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Algiers, but by the successful issue of that enterprise, our readers will be glad to hear that our Author's friends, as well as several hundred other captives, were set at liberty. We believe that there are none who will not be better pleased that this blessing should be insisted upon as a right, than that it should be purchased, as it had been before, by way of favour; for surely it is equally impolitic and servile for Britain to pay tribute to these merciless pirates, in the form of ransom, thus acknowledging their right to traffic in human flesh, and to break with impunity the most solemn leagues, for the observance of which, more civilized nations think themselves bound to stand hostages to each other. That the States of Barbary know the advantage of good faith, where their own interests are concerned, may be pretty clearly seen by the readiness with which, in spite of their natural distrust and hatred of each other, they can enter into such arrangements as they think necessary to enable them to carry on their detestable system of piracy, without fear of incurring the chastisement which outraged justice and humanity call so loudly for, and which we would hope will be determined upon, by the Sovereigns who meet together professedly for the advantage of Europe, unless they adopt the opinion communicated, by way of consolation to our Author, by the Guardian Basha, that slavery is the natural state of man, that all depends on the law of the strongest; on circumstances and necessity.' It is well for what remains of the liberty and happiness of Europe, that this Guardian Basha had not the honour to be born of any of the race who have a legitimate right to give their opinions on the government of their fellow-creatures, and to enforce them, by dint of arms, where they may not happen to be deemed sufficiently palatable without.
Signor Pananti has given as minute an account of the =present state of Algiers, as his own observations, and the best information he could procure, enabled him to form; and though from the extreme jealousy of the Moors with respect to their interior, and the absolute nature of their government, which renders any appearance of minute inquiry into its organization a very dangerous exercise of curiosity, not much new matter can be expected; yet the smallest addition is valuable concerning the internal situation of a country which is, as it at present stands, of far more consequence to Europe, than all the unexplored regions of Africa, which by that principle so common in human nature, of overlooking, the present for a distant and uncertain good, have excited sq. much greater, and so disproportionate an interest. The most valuable of our Author's remarks are those which are more im mediately his own, on the agriculture, tra le, and productions of. Algiers. His account also of its military force will be found inVOL. X. N.S. 2 Q
teresting, and his reflections upon the nature of its government, and the importance of establishing colonies, to check its fawless and imperious spirit, are well worthy attention. Signor Pananti writes with a vivacity which sometimes detracts from the weight of what he would enforce. With a stock of anecdotes, witticisms, and puns, as inexhaustible as that of Sir John Carr, a brothertourist, though under more agreeable circumstances, and occasionally as injudiciously introduced, he flies in a moment from a sense of his own misfortunes, or of the magnitude of his topic, to a repartee, a story, or a ludicious illustration. The Editor takes credit to himself for having considerably retrenched these digressions. Were all to be curtailed that are irrelevant to the main work, and derogatory to the interest it would otherwise inspire, the volume would be reduced to half of its present size. Still we are not disposed to quarrel with, but rather to admire, that elasticity of spirit which can spring up again, as soon as the immediate pressure of affliction is removed; nor can we think that mind has been stored in vain, which is enabled to furnish topics for cheerfulness, in the hour when no outward inducement to it is presented. Signor Pananti has likewise a claim upon our better feelings, for the warmth with which he speaks of this country, for the refuge which it afforded him from the troubles of his native land; and this acknowledgement ought not to go unnoticed, when we recollect how many thousands have been equally indebted to England, and among them how few speak of her with even common gratitude.
Some remarks on the present state of Italy, are appended to this work by the Editor, and will be found to possess all the sound reasoning, and correct information by which his "Letters "from the Mediterranean" are distinguished.
Art. IX. Reformation from Popery: Two Sermons, preached in the Chapel of Ease to the Parish Church of Clapham, Surrey, on Sunday, January 4, 1818. By the Rev. Wm. Borrows, A. M. of St. Edmund Hall, Oxford; Minister of that Chapel; and Sunday Evening Lecturer of St. Luke's Church, Middlesex. 8vo. 1818. THES
HESE Sermons relate by continual allusion to the subject of the Reformation, rather than treat upon its leading circumstances or principles. They are founded on the following scriptures: 1 Thess. v. 17, " Pray without ceasing;" and Colos. ii. 10, " And ye are complete, in him." In the first discourse, the Object of Divine worship, the acceptable manner of worship, the proper subjects of prayer, and the continual spirit of prayer, to which the true worshippers must watch, whom the Father of mercies seeketh to worship him,' are severally dilated upon. The subject of the second discourse leads the preacher more directly to advert to the corruptions of the mys tical Babylon,' in reference to the ground of a sinner's hope.
Both discourses are plain, judicious, and impressive, and afford good specimens of that evangelical style of preaching which we rejoice to hear within the walls of the Episcopal church.
Mr. Borrows combats the reasons sometimes assigned for indifference to the increase of Popish influence, by references to the language and spirit of the recent Papal Bulls, and he thus concludes:
Another reason, however, for security on our part is assigned to be the impossibility of persecution ever acquiring any very serious character, on account of the general liberality of sentiment in these times; and the universal abhorrence which is expressed, when any thing like bigotry is apparent ;-but the reasoning on this topic appears to be altogether fallacious, and two considerations present themselves to our notice on this head relative to the subjects, and the nature of persecution.
