsylvania; mining, engineering, carpentering, and common laboring. (k) Rochester, New York; shoemaking. (1) Caseyville, Illinois; coal mining. (m) In several States; priucipally in bricklaying. (n) In New York and elsewhere; principally anong carpenters and joiners. (0) In many of the States, and in Canada, my position as President of the International Iron Molders' Union, calling me to many places; in machine, stove-plate, and hollow-ware molding, especially, and in the various occupations depending thereon. (p) Albany and other places in New York; among teamsters, millers, farm and day laborers. (9) Baltimore, Maryland; ship joining and house carpentering (1) Massachusetts and New York; among printers.
Question 3. Do those who can read and write, and who merely possess these rudiments of education, otber things being equal, show any greater skill and fidelity as laborers, skilled or unskilled, or as artisans, than do those who are not able to read and write? And if so, how much would such additional skill tend to increase tho productiveness of their services, and consequently their wages 1-Answers. (a) They do, in some branches. I am not prepared to say how much it would tend to increase their productiveness or their wages. (b) I should say 10 to 15 per cent. It would increaso their wages one-fourth. They are not so apt to make these disastrous strikes; let tho market go down, uneducated men will not believe it, and therefore strike against any reduction in their wages, while the educated portion read the papers. understand the condition of the markets, and know the operators must cease work if men insist on high wages. They are not so apt to get drunk, thereby neglecting their work and their families. The educated are not so rebellious and revengeful if compelled to give up beat on strikes. (c) They do show more aptitude, skill, and fidelity than those that are not able to read or write; but it is my opinion that it has little to do with the amount of wages received. As the only way wages are governed is by supply and demand or by strikes, brute force, and not intelligence, is looked for by most employers. Cheap labor commands more respect than educated; the question being how little will you work for not, are you educated ? (f) I do not think it would have any influence on a man's skill; and as for fidelity, I think a man's natural honesty and religious training will govern that more than reading anıl writing. It is some benefit to a man to know how to read, also a pleasure, yet if a man worked in a lumberyard, reading and writing simply might procure him a situation of overseer over his associates who could not read or write; I dou't know of any further benefit. (g) I consider tbat a mechanic must be possessed of a commou-school education, and ought to be a good mathematician. An ordinary penman and mechanic, from my own experience and observations, in the work at those trades of which I am a member, such as carpenter and joiner, pattern-making, and millwright, cannot be a profitable man to employ unless he does possess some knowledge of arithmetic and can write ; I would not employ one without, to place any responsibility upon him. (1) To the first, at least 50 per cent.; their wages would increase in proportion. (i) Those who are ignorant of letters are just as faithful servants as the educated, but are not within 10 per cent, as useful, either to themselves or their employers, in a pecuniary point of view, as the educated. () Those who can read and write slow more skill than those who cannot read and write. By being able to read they gain knowledge throngh reading scientific papers and natural philosophy. A carpenter that is well learned in mathematics, especially square root, can plan and lay out more work in one day than a carpenter devoid of mathematics can do in two. As to the miner that can read, his services are worth more than the miner that cannot; by being able to read, the miner can learn more of the coal strata and its gases than he who cannot, and so be more useful every way. (1) I cannot say that a person who can merely read and write shows any more skill or fidelity than a person who cannot do so. (1) I find that education has a great effect on their skill as laborers'; places them far ahead and superior to those unable to read and write. In coal mines, as a general thing, it increases the productiveness of their services in several different ways; probably makes an average increase of one-fourth or oue-fifth more over the other class. (m) Those who have an education do show inore skill than those who are unable to read and write, and this superior skill would be worth to them from fifty cents to ono dollar per day more than the other class. (n) I can unhesitatingly state that those artisans or laborers who have received what I may call a good common-school education have, in general, been more skillful and productive than those who have not had such advantage, or who havo willfully neglected the opportunities afforded them. I consider that those who retained the knowledge of their studies at school have proved to be, on an average, 10 per cent. more productive, and consequently deserve an equal amount additional to their wages. (0) To the first question, by