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For the New England Farmer. As to the material used for draining, much will DRAINING, &c.

depend on circumstances, situation, &c. &c. I am

inclined to think that the tile now manufactured in Mr. Editor:-One of the most difficult matters many places for this purpose, is the cheapest and in carrying forward improvements in agriculture, is best material that can be used, even if stone are to maintain a correct system of teaching and prac- close at hand. Draining by tile is the most sure tice. This fact is very evident to the observing man, and certain process, in the long run, and the cheapwhen he sees so many different theories set forth as

But then this writer says, “proper draining guides to go by. Many of these theories are abso- moistens land when too dry, as much as it dries it lutely false, when reduced to practice, while others when too wet,” &c. Now I confess, for one, that are of such doubtful utility that they will not pay I do not understand this doctrine, although. I the farmer for trial or investigation.

have given considerable attention to soil cultivation Among other theories which have of late sprung for the past twenty years.

As I understand it, up, are those in regard to "draining,” which are draining proper means conducting off the surplus maintained by a certain class of " scientific opera- water and moisture gathered from

the soil, and distors” as correct teaching. They say in substance, charging it into a main ditch or reservoir

. Now I as there is a great deal of wet and marshy, boggy cannot see why in dry weather even that the tile land, that requires thorough draining, before it can will not continue to gather the moisture and conbe well cultivated, so there is no soil, however deep duct it off; and in that case, a dry soil drained, init may be, but that it will pay well to “drain,” if it stead of becoming more moist in dry weather, must will pay to cultivate at all. I hesitate not to say be exhausted of moisture. But I can readily see, that a greater piece of “radicalism” or untruth, was as I have explained, how by deep plowing and never put forth, than to assert that a piece of natu- subsoiling, and keeping the surface soil mellow and rally dry soil required draining in order to make it stirred often, that a tolerably moist or dry soil may right for cultivation.

be relieved of surface water in wet weather, and A writer in the New York Tribune, in a word of made more moist in dry weather. As to having advice to farmers, among other things says : -"But soils so thoroughly plowed, subsoiled and drained there is no land in the old States worth plowing, that a single blade of corn will not “roll up” in a which will not pay for draining and subsoiling. Dry great drought, I have heard spoken of before, but I soils need these meliorations quite as much as wet, had much rather see it, than hear it told of, for my and will as richly

reward them. There is no toler- satisfaction. On many soils of a deep loam that ably good land in this State, so dry that it might are highly cultivated, a crop of corn might be carnot, by underdraining and deep plowing, have been ried through a great drought, like the one just past, made to stand the drought of the past summer, without the blades rolling much. But on a dry without rolling a single blade of corn. Proper

gravel or sandy soil this would be impossible, and all draining moistens land when too dry, as much as it the subsoiling and draining could not prevent corn dries it when too wet. These facts are well known blades from rolling. It has been a long observato the decently instructed farmer, and we need not tion of mine, and of others, that during a drought, dwell on them,” &c.

when corn blades rolled during the day and unNow this writer seems to carry the idea that rolled during the night, the crop, did not suffer draining and subsoiling must always go together, in much. But when the blades rolled thoroughly order to ensure success. And I admit that in all

through the day, and did not unroll at all during wet, heavy, swampy lands, that need thorough the night, then the crop suffered for want of moisdraining, subsoiling will be a valuable addition. But

The Indian corn crop will stand a great then that does not prove that all ordinary dry soils drought, when the soil is well cultivated, many need draining, nor anything of the kind, for they do times beyond our calculation. But then this bidnot want it. All soils capable of cultivation may or ding defiance to rain and dry weather, and saywill be improved by deep plowing and subsoiling; ing as good crops can be raised by scientific culture, lands that are naturally moist and retentive, may without these blessings, as with, is going beyond need a subsoiling every year; while those which are limit. And after all the care and attention that the more open, one thorough subsoiling may answer farmer may bestow on his crops by well-directed lafor three or four years. In fact, on many soils that bor, he may have his expectations cut off by drought, are quite retentive of moisture, all draining

storm or flood. Yet good cultivation will generally that will be necessary can be done by deep plowing succeed, when well followed out, and it is only the and thorough subsoiling, say to the depth of eigh- extremes and exceptions to this rule that will fail teen or twenty inches. This operation opens the to ensure generally good crops. , pores of the soil, and drains down the surface wa

Yours truly,

L. DURAND. ter that may accumulate by heavy rains, and also

Derby, Ct., 1855. the retentive water that lies near the surface, of course leaving the soil in a pliable state for cultivation. Then in case of dry weather, moisture will starch contain five pounds of carbon. A person of

STARCH, SUGAR, CARBON.—Twelve pounds of be drawn up from the subsoil by attraction from

sedentary habits throws off about five ounces of the atmosphere. So if the surface soil is well pul- carbon in twenty-four hours a hard laborer twelve. verized, this soil may be kept tolerably moist dur- To supply this he must eat sixteen ounces of starch ing a dry spell. Of course, on all wet, boggy, mar- and sugar. If he take it in the form of wheat bread, shy swales or soils, thorough draining is necessary it will require one pound and three-fourths—if in before any other improvement can follow. There the form of potatoes, seven and a half pounds, to are many other soils, which on first appearance supply what is lost by breathing alone. A horse, would look as though draining was not necessary. or cow, will give off from four to six pounds of carBut on a closer examination of the soil and subsoil

, bon
daily. The amount of food, to supply

this loss, and the grass grown upon the surface, draining will be proportionately greater. would be found to pay well.


One says

For the New England Farmer. soil

, the plaster would counteract that tendency, FARM WAGES AND LABOR.

and so the effect of mixing them would be bene

ficial rather than otherwise." MR. EDITOR :- An article appeared in the Far

If we propound the same question to practical mer of August 25th, over the signature of "E. N.,” farmers, we get contradictory answers. the writer of which seems to think wages for farm he gets good results from both ashes and plaster labor are not high enough yet, compared with other applied sepa ely, but not equally good, if they branches of labor. He does not mention the fact are mixed.' Another says, it is less labor to apply that before the mechanic can command $ 1,50 or $2 them together, and the results are quite as good. per diem, he must give some time in learning his Both know that they are right; and the scientific trade, and then invest some capital in a set of me- man would be apt to think he knows that the last chanic's tools. Here wages on the farm range from only is right. We incline strongly to the opinion $12 to $18 per month, for the term of six or eight that ashes and plaster may be used together with no months, or $150 to $175 by the year. Now it is injury to each other, but with perhaps some little not difficult to show that the laborer receives a advantage over their separate use; though it must greater net profit at the end of the year, than his be confessed that there are strong testimonies to the employer, with from two to four thousand dollars contrary coming from practical farmers. invested in his farm. The farmer who clears from

Let the experiment be thoroughly tried. On one to three hundred dollars annually, we think doing well, even if he is obliged to expend that sum hill before planting. On another part, the soil

part of a field apply the ashes and plaster in the on his buildings or fences, that they may not be being the same and similarly treated in other resrunning down. How is it with the laborer who clears from $125 and the plaster be applied after the first hoeing. If

pects, let the ashes be applied in the hill at planting, to $150 per year? "Figures don't lie;" therefore the ground were peculiarly warm, it might be well by adding in six per cent., he will in a few years to try a third portion by sowing the ashes broadlay by a sum sufficient to purchase a small farm, cast

, and applying the plaster to the hill. Our ex and thus have an interest in the soil he cultivates pectation would be that little or no difference would a situation to be preferred to any promotion he

appear, except that where the ashes were sown might hope for, from any manufacturing company. broadcast, the crop might not be quite as forward This writer says, “There is so much exposure in early in the season, but later would quite equal the farming, that young men who commence at the age other. of twenty-one without any property, and with the intention of getting a living by working on a farm, the practical farmer should bow to the opinions of

We are the farthest possible from wishing that and who have an average fortune, usually end a

any one. If agricultural writers and agricultural short life as poor as they began it.” A most awful workers will maintain a little wholesome watchfulpicture, truly. That the most healthy occupation ness and a great deal of kindly respect for each that God ever designed for man should shorten hu- other, the best interests of agriculture will be adman life, is a new idea. Any young man who be- vanced.-Nash's Farmer. gins for himself at the age of twenty-one, with habits of industry and economy-two words the import of which is not instilled in the minds of our