As to the subjects of persecution-one thing is certain-that the general multitude of professing Protestants will suffer nothing for religion, whether the Pope of Rome, or the false Prophet of Mecca, or the Brahmins of Hindostan, or the Lama of Thibet, should have the ecclesiastical jurisdiction of the country: it is not to be expected that persons, who will not relinquish a single worldly connexion, or a slight convenience of any kind; that persons in the higher ranks of life, who will not abstain from their pleasure on the Lord's day, or persons in inferior circumstances, who will not sacrifice a few shillings by entirely closing their shops on that day, for the sake of living godly in Christ Jesus, would ever expose themselves to great trials for any profession of religion. If in the land of peace, wherein they trusted, they have been overcome; they will hardly pass through the swellings of Jordan.-They will float with the tide of custom, whereever it may lead them; and follow that which is generally deemed respectable, whatever it may be.If any be found to endure persecution, they will be only among those spiritually-minded persons, that peculiar people, whose character is as obnoxious to carnal Protestants, when it comes immediately under their inspection, as to any other false religiouists in the world.
Relative to the nature of persecution, it is certain that even Satan himself would scarcely regard its value for his own purpose, so far as its sanguinary tendency is concerned, but chiefly in reference to its efficiency in supporting his empire of darkness. It perhaps would be difficult to enumerate the many steps that might be taken to obstruct the progress of Divine truth, before any direct attack were made upon the lives of the followers of Jesus. But respecting a more viólent attempt upon the persons of " the excellent of the earth," or at least upon those among them whose activity would render them more conspicuous, and more obnoxious to the enemies of God, there seems to be much more cause for fear than is generally apprehended; and particularly when we advert to the length to which persecution is even now sometimes carried in private families, when one of their members has been converted to God, and the other individuals of the
household remain "carnal, sold under sin." The great object of persecution, if persecution should arise from Papal, or any Antichristian influence, would certainly be to perpetuate the reign of spiritual darkness; and the means employed would be both specious, and at the same time, as effectual to the end proposed as possible; and if the interposition of worldly liberality is to be the only check upon the accomplishment of that object, what may be expected from such a Protector, when" the carnal mind is enmity against God, and is not "subject to the law of God, neither indeed can be?" or what reason have we to suppose that the same principle which prompted the murder of the first martyrs of the Old and New Testaments, ABEL and STEPHEN, namely, the hatred of vital godliness, is not still in operation, and equally capable of producing the same deadly fruits?
Finally, brethren in Jesus, I conclude by drawing your attention to the watchword of encouragement before us "Ye are complete in "Christ."-Here is thy beautiful garment, O Zion;-here thy sun, and thy shield, thy light and defence, who giveth thee grace and glory, O city of the living God.-Ever exalt the Lord Jesus Christ.
Know that whatever exhortations to holiness itself, or whatever semblance of holiness there may be in any Church, there cannot be the reality of this distinction of the people of God, unless they be in Christ: -if Christ be in any way degraded, if he occupy a minor position in the scheme of salvation, or be made in any degree less than the great foundation and corner stone of the whole system, all must be wrong, entirely and radically wrong. He must be exalted as the King in Zion:- he must be honoured far above all, for he has 66 a name which "is above every name ;" and ye, believers, are "complete in Him," who is far above all principality, and power, and might, and domi"nion, and every name that is named, not only in this world, but also "in that which is to come."-Now, &c.' pp. 58-62.
Art. X. Foliage; or Poems, Original and Translated: By Leigh Hunt. fcap. 8vo. pp. 288. London, 1818.
WE have borne our repeated testimony to Mr. Hunt's poetical
talents, for the sake of which we have wished to think well of him. It has been our endeavour to do him justice, and to forget in our estimate of his character as a poet, all that we could not but know respecting his opinions. And this is no more than the reader of poetry is glad to do in too great a proportion of instances, when he wishes to surrender himself to the full imaginative enjoyment of his author. Rarely would the distinct recollection of the poet's real character, assist the effect or harmonise with the feelings, which the verse and the sentiment have produced. Nothing therefore can, for the most part, be more impolitic in the writer of poetry, than for him to obtrude upon his readers those points in his individual character, which relate to differences of religious creed or political opinion, thereby tending to awaken a class of associations opposite to those which it is the business of the poet to excite.
Mr. Leigh Hunt has, in the present volume, been betrayed by his incurable egotism, into this capital error. He has prefixed to his Greenwoods' and Evergreens' thirty pages of Cursory observations on Poetry and Cheerfulness,' of which, after the sketch we have given in our last Number, of the leading tenets of this new school, we may be excused for saying but little. Some of the remarks are smart and true enough, though neither profound nor brilliant; but when he talks of Milton being affected by the Dragon Phantom Calvinism,' of Cowper's timidity of constitution being 'frightened by bigotry into madness,' of voluptuousness being an ill-used personage,' of the riddles of incarnation and resurrection, and of the danger of setting authorised selfishness above the most natural impulses, and making guilt by mistaking innocence ;'-we perceive the kind of man we have to do with, from these obscure intimations of his principles, and if we do not at once throw down the volume as fearing to trust our imagination unguarded in such bad company, we can enter upon the perusal with no favourable impressions of either his heart or his understanding. What sentiments indeed can we look for but such as may comport with the creed of the heathen and the morals of the libertine?
The reader of "Foliage" will, however, be surprised if he opens the volume, as we did, at a poem of so very different a character from the general cast of Mr. Hunt's productions, as the following touching and exquisite stanzas: