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country, and adapted to meet the needs of a large class of young men.
I speak with feeling on this point. If the High School of 1858 had offered such facilities, I would have been among its graduates. And I represented a very considerable body of the youth of our city, who were looking forward to a career in which Greek and Latin were indispensable, and to whom the city extended no helping hand. I believe there was not a Northern State, except our own, in which no facilities were offered them, and even in ours, this was done up till 1834 by the county academies, established with assistance from the State Treasury, and entrusted only to teachers who held a University degree or its equivalent.
One curious result of this neglect on the city's part is seen in the nativity of the clergy of her Christian churches. They are in the vast majority of cases not natives of Philadelphia. Professor Rothrock tells me that if Pennsylvania were shut up to her own timber supply, she would not have a tree left in four years. If Philadelphia were restricted to her own supply of preachers, most of her pulpits would be vacant and silent. For the churches are dependent in the main upon the children of persons who are not so circumstanced as to afford private schooling for their children; and where such are debarred from help in the public school system, the obstacle is likely to prove final in the majority of the cases.
Now I shall not argue with any one who thinks it is no matter of public interest whether or not the churches of a great city are fitly supplied, or its own sons fairly represented among men whose social and local influence is so deep and far-reaching; nor shall I plead with those who see no discredit in the fact that a city like ours "sponges" on the rest of the country for its ministers.
Equally laudable has been the expansion of literary studies which has been effected. The studies called practical need no special advocates in Philadelphia. The spirit of the city, which this school is not intending to antagonize, will always secure them a fair chance. But a grave, real want of Philadelphia is a wider diffusion of sound literary taste and a more careful development of literary faculty in those of the rising generation who possess it. Even in a practical sense a city must suffer through the lack of imaginative writers, to interpret its life, past and present, to its own people and the world.
It is no commercial disadvantage to any community that its poets, novelists and historians have made it interesting to the rest of mankind. The prestige thus obtained has its solid value in even the lowest terms in which value can be measured, and here our city has suffered in comparison with others in the land. The richest of all American cities in historic åssociations, she has made the least of her advantages in this re
spect, and we have even seen the growth of a myth that American history took place chiefly in and around Boston.
Few as are the historic sites within our bounds which have been suitably marked, fewer still are the historic events which have been suitably commemorated in song or speech by a Philadelphia author. For 20 years past I have been looking for swans among our youth, and not without encouragement. The record in literature already achieved by graduates of this High School bids me hope that the increased attention to literary study will not be fruitless of good.
I am not unmindful of the good work done in our city in the study of biology, history, political economy and other scientific fields. I hope the day is coming when the biological studies will take a larger place in our own curriculum than it has yet been possible to give them. I agree heartily with Carlyle in complaining of any method of education which leaves its graduates strangers to the humble dwellers by the wayside, the flowers, the birds and the beasts of the field.
But the highest end for which this school and every school exists is not the enlargement of intelligence or the development of mental faculty. We may achieve these, and yet fail of the true end for which we gather here the youth of our city in the years most susceptible to impression and instruction.
We are here, first of all, for character building, and this great city looks to this school and to all her schools, each in its degree, for the training of those who shall take the places of the men of public spirit, social virtue and reverent piety, whose names are the brighest spots in her annals. The city of Thomas Story, James Logan, Benjamin Franklin, John Dickinson, Charles Thomson, William White, Benjamin Rush, Anthony Benezet, Matthew Carey and his more illustrious son, Albert Barnes, Henry Reed, Stephen Colwel, John Welsh, George W. Childs [applause]-she reckons it her chiefest honor to have been the mother of menmen upon whom she rested her confidence in every emergency, knowing they were made of a metal that would never flinch nor fail her.
I am no prophet nor the son of a prophet, but I see in the future the threat of greater emergencies which shall try men's souls. We seem to be entering upon a period of audacious social experiments, which will demand the largest wisdom and the firmest principles in our educated classes. Social problems from which we thought this new, free, rich land would be forever exempt are looming up in the most threatening shape, and I know of no outfit which can equip us to meet the perils of this coming age, except the possession of right principles worked out in a virtuous life.
To secure this equipment to the coming generation, the school must co-operate with the home, the Church, the State, and all the forces which work for righteousness in act
or in character. By its firm but kindly discipline it must prepare them for binding the law upon themselves, when mature years have set them free to make of their own lives what they will. By the earnestness, the reverence, the purity of thought and speech here, we must throw around them the atmosphere in which all good things
shall seem native and natural to their thought.
