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For the New England Farmer. nest, each of the old birds taking care of one-the GREEN CORN FODDER. supposition being that they would fight if allowed

to remain together. In corroboration of this some Does green corn, when fed to cows, increase their milk? This is a point on which different opinions two of the young birds in company, and a pair

what singular idea, I can only say, I never found are entertained by practical men. I yesterday met which I had caused a hen to hatch, fought from the a gentleman, who has one of the best farms in the time they left

the shell, till, in fact, they killed each vicinity, on which fifty or more cows have been kept other outright. for years, to furnish a supply of milk for the market; and he expressed a confident opinion that lit- several years, who showed all the attachment and

The bird' is easily domesticated. I kept one for tle or no benefit, by way of increasing the milk, ac

intelligence of a dog. He never forgot a friend or crued from feeding to cows green corn. I expressed forgave an injury. If any one had abused him, it surprise at this, as I knew it to be cultivated by many good farmers for this purpose, and as I had his enemy in any dress, and by an angry croak show

was of no avail to attempt disguise; he recognized often seen it recommended in agricultural publica- ed his displeasure, and warned them to keep out of tions. He said he knew all this—but still his own his reach. He was a great gormandizer, and was experience was to the contrary. Now this is a question that should be settled. It is of far more colă,) many of which he destroyed, being quite er

very fond, among other things, of field mice, (Arviconsequence to know whether such feed is worth growing, than to know how much corn can be pert at finding their nests, and searching out the

inmates with his long bill. He would have been of grown on an acre. We find every agricultural so

service in the garden, were it not for his inquisitive ciety of the land offering premiums for the best crops of corn on an acre, but I have never known a tion everything he saw us plant. Though a desire

propensities, which led him to pull up for examinapremium offered to test the value of green corn as for knowledge might be very laudible, this mode of a feed for milch cows, at the season of the year obtaining it met our disapprobation, and eventually when the feed of pastures comes short. Mr. Edi- caused his banishment. tor, can you give the public any light on this question? Yours truly,

Though a migratory bird, he did not seem to sufAGRICOLA.

fer from cold in the winter, and being fond of wadAugust 16, 1855.

ing, even kept a place in a neighboring slough free

from ice till late in the season, by tramping about REMARKS.—We have never made note of the ac- in it. I provided him with a warm house, but he tual quantities of milk produced with, and without preferred to sleep with the cows. He always slept green corn fodder ; but we should just as soon beside one of them, lying flat on his breast, with his doubt whether green grass increased the quantity legs folded under him, and his head and long neck of milk, as to doubt that green corn fodder does. turned back between his wings. He was on good

terms with all the cattle, and might frequently be At the same time, we have great deference for the seen playing with them; his part of the performopinion of others, who have opportunity to notice ance consisting in springing up, flapping his wings, the effect of such feeding, and whose opinions are, and whooping tremendously. This was precisely perhaps, as good as our own.

the same as the dancing of his wild brethren. He would also dance to the waving of a handkerchief;

and on windy washing-days sometimes danced for DANCING CRANES.

hours at a time to the clothes on the line. When A correspondent of the Prairie Farmer, writing much enraged, he would stand with his head and from “The Grove, Illinois,” gives the following in

bill pointed directly upward, and utter a harsh, teresting description of the Brown Sand Hin croaking sound, quite unlike his usual whoop.


A young crane makes no despicable article of Crane:

food. The old ones, I should suppose, would be Many of these noble birds still nest in this vici- rather tough and snaky; but an old Indian hunter nity, but their number is small compared with the of my acquaintance says, “A turkey is not half as numerous flock that a few years since might be good eating.' seen holding their strange dances on some favorite Audubon supposed this to be only the young of knoll, or feeding, while their sentinels

, judiciously the White Crane, but he was wrong. The White posted, stood ready to give warning of any suspi- Crane, (Grus Americana) is more of a southern cious intruder.

bird, and exceedingly rare here. I saw a pair flySome are incredulous as to the dancing of cranes. ing over this fall for the first time. These two speIt is true, their movements are not as graceful as a cies are amongst the largest and finest of our North Frenchman's, or their quadrilles quite a la mode, but American birds. dance they certainly do. As for their music, though lacking the harmony, it is about as loud and melo- THE DECAY OE TIMBER.—Some years ago, a phidious as a fashionable opera air.

losopher, being acquainted with the fact that every The Sand Hill Crane is omniverous, devouring species of fungus, which is the real source of the rot pretty much anything eaten by birds. The nest is in timber, can vegetate only on substances which a simple pile of rushes or grass flat on the top, are soluble in water, made the following experibuilt in some deep slough or pond. The eggs, two ment with sawdust. He took a portion of sawdust in number, are shaped much like those of the from a heap, and divided it into two equal parts. common turkey, of a light amber color, splashed One heap was washed over and over again in water, with brown. The nest is usually surrounded by till everything soluble was removed; the other deep water, but the young birds swim readily, and heap was undisturbed. Both, having been dried, leave it as soon as hatched. It is believed by many were placed, side by side, in a damp, close vault, and that they separate, immediately upon leaving the allowed to remain there several weeks. They were



at length taken out, and the following was the re- it is an August and September apple. Unless my sult:—that portion which was washed until nothing tree shows something better another year, I shall more could be carried off by water, remained clean regraft it. Is there any living man well acquainted and bright as when it was carried into the vault: with this fruit, now Mr. Cole is departed ? the unwashed portion had become the prey of foul parasites, and was completely imbedded

an offen

THE GARDEN ROYAL sive mass of mould. This experiment proved the Is a very delicious September apple, and though theory of the philosopher, and convinced him, that, hardly large enough to be considered a first-rate if by any means our timber of any sort could be de- market apple, it has no rival while in the field. It prived of all those matters contained in it which are sells rapidly at an extra price. Though not so large soluble in water, it could be kept any number of as the Gravenstein or the Porter, neither so firm years entirely free from rot.

nor so handsome, it must be a favorite wherever known for its tenderness, juiciness and fine mild fla

vor, which is similar to the Hubbardston Nonsuch, For the New England Farmer. and its color also is very much like that apple. SHORT READINGS ON APPLES.


So called from the whiteness of its flesh,-is a This apple is the one which the late Mr. Cole in- brilliant gem among autumn apples, ripening in troduced. It is nearly unknown in this region, November; medium size, fattish, smooth and uni(coming from Bolton,) and I have not seen buť two form in shape, with as high color as the Williams, persons who knew anything about it; namely, Mr. and purer flesh, it always attracts attention. It is Cole, and a dealer in fruit at the Quincy Market, very tender, pleasant and juicy, and in December who said it was the best apple he ever tasted. Large has the freshness and peculiar flavor of an August medial, sprightly and tender, pale yellow ground, apple. This fruit came from Canada, and is suited with crimson side. If any of the readers of the to cold regions. Farmer are acquainted with this fruit, I wish they

THE RED ASTRACHAN would communicate upon it. Ripe in November. Is an apple which is attracting much attention at THE AMERICAN SUMMER PEARMAIN.

present, and for an August apple, will rival, if not

surpass, the Williams. It possesses some virtues A year ago last autumn, in September, I discov- which the latter fruit does not, though its flavor is not ered an apple in Pleasant Street, Boston, which so mild and agreeable. It has a white,delicate ground, greatly excited my interest. A grocer had bought mostly covered with vermillion, with a bloom simia barrelfull of a countryman for three dollars, but lar to a red plum. It is a good grower, and an earwas not informed of their name. Most of them ly bearer ; but a little too tart for most persons, were large to very large, rather flat, with a broad and rots more rapidly than the Williams. basin, yellow ground, nearly covered with dark red. W. Medford, Aug. 20. They were generally fair and uniform in shape, and would have created a sensation on the Massachusetts Horticultural Society's tables. They were ten

For the New England Farmer. der, very pleasant and juicy, with white flesh, and BLIGHT UPON THE ONION. many of them had numerous dark blotches, and some of them were slightly cracked. So interested