striking out the words "and fidelity," I would answer, yes, most certainly; my reason for striking out those words, to be us conciso as possible, is because education makes a man know and feel, to a greater extent, the wrongs inflicted upon labor, and his fidelity to those whom he considers oppressors should not be relied on. The second question contains an assertion which is contrary to the facts; additional skill and productiveness do not, in many cases, bring additional wages, as can be clearly demonstrated by facts. (p) As to those who merely possess the rudiments of education-of reading and writing-and those that do not, there is very little, if any, difference in skill or fidelity, either as common laboring work or as ordinary mechanics; but, in my judgment, the higher a laborer is educated the more useful he becomes to the community in which he lives; it gives him the means of elevating himself, and to increase the productiveness of his services and likewise his wages. (9) In the printing business workmen must of necessity be able to read and write. The educated workmen, as a rule, attain the greater skill; such is the impression formed from my own observation. As regards tidelity, the difference, if any, I have failed to observe. I have known instances of the best scholars making no progress at the trade beyond that they have attained after a few months, after working two or three years, simply from the fact that their minds are not on their work. (1) A higher degree of education (such as mentioned) would most decidedly increase the ability of the printer to add to the wealth of the community indirectly, and enable him to receive higher remuneration, though not as compositor, but still in the business, editing, proof-reading, superintending, &c.
Question 4. What increase of ability would a still higher degree of education-a knowledge of the arts and sciences that underlie his occupation, such as a good practical knowledge of arithmetic, book-keeping, algebra, drawing, &c.,-give the laborer in the power of producing wealth, and how much would it increase his wages?-Answers. (a) It would give a mechanic, such as a bricklayer, stone-cutter, machinist, carpenter, joiner, shoemaker, &c., all the profits accruing from his own labor, for he would then be able to take a contract and do his own work and receive the benefits of the same, which, in my opinion, he is justly entitled to. (6) Do not believe that an advance in these higher brauches of education would tend to increase a man's ability as a laborer or ordinary tradesman, except in exceptional cases. (c) Well, it depends on circumstances; there are times that this class of knowledge would in part be very useful, as in the case of foremen; they should be practical men; for want of this you seldom see a miner acting as superintendent. Arithmetic is very necessary to every miner for keeping account of his coal, adding it up and deducting expenses, so he knows what he has made. We invariably dig coal" by the ton or yard, and when one don't understand, they may pay what they please and you kuow no better. (d) Not very considerably at work for wages; a great deal in filling a responsible position besides. The greatest profit I always saw realized by the transition into one's own business. (e) Those things may increase the wealth of the employer, but scarcely ever the wages of the man. It makes no difference to Mr. Sampson, of North Adams, if his coolies can read or write; it is low wages and docility be wauts, rather than education. No morality entered into his calculations. (f) The more thorough a man's education is, particularly in drawing, arithmetic, &c., the better he is fitted for mechanical pursuits. There is one drawback to this; the youth, now-a-days, think it menial to learn a trade or work in a shop if they have the education to make them superior workmen. (9) I do not consider that a person must possess a high degree of education to become a skilled mechanic; yet to become a first-class artisan he must understand dranghting and arithinetic; one that understands those will of necessity understand all that is roqnired to be a successful mechanic, and would command better wages-say, onefourth better. (h) In my opinion at least one-third. (i) It is impossible for a conscientious man to answer this question ; the few workingmen who are posted in these things are but isolated cases, and it would not be fair to judge by them. My opinion is that a gooul mechanical education would add at least 25 per cent. to a man's usefulness in mechanical pursuits. (j) The educated miner commands more wages, sometimes