For the New England Farmer. young men, as in the days of Dr. Franklin-can for

FARMERS' DISADVANTAGES. $12 per month through the year, clear one hundred

MR. BROWN :- I do not wish to intrude upon the dollars; this sum received annually, and prudently columns of your valuable journal; however, as you managed, will at the age of forty make him as independent as was Stephen Girard, with his millions are always willing to hear from the young and in

experienced, and as you are frequently describing Maidstown, Vl., Aug. 28, 1855.


the peculiar advantages of the farmer, and the

means which he possesses for enjoyment, I think ASHES AND PLASTER.

that a few words upon the disadvantages of a far

mer's life would not come amiss. I refer to the obA subscriber says :-“I wish to know if there is stacles against which a poor "farm boy” has to conanything in the nature of ashes or plaster, that causes tend, in acquiring an education. The farmer in them to neutralize each other, when used together ? comfortable circumstances can give his sons a libMy neighbor says, he knows it is so, and that I shall eral education. But the boy who is “put out,” or lose my money and my labor.”

who works by the month, is obliged to labor four

teen or sixteen hours per diem, during the summer, REMARKS.—Plaster is sulphate of lime. In the and he can have but little time or disposition to acstate of ground plaster, as generally used in this quire information. Moreover, farming has this discountry, it consists of 28 lbs. of lime to 40 lbs. of advantage, it is a very unsociable employment, and sulphuric acid, and 18 lbs. of water.

when the boy has any leisure, he very naturally deAshes are made up largely of silicates, mostly votes it to finding company with which he can asinsoluble. They contain also carbonates of the sociate. alkalis, potash and soda, and of the alkaline earths, And when winter, the time for study, comes, the lime and magnesia, together with a little of various case is not much better. If he does chores for his phosphates, a little sulphate of lime (plaster), a lit- board, he is obliged to rise very early, and labor ile soluble silica, and small portions of free alkali. besides until school-time, and frequently later, and

In answer to the above question, science would getting late to school is a very discouraging thing say: "No; the two cannot neutralize each other ; for an ambitious boy, and the transition from vigno decomposition will be effected by mingling them orous exercise in the keen winter atmosphere to in the soil; and so far as the free alkali of the the uncomfortable, poorly-ventilated school-house, ashes might tend to dissipate the ammonia of the lis so sudden, that his head aches, a feeling of lassi



E. N.



tude creeps over him, and he is unable to study; READING IN THE CARS.
therefore, he is called inattentive, a dull scholar,
gets discouraged, and after passing through the

Railroads have wonderfully changed the business three winter months, he goes to work, and before and ways of the world. Cities were once places of winter commences again, he has forgot nearly all residence, and merchants thought they must domithat he learned the previous season. Continuing ciliate within a moment's call of their ships and thus from year to year, the boy becomes a man used banks and counting-rooms, or trade would languish to hard labor, but possessing little information, and as is usually the case, lives and dies a common la- and die. But steam and iron roads have proved borer.

that ships will sail and banks discount, if the merNow, I will admit, that the pursuit of agriculture chant sleeps in the country, away from the din of is the most honorable and useful employment in rattling wheels, and the mephitic vapors of gorged which a person can engage, and every nation which

gutters and sewers. But it is not the merchant has encouraged the cultivation of the soil, and the employment of independent labor, has increased in alone who has forsaken the city; mechanics, artists wealth and strength, while the use of ignorant and lawyers, clergymen and editors, not only find the slave labor is most pernicious in its effects upon the country congenial, but less expensive than the city, prosperity of a nation. Yet I think that the oppor- as a place of residence, including the cost of transtunities which agriculture affords for the acquire- portation over the road twice or more each day. ment of an education are rather of a negative order. South Hadley, July, 1855.