About four weeks since I had occasion to pass was I in this splendid apple, that I was determined, some of the fine cultivated fields of onions, that if possible, to find out its name. I accordingly

abound in this vicinity, when they were clothed in a pocketed some, and took the liberty of calling on luxuriant green; since then I have seen the same many eminent fruit judges in the city; but strange

fields almost white, with tops drooping and fallento say, no one could tell what it was. Last fall, I with bottom not yet perfected. The occasion of discovered another barrel of them, or what I sup

this sudden change I do not understand ; but learn posed to be the same; yet they were of lighter color from those interested, that their crop is blighted ; and were less blotched. The fruit-dealer did not that whenever the blight prevails, the product will know what they were, and I determined to make be greatly diminished. Whether this fallen, defurther inquiry. To be brief, I found a nursery- crepid appearance, is the consequence of insect opman who suspected it was the American Summer erations, or superabundance of moisture, or is ocPearmain ; and looking into Cole's Fruit Book, I casioned by any peculiar state of the atmosphere, recognized it, I thought, in his description. This I will not presume to say; but that it prevails, to a apple is so rare and beautiful, that it deserves an very considerable extent, cannot be denied. extended notice from some one who has cultivated We have noticed contiguous fields, one drooping, it in New England. New Jersey is the place of its the other upright ;-and parts of the same field origin, and Mr. Cole says it cracks badly with us. fallen and parts not fallen; but how to explain this Do cultivators of it here find it to be so ?

difference is not in our power. Perhaps it we had

marked the time of planting, and the manner of COLE'S QUINCE

manuring, and the use made of the field in years Is an apple which makes a great figure in Cole's previous—the solution of the problem would not American Fruit Book, and will probably be much have been so difficult. We speak of only what we sought after on his recommendation. I have a tree have seen-if others can tell more, we should be which bore about a dozen this year, but they did not pleased to know it. meet my expectations. Most of them are knotty The culture of the onion has expanded, within our and wormy, and show no indications of ever being recollection, almost without limit; and if

, like most fit to eat; and though the tree sets full, most of the other objects of culture, it is to be regulated by the fruit falls prematurely. Mr. Hovey has it in his profits of the business, it is destined to a still greatcatalogue, and calls it a winter fruit; while in fact, er extension.

D. W. L.


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We know of no section of the country, where it by the absorbent vessels taking too much of their is more successfully pursued, at the present time, poison into the system. Who would dare cover than in the environs of Salem, Mass. Here are to himself with mercurial ointment, or arsenic and be seen, fields of six, eight or ten acres together, lard? I pause for a reply.”

G. F. N. under the care of the same individual, with the prospect of four or five hundred bushels to the acre. The

LOCUSTS-GARGET—NEW PROLIFIC WHITE POTATO. average price of this vegetable, for the last ten years, has been as harvested from the field, not less MR. Editor:-I snatch a moment from the hurthan fifty cents per bushel_and so on to one dollar, ry of business to reply to a few inquiries in the Faraccording to the demand. More than 200,000 mer for August. Locusts made their appearance in bushels were grown the last year in a single town Sandwich last June. I have two pairs, male and adjoining Salem. Can any one name a more pro- female, upon a card labelled “Locusts of July 1st, ductive article of culture ?

1855, due again in 1872;" they appeared in conIt may be asked, where is the utility of growing siderable numbers, but in East Wareham, very few this crop, as it cannot be looked upon as an essen- compared with 1821. In 1838, I was in the “ Far tial article of food for man or beast? With much West," and do not know as they appeared in this more propriety may it be asked where is the pro- section. priety of growing tobacco, as done on the fine hands Some one, for garget, recommends linseed oil as on the borders of the Connecticut—which in all its a sure cure. It may cure in some cases, as oils are qualities is positively bad. Still, so long as there is sometimes used with success in local inflammations; a demand for these things in the market, they will but in using linseed oil for garget, there is great be grown; and less harm will follow the growing danger of driving the disease into the entire sysof the salutary onion, than the nauseating and poi-tem, and greatly injuring the cow. Upon the first sonous tobacco plant—too offensive to be used by appearance of garget, carefully and thoroughly wash any animal except man.

the udder and teats with pure cold water, both be

fore and after putting the calf to the cow, or milkEXTRACTS AND REPLIES.

ing; milk three times a day, or at least wash that number of times; and in a very short time your

cow will be free from the disease. I have never MR. EDITOR:- I should like to learn through known this treatment to fail of curing, even in cases the columns of your invaluable paper, whether there where the udder and teats had become badly ulceris a remedy for the red-headed grubs which are de-ated. stroying whole fields of grass ? They eat off the In reply to the inquiry of JAMES RICHARDSON, roots of the grass, so that the turf will peel off. Jr., I have a new variety of white potatoes that are

It seems that the better the land is cultivated, much more prolific than peach-blows, that I have the more worms there are. This worm is called tried and proved for, I think, about eight years. by some the muck worm.

| Two years since I was absent from home from DeREMARKS. —No depredations of this kind are go- which time these potatoes were sold or otherwise

cember to the last of the following July, during ing on in this section, and if so, where they are on disposed of, much to my disappointment and regret. so general a scale, nothing that we could afford to However, there sprang up a potato vine in my garapply would be likely to arrest them. Will our den, which was then uncultivated, which throve correspondent try ashes on a square rod, spread on well; and in the fall I dug the potatoes, and to my liberally? and on another lime, noting the amount cherished seed. By referring to minutes of last

surprise, and satisfaction, found them to be of my of each that he applies? We shall be glad to learn

year, I find that with this seed I planted about the result.

twenty hills

. My potatoes last fall were harvested in my absence, and every variety of white potatoes

put together. This spring I found time to search This pest may easily be removed from any crea- out my favorite seed, and have planted 318 hills ; ture in an hour's time by washing or lathering thor- the largest were cut into three pieces, two pieces to oughly with good soft-soap and soft water. About the hill; the small, of the size of hens' eges, planttwo quarts of each thoroughly mixed and warmed, ed whole, two to a hill. Their flavor and the color will, if well applied, kill every louse, and every egg of their flesh is similar to pink eyes or peach blows. will be prevented from maturing on any animal, There is so marked a distinction between them and whether horse or ox. This is a perfect and a safe any other variety known to me, that I could, after remedy. If very troublesome, it is frequently best they have sprouted, pick them out in the dark from to “soft-soap” them the second time, after the first any others. I call them Cape Cod. has become dry. After the second drying, wash North Sandwich, 1855.

MORTITS. out the soap with water in plenty, and you need fear no bad effects from it, but on the contrary, the

SUPERPHOSPHATES. creature will thrive the better, colts especially.

What is the effect in applying De Burg's superThe above application is worth five dollars to every colt, whether lousy or not, before putting off phosphate of lime, and have it come in contact with

lime or wood ashes ? to pasture in the spring. It should be done in a warm day.

REMARKS-Superphosphate of lime as sold for Tobacco, snuff, oil, mercurial preparations, ashes, sulphur, and many like things, are generally resort

agricultural purposes, is a combination of suhstaned to, and even arsenic is sometimes used. If either ces, some of which might be affected by coming in is applied in sufficient quantities to produce a per- contact with quick-lime or ashes. As a general fect cure, the health of the animal must be impaired/rule, it is best to use them separately.

J. P.



S. E. R.



H. B.

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For the New England Farmer. MR. EDITOR:- In answer to the inquiry, what SPECULATIVE INQUIRIES. can be done to make barren quince trees fruitful, I would say, that my method is to graft them. The

Mr. EDITOR :-Your correspondent from Chelsea grafts will bear the second year, and then you will seems to be moved with a horror inexpressible, at have an abundance of fruit. 'Besides, you can select my reference to "Orion and the Pleiades” as influthe best of fruits, which is an advantage.

encing vegetation. If my recollection is right, my But some say that oyster shells have the desired reference to these beautiful heavenly bodies was effect. I think if there is any virtue in them to simply to show the folly of scriptural citations, in make the barren fruitful, it is the salt, and if so,

the explanation of natural events. Not that I for a the salt alone will produce the same effect, and may

moment entertained the belief of any such influenbe obtained with less trouble.

P. Wart. ces. He thinks we had better wait a "little longer," Danvers, Aug., 1855.

and see what further facts will be developed. This may be so, but would not such waiting put a stop

to all inquiry? Have not I the same right to deSaturate a piece of cotton cloth, eight or ten

nounce his opinions as “supremely ridiculous," as he inches wide, in strong soap suds, and tie around the

has mine? He, and all other controversialists, tree below where the limbs start out. The fruit of

should bear in mind, that those who live in glass trees which I have served thus is entirely free from

houses should be careful how they throw stones.

Your intimation that the ebbing and Howing of punctures, while the fruit on those without the cloth is sadly affected.


the tides may be caused otherwise than by the atHalifar, N. S., 1855.

traction of the sun and moon, is well calculated to

admonish the sage philosopher of Chelsea that there BARREN PLUM TREES.

are more ways than one to accomplish the same

end. It had not before occurred to me, that the In reply to C. G. W., in the July number of the theory of the tides, which I learned when young Farmer, in relation to barren quince trees, I would from Enfield, was not well-founded; but I should say that plum trees, in the like state of barrenness, not be surprised to learn, that the daily revolution can be brought to bearing successfully, by applying of the earth upon its axis, and the inequalities upon a few quarts of salt around the roots, put on in the its surface, have quite as much to do in producing fall. Northfield, Vt.

the constantly recurring phenomena of the tides ; as the attractions of masses of matter, so remote as

are those of the sun and moon. At all erents, a H. Brown, Forboro', Mass. — The apples you man should be wiser than your correspondent has sent are probably seedlings, though it resembles shown himself to be, before he pronounces any asLyman's Large Summer apple, introduced to notice sertion supremely ridiculous. by Mr. S. Lyman, of Manchester, Conn. Being ear- August 11, 1855. ly, and of a sprightly sub-acid flavor, it is worthy of cultivation.

EARTHING UP CELERY. A bor of Grapes, of J. FISKE, Holliston, Mass.

The present season has been a favorable one for Very large, and a month earlier than usual. Mr. celery, as indeed it has for most crops, and celery Fiske states that the vine covers a space of fifty will no doubt be fine and plentiful. Where only feet over the cow-yard, thus preventing the manure

sufficient is grown for the supply of the family, a

little extra care should be given to earthing up, from drying, and affording a fine shade for the cows which is amply repaid by having clear sticks, nicely

Early Sweet Bough Apples, from ABEL Cook, blanched. For very early use a small portion should Lunenburg, Mass.-Large and beautiful. There be commenced as soon as large enough to draw are not half enough of them produced.

earth to without fear of its getting into the crown, which should be carefully guarded against. The

bulk of the For the New England Farmer.


will be better left till towards the

end of September before earthing. If any manure POTATO CROP.

water is obtainable before earthing, it is much benThe forebodings of the last week are realities of efited by having a good soaking, especially if the the present week. Unequivocal demonstration has ground is any way poor, as it likes a very rich soil. come to us from Swampscot, on the one side, and In earthing, careful growers always go along first Beverly, on the other, of the fatal prevalence of the with the hand, and pull off any litile short leaves rot among the potatoes. The chenangoes are most that would, if buried, only rot, and draw the earth affected. We would caution against the use of po- nicely about each plant. A portion of the soil is tatoes that have a tendency to the disease. We then loosened up with the spade and made tolerahave known entirely families taken with severe in- bly fine, and pushed up towards the plants. If they disposition, by reason of the use of vegetables thus have been planted in trenches, if filled up level, it affected, even when they were entirely fair to the is sufficient for the first time, giving it one or two sight. Of this we have no doubt. Of the new va- good earthings at intervals of one or two weeks. rieties of potato that have been tried in this vicini- For field culture, or where the breadth is large, ty, the present season, there is none so highly and grown for market, recourse must be had to the praised as Davis' Seedling. Side by side, with other plow, or the expense would be too large to secure varieties, this escapes disease entirely. Some pre- a return. Many earth up with the plow without tend to crick up the “State of Maine potato,”—but any handling of the plants, and with care and cauthe best observers say, it is a miserable concern- tion are able to do it without disturbing the leaves entirely unworthy of regard.

much; but as a general rule, it will pay to draw a Aug. 23, 1855.


little to them first, with a hoe or the hand, as if a

THOMAS TYTTE. clod gets on the heart of the plant, the leaves get Not by the Author of Thanatopsis,Robert of Lincoln,” and twisted and bent, and are worth less in the market.

Minor Poems. Except the soil is mellow, celery will hardly pay as

Fluttering nervously here and there a crop, from the difficulty there is in getting the

Round his lady bird-odd little elf

Now on an iron weed—now in the air, earth sufficiently fine about the leaves.—Country

Thomas Tytte is describing himself. Gentleman.

Tom-tit, tom-tit,

Spit, spat, spit, EFFECTS OF HEAT UPON MEAT.

I and my wife in this here tree, A well cooked piece of meat should be full of its

Live as jolly as ever you see, own juice or natural gravy. In roasting, therefore,

Feedle, dee, dee. it should be exposed to a quick fire, that the exter- T. Tytte, Esq., is drest in blue, nal surface may be made to contract at once, and Like every other high-born tit, the albumen to coagulate, before the juice has had With a yellow vest and a choaker tootime to escape from within. And so in boiling.