By our loyalty to truth in every shape we must awaken them to a perception of their birthright to all truth, human and divine. By lives lived in the presence of the great Taskmaker, we must help them to realize the great truth of responsibility to God, which alone can bring us into right relations to man.
These are the greatest things education can do for us. Which of us has not to look back with the profoundest gratitude to some guide of our youth who did this for us?
The worst education that brings with it such lessons as these, and makes those who receive it good, public-spirited, honest, pa
triotic men, is better than the best that results in development of intelligence alone. "Knowledge without integrity," says Dr. Johnson, is dangerous and dreadful." The dreadful, petrifying eye of the Gorgon, John Sterling reminds us, was an eye divided from a living, human, heavenly heart, yet still retaining the power of penetrating vision; and is not his saying illustrated more abundantly in our day than ever before, in the career of men armed with the science of our age to use it only for destruction-bidding defiance to all authority, human or divine elevating the maxims of hate to a code of social life?
These are the evils which threaten us, and may God help us to make the influence of this school a power on the side of goodness, purity, brotherly love, reverence for authority, and respect for the rights of men. Through all changes and under whatever direction, may it train such sons for this dear city of our love that men shall say of it, not "What manner of stones!" but "What manner of men are here!"
DEPARTMENT OF PUBLIC INSTRUCTION,
28. Caroline Hay, New Brighton, Beaver HARRISBURG, April, C., county, graduate of Westminster College.
HE Teachers' Permanent Certificate was issued January 23, 1894, under the regulations of the Department of Public Instruction, to the persons here named:
16. J. K. Ellwood, Pittsburgh, Allegheny county, graduate of Heidelberg College.
17. A. C. McClean, Pittsburgh, Allegheny county, graduate of Thiel College.
18. Robert A. Townsend, Reading, Berks county, graduate of Bucknell College.
19. W. R. Keller, Johnstown, Cambria county, graduate of Lebanon Valley College. 20. T. B. Johnston, Johnstown, Cambria county, graduate of Washington and Jefferson College.
21. James A. Stewart, Hollidaysburg, Blair county, graduate of Washington and Jefferson College.
22. Francis D. Raub, Allentown, Lehigh county, graduate of Muhlenberg College.
23. Samuel Transeau, Williamsport, Lycoming county, graduate of Franklin and Marshall College
24. C. D. Oberdorf, Sunbury, Northumberland county, graduate of Princeton College. 25. Frank P. Manhart, Selinsgrove, Snyder county, graduate of Pennsylvania College.
26. Henry E. Raesly, Wellsboro, Tioga county, graduate of Lafayette College.
27. E. M. Mixer, Conneautville, Crawford county, graduate of Allegheny College.
Also, February 28, to the following college graduates, on compliance with the conditions required:
29. Artalissa Bentley, Steelton, Dauphin county, graduate of Westminster College. 30. Angelina Hambleton, Swarthmore, Delaware county, graduate of Ardmore College.
31. H. C. Greenewalt, Fayetteville, Franklin county, graduate of Princeton College. 32. Lottie B. Byers, Pulaski, Lawrence county, graduate of Westminster College. 33. Lemira W. Mealy, Greenville, Mercer county, graduate of Westminster College. 34. Celinda E. Cook, Greenville, Mercer county, graduate of Thiel College.
35. Alice T. West, Greenville, Mercer county, graduate of Thiel College.
36. Thomas McKean Farquhar, Bethle hem, Northampton county, graduate of Lafayette College.
37. William E. Blair, Tioga, Tioga county, graduate of Syracuse University.
DUTY OF SCHOOL BOARDS.
PUBLISHING ANNUAL FINANCIAL STATE
THE law entitled "An Act to regulate the publication of the accounts and financial statements of School Boards," should not be disregarded by Boards of Directors, as has been the case in some school districts. The penalty imposed by the act for neglect of this duty is not a light one, The law is as follows:
SEC. I. That it shall be the duty of each
board of school directors in the several school districts of this commonwealth annually, at the close of the school year, to place in the hands of proper auditors a full certified statement, itemized, of their receipts and expenditures for the past year, including the assets and liabilities of the district, of all kinds, with all books, papers and vouchers relating to the same, to be by said auditors examined, and if found to be correct, approved; such statement to be spread upon the minutes of the board of directors, and in a condensed but fully classified form published by said board in not less than ten written or printed hand-bills, to be put up in the most public places in the district, or, if deemed preferable, in the two newspapers of the county in which the district is situated, having the largest circulation among the citizens interested; and for any neglect or failure to perform the duties enjoined by this act, the officers named therein shall be considered guilty of misdemeanor, punishable by a fine not exceeding three hundred dollars, to be paid into the school fund of the district in which the offense shall have been committed.
SEC. 2. That the publication of the accounts of school boards herein provided for shall be in lieu of all publication of said accounts now required by law; and all acts or parts of acts inconsistent herewith be and are hereby repealed. Provided, That the provisions of this act shall not extend to cities of the first class.
AUTHORITY OF THE SCHOOL BOARD.
N order to prevent the spread of smallpox, the Board of Education in the city of Williamsport, acting in co-operation with the Board of Health, adopted a resolution that no pupils should be allowed to attend the public schools who had not been successfully vaccinated and furnished a certificate by a physician setting forth this fact to the teacher. Application was made to Judge Metzger for an injunction to restrain the Board from carrying this resolution into effect, and the opinion in which he refused to grant the injunction, settles and defines the authority of School Boards to require vaccination for the purpose of preventing the spread of small-pox. The following is the text of the decision:
In this case an injunction, preliminary until hearing and perpetual thereafter, is asked for to restrain the school district of the city of Williamsport from enforcing the following resolution, adopted by the Board of Directors of said district, to wit: "That no pupils be allowed to attend any of the public schools of this city on and after Monday, Feb. 19, 1894, unless such pupils have been vaccinated, and furnish a certificate setting forth this fact to the teacher."
It must be conceded that if the Board of
School Directors of the district have the power to pass and enforce the resolution in controversy, that the court has no authority to interfere by injunction, unwise as such action of the Board might appear to the court to be. We cannot inquire into the exercise of their discretion to ascertain whether such discretion has been wisely exercised. The board of directors are the agents appointed by the voters to control the schools of the district, and all persons are bound by their lawful acts. When acting within the scope of their authority, the courts are powerless to restrain their action, unless possibly in an extreme case of abuse of discretion. As is said by Woodward, Justice, in delivering the opinion of the court in case of Wharton, et al., vs. School Directors, 42 P. F. S., 364: "If they transcend their powers the court can restrain them. If they misjudge their powers the court can correct them. But if they exercise their unquestionable powers unwisely, there is no judicial remedy."
I know of no decision in Pennsylvania which questions this doctrine.
But it is argued they have no power or authority to pass and enforce such a resolution. I cannot assent to this proposition. The Legislature of Pennsylvania has granted them the power to exercise a general supervision over the public schools of their district. This certainly implies the power to make any rule, or regulation, which may be deemed necessary for the prevention of the spread of disease among the pupils attending school. This is a sanitary regulation, intended to protect the health of the pupils. No one would doubt their power to exclude a pupil from school, if its parents or any member of the family in which it resided was afflicted with small-pox, or any other malignant disease that was contagious. A rule excluding all such would be regarded as reasonable and proper. Why then should an order excluding all not vaccinated, and who refuse to be vaccinated, be held unreasonable and beyond the power of the directors to enforce?
It is not a cure for the disease, but it is a generally recognized preventive of small-pox. Why should the children who have adopted this preventive be compelled to mingle with children in the public schools who stubbornly refuse to comply with this regulation? When the disease is abroad, it behooves every one to take such measures as will at least in some degree be a protection against its ravages. In some states the legislature have provided by statute for the exclusion from school of persons not vaccinated, although otherwise entitled to admission. This is so in Maine and Massachusetts. And in Abell vs. Clark, 84 Cal., 226, it is held to be competent for the legislature to require pupils of the public schools to be vaccinated. If the legislature can do so, then it is also competent for the body to whom it has delegated its power over the public schools to do likewise. It has delegated to the school boards of the respective districts the power of general supervision over the public schools. This power in controversy contravenes no law and violates no principle, morality, or public policy. On the contrary, the welfare of the public demands that at particular times such orders should be enforced. I am therefore of
the opinion that the school board has the power to require a compliance with the resolution, and the injunction prayed for is therefore refused. Per Curiam.
JOHN J. METZGER, P. J.
ITEMS FROM REPORTS.
ARMSTRONG-Supt. Jackson: Two very interesting local institutes were held at Brick Church and Elderton. They were well attended by both teachers and citizens. Interesting and instructive educational meetings have also been held at Putneyville, in Mahoning township, and at Dayton. Most of the district schools close during the month of March, having only a six months' term.
BEDFORD-Supt. Potts: Local institutes and educational meetings are being held in each district in the county. School houses are too small to accommodate the gatherings, and we are permitted to use churches. At one of these meetings we had in attendance a parent from each house in the district. The people are beginning to realize that a common school education is of value. In my visits I find the school houses in better sanitary condition than formerly; a few outbuildings are not as the law contemplates.. In the main, first-class work is being done by the teachers. If attendance at educational meetings is an index of interest in our public schools, then it has never, in the history of our county, been equaled. At Saxton, the Presbyterian Church would not accommodate the audience. On Saturday the stores were closed and the largest church in town was filled. The same is true of other places in the county. In Monroe, at two of the meetings, the house was crowded. At the dedication of the Wolfsburg house there was not sufficient seating capacity. In Bloomfield, Woodbury and Loysburg, the churches were filled. In Cumberland Valley and Schellsburg, the town halls were filled. In the former, many had to be turned away for want of room. During January and February forty of these meetings were held under the auspices of the Superintendent, and at thirty-six of them we had full houses. Valuable help has been rendered by teachers and friends of education. In addition to this, excellent papers were read by lady teachers, with recitations and readings by the pupils; and the arrangements for holding the meetings, singing, entertaining strangers, etc., were cheerfully looked after by the teachers of the respective districts.
BERKS-Supt. Zechman: During the month local institutes were held in Douglasville, Huff's Church, Kutztown, and Hamburg. These meetings were well attended by teachers, directors, and parents. The school children of the county are engaged in collecting money for the erection of a monument to Conrad Weiser, he being
the first pioneer and great Indian interpreter for Pennsylvania.
BLAIR-Supt. Wertz: The Adams Avenue school building of Tyrone was dedicated February 17th with appropriate exercises. This is one of the most substantial and best-finished houses in the county. It is 75 by 64 feet, and has four rooms 25x30 on the first and second floors each, and a lyceum hall 36x48 on the third. It is heated and ventilated by the Bennett and Peck system. The school board of Tyrone is to be commended for the wisdom and liberality displayed in the erection of this beautiful and well-planned house. The flagraising at Hileman's school-house, Frankstown township, was largely attended, and the exercises were interesting and appropriate.
BUTLER Supt. McCollough: Mental Arithmetic was universally adopted as a text-book in the schools of the county this year. Local Institutes were held last month at Millerstown, Bruin, Kerns City, Fairview, N. Sunbury, and Mars. All were well attended by teachers, directors and patrons. Subjects pertaining to the advancement of our schools were ably discussed. One fact especially worthy of mention in regard to our Local Institutes this year, was that the local teachers took a more prominent part than heretofore—an indication that goes to prove that they are becoming more familiar with the science of teaching, and possess a better knowledge of the true methods of instruction.
CAMBRIA-Supt. Leech: An excellent library, consisting of over 200 volumes of well selected books, is found in the grammar school of Walnut Grove, Stony Creek township. The following extract from the Johnstown Tribune speaks for itself: "From records kept at the Cambria Library it would appear that the pupils of the country schools avail themselves of the generous offer of the Directors of the Library to loan books free of charge to the pupils of the public schools of the county, with greater avidity than those of the city of Johnstown. The figures show that up to February 3, 1894, nine hundred volumes had been loaned to pupils of the surrounding country schools, while those attending the city schools had taken out but four hundred volumes." Walnut Grove school, in Stony Creek township, has a library of 250 volumes of well-selected books. It is largely made up from Appleton's list "B," and freely used by pupils and patrons. Summer Hill township has put into each school a slate blackboard and an unabridged dictionary.
A very large and interesting local institute was held in Johnstown. Over one hundred teachers of the city and county were present, many of whom took part. Dr. Waller, Dr. Brumbaugh, Dr. Schmucker, and Supt. Berkey were all present, and delivered stirring addresses. Prof. Gibson had charge of the music, which aided much in making the meeting a great success.
is estimated that 300 people were present Friday night.