But to spend twenty minutes or an hour, morn

ing and evening, in the cars, and to take a choice of REMARKS.—There are difficulties to be overcome conversing amid the screams of the steam whistle, by the "farmer boy," in the pursuit of knowledge, and the clattering of the wheels, or to be left alone we confess, but that they are of a sterer character to one's thoughts, presented a dilemma, the horns than those the mechanic or merchant's boy must of which were either of them too sharp for Yankee contend with, is not clear. To a determined mind, impatience to hang upon. So the merchant pulled the common difficulties of life operate only as a out his “price current,” and studied that, the lawkind of spur, while the timid and doubting yield to yer his “brief,” and clinched the points of that, the them, and thus lose the prize to which they aspired. clergyman his “suggestions for every day in the Upward, and Onward, must be the words for young year,” and the editor his "exchanges,” and thus men. Make circumstances yield to your strong made all the time count as so much devoted to busiwill, and bend or break the hindrances which ob- ness. Now, the newsboy comes with the morning struct your path. What man has done, you can and evening papers, and follows on with “Harper," do. Never doubt. Keep a trusting, resolute heart “Putnam,” and “The Lamplighter,” as regularly as and go on your way-you will succeed.

the trips of the cars themselves. We are deter

mined not to be left alone—it is pleasanter to read MANURE.

than to thinkso we hurry on, leaving the “inward Nicolai, in his work entitled “Principles for the digestion” for a “more convenient season,” and the Regulation of Estates," asserts that

mind to become lazy, laggish and unprofitable. One ox or cow yields ten wagon loads, (for two

Reading in the cars, however, will have another, horses,) of manure;

and most painful influence upon the physical system. One young ox or cow, five loads ;

We had several times been cautioned against readOne horse, fed or stabled, fifteen loads ; One horse, turned out to grass, seven and a half ing in the cars, but a bag full of “exchanges” has loads;

proved too strong a temptation to resist, and for One sheep, one load.

several years it has been our practice to read from He also observes that one-half the quantity of two or three to twenty or thirty papers while passmanure obtained from the horned beasts, may be ing over a distance of twenty miles. But during derived from the pigs, poultry and farm-yard, pro- the spring and early part of summer we invariably vided that proper care be taken to keep the returned home with a painful sensation in and former well provided with straw and other litter about the eyes, though feeling nothing of it on takcapable of being resolved into manure. Twenty of ing the cars at Boston. This pain at length became these loads he supposes amply sufficient for an acre permanent, sometimes violent, and so great as to —that is, of the cattle; twenty-five loads of the prevent us from reading, and generally from wrimixed manure obtained from the farm-yard, and ting, though the sight was not impaired. Upon fifteen loads from the sheep-cote or yard. consultation with an oculist, he stated that the op

KARLE estimates the quantity of manure furnished tic nerve had become weakened by overtasking it, by sixty-five cows, turned out to pasture all day, and inquired if we were not in the habit of reading and brought up at night to the cow-house, during in the cars! Under an interdiction from reading summer, sufficient to manure one hundred acres. and writing, the eyes have rapidly improved, and

PFAFFER asserts that one cow, stable-fed, will we can now read half an hour at a sitting, under produce one hundred quintals of manure; and an favorable circumstances. ox, put up to fatten, eighty quintals.

The most unpleasant and painful sensations of our


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experience have been after retiring at night. The vorite jest of his had been to crow like a cock; and whole eye would then seem to be oscillating, and as he lay on the ground he thought of the only way accompanied by severe pain at each motion.

to save himself, and crowed. This had such an efSince being thus deprived of the use of the eyes, and saved him.

fect on his comrades that they rallied, charged again several persons have stated to us a similar experience in themselves,

OUTLINE OF THE MELON APPLE. and arising from the same cause. We are also informed that an expressman, who had for many years been passing back and forth between Boston and one of the neighboring towns, and who was in the constant

The Horticulturist for September, 1854, habit of reading in the cars, has be

gives a glowing account of this apple, the come totally blind, and the cause is

editor stating that he once carried some of imputed to that fact. In reading, the eye not only takes in the word,

them to Europe and presented Mr. RIVERS,

who pronounced them “the most tender and but each leller of the word, and their

delicious apples he had ever tasted." This formation upon the retina of the eye must be exceedingly complicated

apple originated, with the Northern Spy, in and difficult under such conflicting

the garden of Mr. CHAPIN, of East Bloommotions as are caused by a rapidly

field, Ontario County, N. Y. From what we moving train of cars. Perhaps the communication of these facts may save a good pair of eyes.