You'll hear him crow, if you listen a bit ; When a piece of beef or mutton is plunged into

Tom-tit, tom-tit, boiling water, the outer part contracts, the albumen

Spit, spat, spit,

Examine this coat and vest of mine, which is near the surface coagulates, and the inter

I'm rather a buck in the tom-tit line, nal juice is prevented either from escaping into the

Feedle, dee, dee. water by which it is surrounded, or from being diluted or weakened by the admission of water among

The wife of Thomas, meek and brown,

A simple creature afeard of boys, it. When cut up, therefore, the meat yields much

Sits all day in a high-necked gown, gravy, and is rich in flavor. Hence a beefsteak or

Laying eggs without any noise ; a mutton chop is done quickly, and over a quick

Tom-tit, tom-tit, fire, that the natural juices may be retained. On

Spit, spat, spit, the other hand, if the meat be exposed to a slow fire

Lay on, my dear-nobody'll come ; its pores remain open, the juice continues to flow

I'm keeping watch in this old gum, from within, as it has dried from the surface, and

Feedle, dee, dee. the flesh pines, and becomes dry, hard, and unsavory,

A very retiring female she, Or if it be put into cold or tepid water, which is af

A pattern wife, the dame-tits say, terwards gradually brought to a boil, much of the Always blowing and bragging is he, albumen is extracted before it coagulates, the natur- In the old established, masculine way, al juices for the most part flow out, and the meat is

Tom-tit, tom-tit, served in a nearly tasteless state. Hence to pre

Spit, spat, spit, pare good boiled meat, it should be put at once into I'm not the bird to run, that's flat! water already brought to a boil. But to make beef I'm too good stuff, you know, for that, tea, mutton broth, and other meat soups, the flesh

Feedle, dee, dee. should be put into cold water, and this afterwards Heigho! look here ! two, four, six, eightvery slowly warmed, and finally boiled. The advan- Round and white-remarkable eggs! tage derived from simmering, a term not unfre- Mrs. Tytte watches them early and late, quent in cookery books, depends very much upon

While Thomas is laughing and kicking his legs; the effects of slow boiling as above explained.

Tom-tit, tom-tit,
Chemistry of Common Life.

Spit, spat, spit,
Convenient wife this Mrs. T.,

Feedle, dee, dee.
For the New England Parmer.

The eggs are chipped, and eight small tits,

(The number of eggs) creep cautiously through ; MR. EDITOR:- I was informed by Mr. ADINO

Thomas, driven half out of his wits,

Scratches his head to know what to do. PAGE, of S. Danvers, that he had 78 acres of rye

Tom-tit, tom-tit, the present season, from which he harvested 2294

Spit, spat, spit, bushels,—150 of which were sold at $1,50 per Trying thing this-singular fate! bushel. The straw will sell for enough to pay for Unusual number, certainly-eight! the labor of culture and harvesting,—so that the

Feedle, dee, dee. land may be estimated as yielding an income of $45

T. Tytte, Esq., in a little while, an acre; the manure applied having been made on

Gets not as careful of his clothes, the farm, of course, costs nothing. This we think

Seems quite depressed-hath a sickly smile, a fair product, taking into view the quality of the And singeth mostly through his nose, soil, which has ever been looked upon as ordinary,

Tom-tit, tom-tit, scarcely worth owning. It affords a strong illustra

Spit, spat, spit, tion of the benefits to accrue from the adaptation Exactly where the young ones be, of the crop to the soil. If we do not mistake, there Nobody knows, 'cept wife and me, has been grown on the same farm ,for ten years last

Feedle, dee, dee. past, crops of rye, each year, varying from 30 to 45 Autumn comes, the titlets grow, bushels to the acre. Who will say that farming is Thomas Tytte is a blockhead dunce ; not worth pursuing, when the poorest land can be To foreign parts he's going to go, made to yield such products ?

And just as he starts we cry all at once, August 20, 1855.

Tom-tit, tom-tit,

Spit, spat, spit,

If your voice comes back, and you're not shot, IF By a census lately taken, the population of You come back with it, Tom, otherwise not. Minnesota Territory it shown to be about 45,000.

Feedle, dee, dee.


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