CARBON Supt. Beisel: We held a local institute at Weatherly, with about fifty-five teachers present. Very satisfactory work was done. Prof. E. L. Kemp, of the Stroudsburg Normal School, delivered his popular lecture, Golden Treasures," Friday evening, and gave us two talks on Saturday. Prof. Park, of the same school, gave instruction in penmanship and drawing. The meeting was a credit to the Weatherly people. A local institute was held in Lelighton, February 16th and 17thWe had a large attendance. Over one hun. dred teachers were present. The work done was very satisfactory. Prof. Kemp was the lecturer. We cleared over $25, which will be used in buying books for the High School library.
CHESTER Supt. Walton: Chestnut Grove school house, in Sadsbury township, has been remodeled-new floor, roof, furniture, doors, etc. This is the last old house in that part of the county. In fact, we have scarcely half a dozen old houses left. Three local institutes have been held at Avondale, Unionville, and Cedarville. The meeting of the Chester County Principals' Club, and the appointment of a committee on "Course of Study," indicate progress. We look forward to the time when a first-class borough or township high school shall be within the reach of every boy and girl in Chester county. The Chester County Directors' Association held a meeting in the Normal School chapel, February 26th. Among the many good things on the programme was an address by Dr. Schaeffer. A paper, prepared and read by Supt. Addison Jones, of West Chester, on Expenditure of Public Funds for Necessary School Supplies," elicited much discussion, and a resolution was adopted requesting that the bookhouses and jobbers make a three day's exhibit of their publications, etc., in West Chester. The object of this is to give Directors an opportunity the better to inform themselves of the quality, variety and price of school supplies. A paper by President Coffin, of the Board of Health of Phoenixville, on "Health and Sanitation;" an address by Dr. Benj. Lee, Secretary of State Board of Health, on School Out-Houses;" a paper by Dr. Dunn, of West Chester, on Dangers from Contagious Diseases in Schools," and remarks from a number of leading physicians, all led to the following resolution, which was adopted: Resolved, That it is the sense of this meeting that the Chester County Medical Society be requested. through the medium of the Executive Committee of this Association, to prepare a circular upon this subject, which, in connection with the excellent paper read by Dr. Dunn, shall be sent by local school boards to their patror s.
CLARION-Supt. Beer: I recommended teachers to read "Educational Founda
tions," and more than 210 are now reading it; altogether there are 260 subscribers to that periodical in the county. We had an excellent local institute at Callensburg, and another at Tylersburg. At the annual institute I submitted a new course of study, arranged on natural lines; in it the studies are correlated, with geography as the central subject of concentration. Many of the best teachers are working it out, and all who have tried it report good progress. My time while visiting has been spent in trying to get teachers to adapt their classes to this course. A number of teachers have caught the spirit of the new plan and are using it with good results. This is notably the case in the Edenburg schools, Prof. W. M. McDonald, principal. The Local Institutes have been of great value to the schools. The teachers of Callensburg, Licking, Perry and Richland, assisted by Prof. McNaughton, of Sligo, have had three meetings in the vicinity of Callensburg, and two meetings have been appointed for March. Edenburg had a spirited meeting February 3d, in which the Edenburg teachers, some from Beaver and Elk districts, and all from Ashland, took part. The interest in our work is growing.
CLINTON Supt. Snyder: South Renovo has erected a fine, comfortable two-room building, and equipped it with modern apparatus. The schools of Renovo are in firstclass condition, with a very efficient corps of teachers. The written work was the neatest seen in the county. The supervising principal, C. B. Kelly, is an excellent organizer and an enthusiastic worker.
COLUMBIA-Supt. Johnston: Four local institutes have been held recently at Benton, Millville, Numidia, and Espy. Good instruction was given by Profs. Wilbur, DeWitt, and Albert, of the Normal School, and Prof. Russel, of Greenwood Seminary, and many of the teachers did very creditable work. These meetings were unusually well attended by teachers and citizens, and were decidedly successful. The Berwick schools received a medal for their exhibit at the World's Fair. The new gymnasium at the Bloomsburg Normal was dedicated February 22d, the date of the twenty-fifth anniversary of the institution. The exercises were appreciated by many old students and others who were in attendance.
CUMBERLAND-Supt. Beitzel: Our county institute was a success in every feature. Our teachers were all present except four, and the attendance of Directors was large. The institute is growing in popularity. With the exception of Monday the Court House was crowded during every session, and on Wednesday and Thursday many were unable to gain admittance. The order was excellent throughout, the instruction eminently practical, and the addresses inspiring and helpful to all. A greater number of lyceums have been organized throughout the county this winter than heretofore.