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can learn of it, we judge that it is too tender to DAYS WITHOUT NIGHTS.

bear long carriage or much handling, and the tree There is nothing that strikes a stranger more scarcely vigorous enough in its growth to be reforcibly when he visits Sweden at the season of commended for profitable culture, but is worthy a the year when the days are longest, than the ab- place in every orchard or garden, for family use. sence of the night. We arrived at Stockholm from Gottenburg, 400 miles distant, in the morning,

The editor of the Prairie Farmer thinks it excels and in the afternoon went to see some friends

the Northern Spy, in taste, but says nothing of its had not taken note of time—and returned about qualities as a market fruit. midnight; it was as light as it is here half an hour before sundown. You could see distinctly. But all was quiet in the street. It seemed as if the in

INQUIRY-WHAT DO THEY DO WITH THE DIRT ? habitants were gone away, or were dead. No signs

· E. E.” contributes the following :-A farmer of life-stores closed.

called the other day. My little niece wanted to The sun goes down at Stockholm a little before show him the kittens, and he told her he had a ten o'clock. There is great illumination all night, plenty at home, and went on to tell an incident reas the sun passes round the earth towards the north lating to the necessity of keeping them, which was pole, the refraction of its rays is such that you may briefly this: A ground squirrel, sciurus striatus, see to read at midnight. Dr. Baird read a letter in or "chipmuck," as he called it, had been making the forest near Stockholm at midnight, without ar- depredations upon his corn, when one day he distificial light. There is a mountain at the Bothnia, covered, a few feet from his corn-barn, a squirrel's where, on the 21st of June the sun does not go

hole, which he dug out about four feet deep, and down at all. Travellers go there to see it. A came to corn, which he threw out to the fowls what steamboat goes up from Stockholm for the purpose he judged to be half a bushel, and then gathered up of carrying those who are curious to witness the a half-bushel more, heaped up. The mystery was, phenomenon. It occurs only one night. The sun how Sir Hackee could make an excavation to congoes down to the horizon, you can see the whole tain a bushel or corn, and leave no traces of the face of it, and in five minutes it begins to rise. dirt. Some suggest that they eat it; others again

Birds and animals take their accustomed rest at that they carry it to a great distance, and scatter it the usual hours. The hens take to the trees about here and there and everywhere. Can the Country 7 o'clock, P. M., and stay there until the sun is Gentleman, or any of his family, give any satisfacwell up in the morning, and the people get into the tory explanation of it.—Country Gentleman. habit of rising late, too.

AGRICULTURAL COLLEGE IN MICHIGAN.—The A MARTIAL BUFFOON.— There is often a buffoon land upon which the college is to be erected has attached to each Russian company, who amuses his been purchased—lying about three miles from the comrades by his jests and antics, and is generally a Capitol at Lansing— at $ 15 per acre. The land is great favorite. On one occasion in the Caucasus, of various quality, and is said to be well adapted to when the troops were driven back by the Circassians, the purposes of the institution, comprising about the buffoon was wounded and left behind. A fa- 600 acres.






U. S. AGRICULTURAL FAIR. to equalize the distribution of wealth, which no law,

nor theory, nor any other pursuit, has or ever can Everything is going on to render this Exhibition

accomplish. the grandest and most attractive that has ever taken place in this country. It will come after all the HOW TO PREVENT AND CURE KICKother State and County Fairs have taken place,

ING COWS. so that the stock, implements, &c., that have been An “Old Farmer" writes thus to “Life Illustraexhibited at these, may be brought here. The led :": Journal says, in regard to this show, the ground to In most cases the habit of kicking is contracted be occupied in October next, for the grand exhibi- during the first month after the cow has had her tion by the United States Agricultural Society in first calf