two and three dollars per week; besides the educated miner is not so often injured or burnt as the uneducated miner, unless it is the carelessness of others. The educated carpenter and common laborer generally receives inore vrages than the uneducated carpenters, some as high as one dollar per day, and laborers fifty cents per day. (I) I consider that a person who attains a high degree of education, such as a knowledge of arts and sciences, and a good practical knowledge of arithmetic, bookkeeping, algobra, &c., would increase his ability tenfold and give him an advantage of 25 per cent., in producing wealth, over a person who had not attained that degree of education. (1) It would place them on a scale that would enable them to occupy a higher position in society, and enable them to apply for some occupation receiving a higher remuneration than is paid for mere hard or physical work. (m) It would give him far superior ability. A knowledge of the above arts and sciences would enable him, for instance, to become an architect, which would increase his pay 50 or 100 per cent. (n) These questions I cannot answer with accuracy, from the fact that those who have received a higher degree of education (generally speaking) bave ignored mechanical pursuits, except for mere pastime, and turned their attention to what they have considered a inore genteel or respectable occupation. (0) A molder should have a thorough knowledge of arithmetic, algebra, and drawing; but above all a fair knowledge of chemistry. A man cannot be a thorough molder unless he understands to some extent the chemical properties of sand, coal, iron, and lime; a thorough knowledge of which would enable him to produce the same quantity of castings as he does now, with at least onethird less labor; but as I before said, it would not necessarily increase bis wages. (p) I should say it doubled his power of producing wealth. (9) These branches are of inuch importance. It enables the mechanic to have at his cominand at any time the means of developing those arts or sciences that his mind is the most adapted to, and to increase his power of producing wealth, not less than 100 per cent., and that of his wages from 100 to 300 per cent. (r) Yes; how much, I cannot state.
Question 5. Does this and still further acquisitions of knowledge increase the capacity of the workingman to meet the exigency of his labor by new methods, or in improvements in implements or machinery; and, if so, how much does this inventive skill add to the power of producing wealth i- Answers. (a) It does. I cannot say to a certainty how much it adds to the power of producing wealth. (b) I think it does; but the last question is too indefinite to adınit of answer. (c) It wonld be a hard matter to say how much, for I have not seen the improvements used in this country; but a better knowledge of new methods would certainly add greatly to production, and there must naturally be room for other improvements where there are steam power and pumps used, doors, air-ways, fans, and what we call pushers; and if these fail oftentimes, the mines lay idle for weeks, where, if practical, educated men were there, it could be fixed in a few minutes, natural consequences being the trouble. (e) I do not think that an education is sufficient to meet this case; I think inventions can only be made by persons who thoroughly understand the business for which they want to make the improvement; but a first-class education always helps, even in that; yet, I do not think it essential. () Practical experience only makes a skilled mechanic. A man may be possessed of all the book-learning that the brains of ten men may be capable of holding, and know all the theories of a trade, and until he puts that knowledge into practical use, such as manipulations with the tools required in that trade, it amounts to nothing, consequently would not add one cent to the country's wealth ; he is nothing but a non-producer, living on what others create. (h) The greater the knowledge of the workingman is the greater the wealth of the country is, for every new and good invention creates wealth. Show me an educated people, and you will find a wealthy and thrifty people. An educated workingman, in my estimation, is really worth more than onefourth in value to the community. Ignorant workingmen are generally poor. (i) To the first, I answer, yes, undoubtedly. To the second, I ask you to compare the amount of work dono at the present day by a given number of mechanics, and that performed forty years ago by the same number; my experience is, that it bas doubled, at least, by means of improvements in tools. A further acquisition of knowledge may increaso the ability and capacity of a person, I may say I am sure it would, but I don't think it would all center in his inventive powers. (j) It does; it adds considerable to the power of producing wealth. How much, I cannot state, exactly. In coal mines it would often save a deathly disaster too often occurring from igrorance. (k) It does; but in what capacity it increases I am unable to state, as in my trade there is no machinery used, except for hoisting materials, which is a saving of 50 per cent., or more; Lut from my observations in other branches of trades, I have no doubt that the use of machinery adds to the power of producing wealth enormously. (1) It does; providing that he has the good sense not to ignore bis occupation, but strives to ennoble it by his wisdom as well as his skill, consequently his power of producing wealth cannot easily be estimated, but would really be very great. (m) This question is best answered by reference to statistics. It is well known that all labor-saving machinery is concocted in the brain of the educated laborer, but for forty years it has resulted in beither less lours for labor, or less physical labor to the laborer; the educated laborer of