. If, as is often the case with well-fed heifthis city, is on the city lands at the South End, ers, the udder is a little feverish at the time, it oftbordering on Harrison Avenue on the north,

en becomes so sore that it is impossible for the

poor creature to stand still while the necessary milkBrookline Street on the east, and on the south and ing is being done. Following the instinct of nature, west by the water, covering an area of some fifty she kicks; and finding she is thus for the moment acres. About one hundred horse-carts and between freed from pain, continues to do it till the anger four and five hundred laborers are actively em- of the milker is aroused, and then a bad matter is

made much worse. ployed in levelling this extensive lot, and a host of

It is better in the first place to tie the heifer by carpenters are engaged in preparing the wood wook the head, then set your left shoulder gently but for fencing, seats, &c.

firmly against her, just back of her right shoulder, The Ohio Farmer says:

grasp firmly her right fore leg below the knee, turn

ing her foot up backward till it touches the leg, then "Well, we are to have another National Stock slip on over the knee a strap, or hoop, or cord that Fair. We are glad of it. Boston has taken hold will confine it fast in that position. While standof it in earnest. Mr. Wilder writes us :—'It


be well for you to know that the subscription of $20-as to hurt you.

ing on three legs she will find it difficult to kick so

Now take a convenient sized cloth, 000 I have raised in about six hours, no one person and wet and wash the udder thoroughly with tepid putting down less than $500. The occasion will be or cold water, after which milk her as carefully and one of great interest, and no pains will be spared to tenderly as possible, using at the same time such make it worthy of the city in which it is held, and gentle and soothing language as is calculated to of the nation which the Society represents.' That's show her that you do not wish to hurt her-but the talk, and the performance will be equal to the let her struggles be ever so violent or provoking, promise. Col. Wilder never does anything by mind you keep control of your own temper. An halves, but with the munificence of an emperor. outbreak on your part will as certainly be producNow let the Ohians, Kentuckians, Illinoans and In- tive of a bad effect upon the cow, as an echo will dianians, prepare their best cattle for this National answer your own voice, or as your image will be reShow, and let us have a grand Jubilee. All the flected in a mirror. Kindness, combined with the State Fairs will be over, and the gorgeous Indian perfect control you have over her in this situation, summer weather will be just the time to visit New I consider much the best way of breaking them; England."

and after a few times she will lift her foot to be tied

as readily as a horse will be shod. Continue to AGRICULTURE THE PROPER CALLING.—A most milk her in this way until the soreness is gone, and sensible writer in the Country Gentleman says :- she will find it a gratification to be milked, will oftAll other pursuits are proper in their places, but en meet you as she sees you coming with the pail

, when carried to too great an extent, produce poverty, and you will ever after find it easier to get along distress, and misery. The more agriculture is pur- with her should her teats by chance get sore aftersued, the greater is the benefit to the human race. ward. Here is a field for the philanthropist. Establish agriculture upon a good basis—the basis of intel- FLOUR IN NEW HAMPSHIRE.—For several years ligence—and you will do much to close what are past the Eastern States have depended almost ennow flood-gates of misery to society. Our city poor, tirely upon the West for their four; but this year our merchant clerks, our emigrant poor, and our they undertook to raise their own, and with very country poor, all call for relief; and here alone can gratifying success. An old farmer, who has recentit be obtained,—in intelligent husbandry. Agricul- ly travelled extensively in Sullivan and Grafton ture is the great moving power of human existence, counties, assures us that he never saw such crops and as the human family increases, we must cling of wheat in New Hampshire. We hear similar rethe closer to our mother earth for support. Thus ports from other quarters, and have seen some the mandate “to earn our bread by the sweat of beautiful fields ourselves. It may be thought, perour brow,” becomes from our condition a matter of haps, that all the wheat New Hampshire can raise necessity ; but in it we see the goodness and wisdom will not affect the market price of flour ; but when of our great law-giver, for “necessity is the mother it is considered that for five years past it has pro of contrivance,” we thus increase in intelligence, and duced next to none, while this year it will supply intelligence promotes morality and happiness. In half its population, the effect must be felt; and if the dim but yet brightening future, we behold, in- the other New England States have done as well, instead of cities overcrowded with human life and the aggregate influence upon prices must be quite ragged pauperism stalking abroad, the whole face of perceptible. Flour must come down, as soon as nature one great Eden,—the sons of Adam all in- the new crop is fully available. - Manchester Demoheriting his estate. Agriculture exerts an influence crat.


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